Inter-laboratory study for the certification of trace elements in seawater certified reference materials NASS-7 and CASS-6
Yang, Lu ; Nadeau, Kenny ; Meija, Juris ; Grinberg, Patricia ; Pagliano, Enea ; Ardini, Francisco ; Grotti, Marco ; Schlosser, Christian ; Streu, Peter ; Achterberg, Eric P. ; Sohrin, Yoshiki ; Minami, Tomoharu ; Zheng, Linjie ; Wu, Jingfeng ; Chen, Gedun ; Ellwood, Michael J. ; Turetta, Clara ; Aguilar-Islas, Ana ; Rember, Robert ; Sarthou, Géraldine ; Tonnard, Manon ; Planquette, Hélène ; Matoušek, Tomáš ; Crum, Steven ; Mester, Zoltán - \ 2018
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 410 (2018)18. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 4469 - 4479.
Certification of trace metals in seawater certified reference materials (CRMs) NASS-7 and CASS-6 is described. At the National Research Council Canada (NRC), column separation was performed to remove the seawater matrix prior to the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, U, V, and Zn, whereas As was directly measured in 10-fold diluted seawater samples, and B was directly measured in 200-fold diluted seawater samples. High-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICPMS) was used for elemental analyses, with double isotope dilution for the accurate determination of B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, U, and Zn in seawater NASS-7 and CASS-6, and standard addition calibration for As, Co, Mn, and V. In addition, all analytes were measured using standard addition calibration with triple quadrupole (QQQ)-ICPMS to provide a second set of data at NRC. Expert laboratories worldwide were invited to contribute data to the certification of trace metals inNASS-7 and CASS-6.
Various analytical methods were employed by participants including column separation, co-precipitation, and simple dilution coupled to ICPMS detection or flow injection analysis coupled to chemiluminescence detection, with use of double isotope dilution calibration, matrix matching external calibration, and standard addition calibration. Results presented in this study show that majority of laboratories have demonstrated their measurement capabilities for the accurate determination of trace metals in seawater. As a result of this comparison, certified/reference values and associated uncertainties were assigned for 14 elements in seawater CRMs NASS-7 and CASS-6, suitable for the validation of methods used for seawater analysis.
Towards a framework to access, compare and develop monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation in Europe
Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Sandt, K. van de; Harley, M. ; Hilden, M. ; Leiter, T. ; Minnen, J. van; Pieterse, N. ; Bree, L. van - \ 2018
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 187 - 209.
Adaptation is increasingly recognised as essential when dealing with the adverse impacts of climate change on societies, economies and the environment. However, there is insufficient information about the effectiveness of adaption policies, measures and actions. For this reason, the establishment of monitoring programmes is considered to be necessary. Such programmes can contribute to knowledge, learning and data to support adaptation governance. In the European Union (EU), member states are encouraged to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). The NASs developed so far vary widely because of differing views, approaches and policies. A number of member states have progressed to monitoring and evaluating the implementation of their NAS. It is possible to identify key elements in these monitoring programmes that can inform the wider policy learning process. In this paper, four generic building blocks for creating a monitoring and evaluation programme are proposed: (1) definition of the system of interest, (2) selection of a set of indicators, (3) identification of the organisations responsible for monitoring and (4) definition of monitoring and evaluation procedures. The monitoring programmes for NAS in three member states—Finland, the UK and Germany—were analysed to show how these elements have been used in practice, taking into account their specific contexts. It is asserted that the provision of a common framework incorporating these elements will help other member states and organisations within them in setting up and improving their adaptation monitoring programmes.
Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Swart, R.J. ; Carter, T.R. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Mela, H. ; Morcecroft, M.D. ; Rey, D. - \ 2010
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 20 (2010)3. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 440 - 450.
social-ecological systems - boundary organizations - policy - governance - science - vulnerability - capacity - scales - uk
For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms of multi-level governance to implement the proposed actions. Fifthly, how the strategy addresses integration and coordination with other policy domains. Finally, how the strategy suggests the implementation and how the strategy is evaluated. The paper notes that the role of National Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even though the strategies show great resemblance in terms of topics, methods and approaches, there are many institutional challenges, including multi-level governance and policy integration issues, which can act as considerable barriers in future policy implementation
|Management of nitrogen inputs on farm within the EU regulatory framework
Berge, H.F.M. ten; Dijk, W. van - \ 2009
York, UK : International Fertiliser Society (Proceedings of the International Fertiliser Society 654) - ISBN 9780853102915
stikstof - stikstofmeststoffen - eu regelingen - bemesting - nitrogen - nitrogen fertilizers - eu regulations - fertilizer application
Nitrogen (N) use in EU countries is regulated by so-called Action Programmes (APs) set by member states in response to the EU Nitrates Directive (ND). APs apply specifically to 'Nitrate Vulnerable Zones' (NVZs) within countries. More generally, the ND asks countries to define a Code of Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), outlining for their entire national territory what is considered responsible management of manures and fertilisers. This paper compares regulations on N use as precipitated in the APs (applicable in 2009) of Belgium (Flanders, FL), Denmark (DK), Germany (GE), France (FR) and The Netherlands (NL). For some countries, the AP includes maximum allowable N rates. Such statutory limits are called N application standards (NASs). NASs were derived from N fertiliser recommendations. Other elements addressed are 'closed periods' for animal manures; and the N fertiliser value (NFV) of manures, representing an equivalent amount of fertiliser-N relative to manure-N. Together, these elements (NASs, closed periods, and NFVs) constitute the core of rules and regulations. FL, DK, GE, and NL have designated their entire territories as NVZ and so their APs apply throughout. Limits to N use differ considerably between respective APs, both in definition and values. DK and NL have fixed, crop specific NASs regulating the sum of N in manures and fertilisers. NASs in FL are specified for total-N and fertiliser-N separately, and apply to crop groups. The German system is based on GAP and holds no NASs. It applies to all states. Nitrogen surplus on arable farms in GE, however, should not exceed 90 (2008) and 60 kg N per ha (2011). Legislation in FR does not hold limits on N input in general, nor in NVZs. Only in zones where the groundwater or surface water is used for drinking water - while nitrate concentration is high - is total N input (manures + mineral fertilisers) limited to 140-210 kg N per ha. Some regions (FL; Baden-Württemberg in GE) have separate limits for inorganic soil mineral N allowed in the autumn. NL, FL, DK, and GE have derogations for animal manures, allowing maximum rates between 200 and 250 kg N per ha. All derogations except for FL refer to grassland-dominated farms only.
