Optimum strip width increases dry matter, nutrient accumulation, and seed yield of intercrops under the relay intercropping system
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Iqbal, Nasir ; Khan, Imran ; Khan, Ahsin ; Din, Atta Mohi Ud ; Naeem, Muhammd ; Meraj, Tehseen Ahmad ; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad ; Khan, Aaqil ; Lu, Feng Zhi ; Liu, Xin ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2020
Food and Energy Security 9 (2020)2. - ISSN 2048-3694
competition ratio - growing space - maize - relay intercropping - soybean
Strip width management is a critical factor for producing higher crop yields in relay intercropping systems. A 2-year field experiment was carried out during 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the effects of different strip width treatments on dry-matter production, major-nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) uptake, and competition parameters of soybean and maize in relay intercropping system. The strip width (SW) treatments were 0.40, 0.40, and 0.40 m (SW1); 0.40, 0.40, and 0.50 m (SW2); 0.40, 0.40, and 0.60 m (SW3); and 0.40, 0.40, and 0.70 m (SW4) for soybean row spacing, maize row spacing, and spacing between soybean and maize rows, respectively. As compared to sole maize (SM) and sole soybean (SS), relay-intercropped maize and soybean accumulated lower quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in all treatments. However, maize in SW1 accumulated higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium than SW4 (9%, 9%, and 8% for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively). Soybean in SW3 accumulated 25% higher nitrogen, 33% higher phosphorus, and 24% higher potassium than in SW1. The improved nutrient accumulation in SW3 significantly increased the soybean dry matter by 19%, but slightly decreased the maize dry matter by 6% compared to SW1. Similarly, SW3 increased the competition ratio value of soybean (by 151%), but it reduced the competition ratio value of maize (by 171%) compared to SW1. On average, in SW3, relay-cropped soybean produced 84% of SS seed yield and maize produced 98% of SM seed yield and achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.8, demonstrating the highest level in the world. Overall, these results suggested that by selecting the appropriate strip width (SW3; 0.40 m for soybean row spacing, 0.40 m maize row spacing, and 0.60 m spacing between soybean and maize rows), we can increase the nutrient uptake (especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), dry-matter accumulation, and seed yields of relay-intercrop species under relay intercropping systems.
Narrow-wide-row planting pattern increases the radiation use efficiency and seed yield of intercrop species in relay-intercropping system
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Cai, Gao Ren ; Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin ; Iqbal, Nasir ; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad ; Meraj, Tehseen Ahmad ; Naeem, Muhammd ; Khan, Imran ; Ur Rehman, Sana ; Ansar, Muhammad ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2019
Food and Energy Security 8 (2019)3. - ISSN 2048-3694
competition - intercropping - land equivalent ratio - radiation use efficiency
Planting arrangements affect radiation use efficiency (RUE) and competitiveness of intercrop species in intercropping systems. Here, we reveal that narrow-wide-row planting arrangement in maize-soybean relay-intercropping system increases the dry matter and competitiveness of soybean, increased the RUE of maize and soybean, and compensates the yield loss of maize by substantially increasing the yield of soybean. In this field study, maize was planted with soybean in different planting arrangements (P1, 20:180, P2, 40:160; P3, 60:140, and P4, 80:120) of relay intercropping, all the relay-intercropping treatments were compared with sole crops of maize (SM) and soybean (SS). Results showed that P1 improved the total RUE 3.26 g/MJ (maize RUE + soybean RUE) of maize and soybean in relay-intercropping system. Compared to P4, treatment P1 increased the soybean competition ratio (CR) values (by 55%) but reduced the maize CR values (by 29%), which in turn significantly improved the yield of soybean by maintaining the maize yield. Generally, in P1, soybean produced 82% of SS yield, and maize produced 88% of SM yield, and it achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.7. These results suggest that by maintaining the appropriate planting distances between maize and soybean we can improve the competitiveness and yield of intercrop species in relay-intercropping system.
Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and fungi on enhancement of growth and minituber production of tissue-cultured potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum)
Otroshy, M. ; Naeem, A.H. ; Soleymani, A. ; Bazrafshan, A.H. ; Khodaee, S.M.M. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2013
World of Sciences Journal 1 (2013)5(2). - ISSN 2307-3071 - p. 38 - 52.
The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbucular mychorizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and minituber yield of micropropagated potato cultivars (Agria, Arinda and Marfona) were investigated under organic conditions. The experiment design was completely randomized design with 5 replicates. Three PGPR strains (Pseudomonas CHAO-4, Azotobacter DSM-281 and Bacillus PTCC-1020) and AFM (Glomus intraradice) as a commercial fertilizer were tested alone or in combination on organically grown potato cultivars in term of growth and minituber yield. The results showed that all of the biological treatments stimulated plant growth and resulted in significant yield increase. Among different groups of inoculation, treatment of plants with triad inoculation in general and combination of Azotobacter + Pseudomonas + Glomus in particular produced the highest plant height and shoot dry weight in all cultivars. In addition, the highest minituber yield in all cultivars was observed in plants treated with Azotobacter + Bacillus + Glomus. Furthermore, the results of path analysis indicated that minituber size and number of minitubers had positive and high direct effects on minituber yield of potato cultivars. The results of this study suggest that PGPR and AMF have the potential to increase growth and minituber yield of potato cultivars under organic growing conditions.
An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis
Ullah, S. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Naeem, M. ; Schlerf, M. - \ 2012
Science of the Total Environment 437 (2012). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 145 - 152.
remote-sensing imagery - hyperspectral data - mu-m - spatial heterogeneity - reflectance data - transform - vegetation - leaves - classification - compression
Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid to thermal infrared (2.5-14.0µm) spectra, based on continuous wavelet analysis. The dataset comprised 394 spectra from nine plant species, with different water contents achieved through progressive drying. To identify the spectral feature most sensitive to the variations in leaf water content, first the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) spectra were transformed into a wavelet power scalogram, and then linear relations were established between the wavelet power scalogram and leaf water content. The six individual wavelet features identified in the mid infrared yielded high correlations with leaf water content (R 2=0.86 maximum, 0.83 minimum), as well as low RMSE (minimum 8.56%, maximum 9.27%). The combination of four wavelet features produced the most accurate model (R 2=0.88, RMSE=8.00%). The models were consistent in terms of accuracy estimation for both calibration and validation datasets, indicating that leaf water content can be accurately retrieved from the mid to thermal infrared domain of the electromagnetic radiation.
Effective monitoring of agriculture: a response
Sachs, J. ; Remans, R. ; Smukler, S.M. ; Winowiecki, L. ; Andelman, S.J. ; Cassman, K.G. ; Castle, D. ; DeFries, R. ; Denning, G. ; Fanzo, J. ; Jackson, L.E. ; Leemans, R. ; Lehmann, J. ; Milder, J.C. ; Naeem, S. ; Nziguheba, G. ; Palm, C.A. ; Pingali, P.L. ; Reganold, J.P. ; Richter, D.D. ; Scherr, S.J. ; Sircely, J. ; Sullivan, C. ; Tomich, T.P. ; Sanchez, P.A. - \ 2012
Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14 (2012)3. - ISSN 1464-0325 - p. 738 - 742.
land-use - food - feed
The development of effective agricultural monitoring networks is essential to track, anticipate and manage changes in the social, economic and environmental aspects of agriculture. We welcome the perspective of Lindenmayer and Likens (J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1559) as published in the Journal of Environmental Monitoring on our earlier paper, ‘‘Monitoring the World’s Agriculture’’ (Sachs et al., Nature, 2010, 466, 558–560). In this response, we address their three main critiques labeled as ‘the passive approach’, ‘the problem with uniform metrics’ and ‘the problem with composite metrics’. We expand on specific research questions at the core of the network design, on the distinction between key universal and site-specific metrics to detect change over time and across scales, and on the need for composite metrics in decision-making. We believe that simultaneously measuring indicators of the three pillars of sustainability (environmentally sound, social responsible and economically viable) in an effectively integrated monitoring system will ultimately allow scientists and land managers alike to find solutions to the most pressing problems facing global food security.
TRY - a global database of plant traits
Kattge, J. ; Diaz, S. ; Lavorel, S. ; Prentices, I.C. ; Leadley, P. ; Bönisch, G. ; Garnier, E. ; Westobys, M. ; Reich, P.B. ; Wrights, I.J. ; Cornelissen, C. ; Violle, C. ; Harisson, S.P. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Reichstein, M. ; Enquist, B.J. ; Soudzilovskaia, N.A. ; Ackerly, D.D. ; Anand, M. ; Atkin, O. ; Bahn, M. ; Baker, T.R. ; Baldochi, D. ; Bekker, R. ; Blanco, C.C. ; Blonders, B. ; Bond, W.J. ; Bradstock, R. ; Bunker, D.E. ; Casanoves, F. ; Cavender-Bares, J. ; Chambers, J.Q. ; Chapin III, F.S. ; Chave, J. ; Coomes, D. ; Cornwell, W.K. ; Craine, J.M. ; Dobrin, B.H. ; Duarte, L. ; Durka, W. ; Elser, J. ; Esser, G. ; Estiarte, M. ; Fagan, W.F. ; Fang, J. ; Fernadez-Mendez, F. ; Fidelis, A. ; Finegan, B. ; Flores, O. ; Ford, H. ; Frank, D. ; Freschet, T. ; Fyllas, N.M. ; Gallagher, R.V. ; Green, W.A. ; Gutierrez, A.G. ; Hickler, T. ; Higgins, S.I. ; Hodgson, J.G. ; Jalili, A. ; Jansen, S. ; Joly, C.A. ; Kerkhoff, A.J. ; Kirkup, D. ; Kitajima, K. ; Kleyer, M. ; Klotz, S. ; Knops, J.M.H. ; Kramer, K. ; Kühn, I. ; Kurokawa, H. ; Laughlin, D. ; Lee, T.D. ; Leishman, M. ; Lens, F. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Lloyd, J. ; Llusia, J. ; Louault, F. ; Ma, S. ; Mahecha, M.D. ; Manning, P. ; Massad, T. ; Medlyn, B.E. ; Messier, J. ; Moles, A.T. ; Müller, S.C. ; Nadrowski, K. ; Naeem, S. ; Niinemets, Ü. ; Nöllert, S. ; Nüske, A. ; Ogaya, R. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Onipchenko, V.G. ; Onoda, Y. ; Ordonez Barragan, J.C. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2011
Global Change Biology 17 (2011)9. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2905 - 2935.