Europe adapts to climate change. Comparing National Adaptation Strategies in Europe
Swart, R.J. ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Binnerup, S. ; Carter, T. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Loquen, S. ; Mela, H. ; Morecroft, M. ; Reese, M. ; Rey, D. - \ 2009
Helsinki : PEER (PEER Report / Partnership of European Environmental Research no. 1) - ISBN 9789521134517 - 283
klimaatverandering - milieubeleid - adaptatie - europa - governance - risicobeheersing - climatic change - environmental policy - adaptation - europe - governance - risk management
Climate Change is happening. Even if global emission reductions and mitigation efforts over the next decades prove to be successful, a signifi cant amount of human-induced climate change has become inevitable. In addition to efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, many EU countries are therefore developing and putting in place adaptation strategies to help them cope with the expected impacts of climate change. This report presents a comparative analysis of national adaptation strategies in a sample of European countries. The primary objectives of this study are to identify policy-relevant fi ndings and formulate recommendations for further research. Through these objectives, this report aims at providing both policy makers and research managers with enhanced insights into the variety of approaches taken by countries and knowledge gaps, and to thus facilitate the exchange of information on how to tackle adaptation across Europe and develop relevant research agendas. Our focus is on national level strategies, examining top-down approaches to and coordination of adaptation measures in each country. There is clearly also an important role for bottom-up action, action which is often already taking place at the local scale, where climate impacts are expected to be experienced. This is covered in a parallel PEER report (Mickwitz et al., 2009). The report is structured around six key themes that were identifi ed by the research team on the basis of an initial inventory as distinctive elements of all the National Adaptation Strategies (NASs) that have been analysed. We examine how the countries have approached each of these themes, analyse how much progress has been made and identify policy needs and research gaps that we believe will help improve understanding and enhance the implementation of adaptation policy at the national level. The six themes are:
1. Motivating and facilitating factors for strategy development
2. Science-policy interactions and the place of research
3. The role of communicating adaptation
4. Multi-level governance in shaping and delivering National Adaptation Strategies
5. The integration of adaptation into sectoral policies
6. The role of policy monitoring, review and enforcement
|Long-term supply and uptake by plants of elements form coal fly ash.
Nass, M.M. ; Lexmond, Th.M. ; Beusichem, M.L. van; Janssen-Jurkovícová, M. - \ 1993
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 24 (1993). - ISSN 0010-3624 - p. 899 - 913.
|Immobilisatie van elementen in vliegas.
Nass, M.M. - \ 1992
Wageningen : Vakgroep Bodemkunde en plantevoeding, LU (Verslagen en Mededelingen 1992-2) - 22 p.
|Beoordeling van het gehalte van een aantal elementen in gewassen geteeld op vliegas.
Nass, M.M. - \ 1992
Wageningen : Vakgroep Bodemkunde en plantevoeding, LU (Verslagen en Mededelingen 1992-1) - 36 p.
|Coping styles, social support and sex-differences
Defares, P.B. ; Brandjes, M. ; Nass, C.H.Th. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 1985
In: Social support: Theory, research and applications / Sarason, J.G., Sarason, B.R., Dordrecht : Nijhoff - p. 173 - 186.
|Stress bij groepsleiding
Ploeg, J.D. van der; Brandjes, M. ; Nass, C.H.Th. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1985
In: Jeugd (z)onder dak / van der Ploeg, J.D., - p. 46 - 61.
Coping styles and vulnerability of women at work in residential settings
Defares, P.B. ; Brandjes, M. ; Nass, C.H. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 1984
Ergonomics 27 (1984). - ISSN 0014-0139 - p. 527 - 545.
|Hoe functioneert de groepsleiding?
Brandjes, M. ; Nass, C.H.Th. - \ 1983
Unknown Publisher - 52 p.
|Arbeidsbevrediging en verloop
Brandjes, M. ; Nass, C.H.Th. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der; Defares, P.B. - \ 1982
Wageningen : L.H. - 371
hulpkrachten - kinderen - gezondheidszorg - ziekenhuizen - zuigelingen - verpleeghuizen - sociale werkers - werk - arbeidsvoldoening - personen - auxiliary workers - children - health care - hospitals - infants - nursing homes - social workers - work - work satisfaction - persons
|Stress bij groepsleiding
Ploeg, J.D. van der; Brandjes, M. ; Nass, C. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1981
In: Jeugd (z)onder dak / van der Ploeg, J.D., - p. 43 - 60.