relative growth-rate - tropical rain-forest - hawaiian metrosideros-polymorpha - litter decomposition rates - leaf economics spectrum - old-field succession - sub-arctic flora - functional traits - wide-range - terrestrial biosphere
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.
Monitoring the world's agriculture
Sachs, J. ; Remans, R. ; Smukler, S. ; Winowiecki, L. ; Andelman, S.J. ; Cassman, K.G. ; Castle, D. ; DeFries, R. ; Denning, G. ; Fanzo, J. ; Jackson, L.E. ; Leemans, R. ; Lehman, J. ; Milder, J.S. ; Naeem, S. ; Nziguheba, G. ; Palm, C.A. ; Pingali, P.L. ; Reganold, J.P. ; Richter, D.D. ; Scherr, S.J. ; Sircely, J. ; Sullivan, C. ; Tomich, T.P. ; Sanchez, P.A. - \ 2010
Nature 466 (2010)7306. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 558 - 560.
genetically-engineered plants - scientists analysis - foods
To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 food-system experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices.
|Microbial biodiversity and ecosystems funtioning under controlled conditions in the wild
Bell, T.G. ; Gessner, M.O. ; Griffiths, R.I. ; McLaren, J.R. ; Morin, P.J. ; Heijden, M. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2009
In: Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing: An Ecological and Economic Perspective / Naeem, S., Bunker, D.E., Hector, A., Loreau, M., Perrings, C., Oxford : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199547951 - p. 121 - 133.
Heat stress and genotype affect the glutenin particles of the glutenin macropolymer-gel fraction
Don, C. ; Lookhart, G. ; Naeem, H. ; MacRitchie, F. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2005
Journal of Cereal Science 42 (2005)1. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 69 - 80.
functional-properties - protein-composition - re-polymerization - wheat glutenin - dough - quality - depolymerization - polymers - subunits - flour
Genetic and environmental factors that affect the formation of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) particles were investigated by growing Lance 5+10, Lance 2+12, Warigal 5+10 and Warigal 2+12 lines under widely differing temperature regimes in greenhouse conditions. The GMP characteristics and mixing properties of flour extracted from mature wheat kernels were systematically studied. The amount of GMP is more sensitive to growing conditions than protein quantity. With the exception of severe heat stress conditions, 5+10 varieties produce larger glutenin particles than 2+12 varieties. The HMW/LMW ratio of GMP is lowered by heat stress, but glutenin particles become larger. In heat stress effects on dough mixing properties, glutenin particle size is more relevant than GMP quantity for dough development time; and GMP quantity is more relevant for band-width at peak resistance. A hyperaggregation model is used to explain how heat stress controls glutenin particle formation
Glutenin Particles Are Affected by Growing Conditions
Don, C. ; Lookhart, G. ; Naeem, H. ; MacRitchie, F. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2004
In: The Gluten Proteins / Lafiandra, D., Masci, S., D'-Ovidio, R., Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry
|Ecosystems and their services
Naeem, S. ; Carpenter, S.R. ; Castilla, J.C. ; Groot, R.S. de; Mooney, H.A. ; Reid, W.F. ; Turpie, J.K. ; Williams, M. ; Zhao, S. ; Zhiyun, O. ; Choo, P.S. ; Noble, I. - \ 2003
In: Millennium Ecosystems Assessment: Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment / Alcamo, J., Bennett, J.M., Washington DC : Island Press - ISBN 9781559634038 - p. 49 - 70.
|Valuing Ecosystem Services: a Response.
Costanza, R. ; Déarge, R. ; Groot, R.S. de; Farber, S. ; Grasso, M. ; Hannon, B. ; Limburg, K. ; Naeem, S. ; O'Neill, R. - \ 1997
Regulation 20 (1997)4. - ISSN 0147-0590 - p. 2 - 3.
|The Total Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital.
Costanza, R. ; Déarge, R. ; Groot, R.S. de; Farber, S. ; Grasso, M. ; Hannon, B. ; Limburg, K. ; Naeem, S. ; O'Neill, R. - \ 1997
Nature 387 (1997). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 253 - 260.
|The total value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital.
Costanza, R. ; Arge, R. d'; Groot, R. de; Farber, S. ; Grasso, M. ; Hannon, G. ; Limburg, K. ; Naeem, S. ; O'Neill, R. ; Paruelo, J. ; Raskin, R. ; Sutton, P. ; Belt, M. van den - \ 1996
In: Report of Workshop organised by NCEAS, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1996)