The Relationship between Hydro-Climatic Variables and E. coli Concentrations in Surface and Drinking Water of the Kabul River Basin in Pakistan
Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad ; Nauman Ahmad, Muhammad ; Hofstra, Nynke - \ 2017
AIMS Environmental Science 4 (2017)5. - ISSN 2372-0344 - p. 690 - 708.
Microbial water contamination is a risk for human health, as it causes waterborne diseases like diarrhea. E. coli is a faecal indicator microorganism. Climate variables, such as temperature and precipitation, influence E. coli concentrations in surface and drinking water resources. We measure and statistically analyse E. coli concentrations in drinking and surface water in the Kabul River Basin. E. coli concentrations are very high in the basin. Drinking and bathing water standards are violated. Water temperature, surface air temperature, discharge and precipitation were positively correlated with E. coli concentrations. Precipitation induced runoff transports of E. coli from agricultural lands to Kabul River and high temperature coincides with high precipitation and discharge. A linear regression model was developed to assess the net effect of the climate variables on E. coli concentrations. We found that climate variables accounted for more than half of the observed variation in E. coli concentrations in surface (R2 = 0.61) and drinking water (R2 = 0.55). This study indicates that increased precipitation together with higher surface air temperature, as expected in this region with climate change, were significantly correlated with increased E. coli concentrations in the future. Waterborne pathogens are expected to respond similarly to hydro-climatic changes, indicating that disease outbreaks could well become more frequent and severe.
|Biomonitoring of fluoride pollution with gladiolus in the vicinity of a brick kiln field in Lahore, Pakistan
Ullah, Kifayat ; Saeed Ahmad, S. ; Nauman Ahmad, M. ; Khan, Sardar ; Urooj, Rabail ; Shahid Iqbal, M. ; Zia, Afia ; Ahmad Khan, N. - \ 2016
Fluoride 49 (2016)3. - ISSN 0015-4725 - p. 245 - 252.
Biomonitoring - Brick kilns - Fluoride - Gladiolus - Pakistan - South Asia
Although there are thousands of small-scale, poorly regulated brick kilns in rural areas of South Asia their impact on local agricultural crops is largely unknown. The impact of fluoride on crops in a brick kiln area in the Northern Punjab Region of Pakistan was investigated. Fluoride accumulation, leaf necrosis, and reduced corm diameter and weight were found in the brick kiln area in two cultivars of Gladiolus that have been widely used as biomonitors in Europe. The rate of increase in leaf injury of the sensitive Gladiolus cultivar was greatest at all sites when the temperature was lower and there was a high relative humidity of 60–75%. The necrotic leaf tip lengths of the indicator plants correlated very well with their fluoride concentrations. The fluoride accumulation was directly proportional to the Fluoride Injury Index, although a higher injury index was observed with the fluoride-sensitive cultivar Lavendell Puff compared to the fluoride-tolerant cultivar Flower Song. These results suggest that injury to sensitive crops from fluoride may occur in other brick kiln areas in South Asia, and that Gladiolus plants could be used as a cost-effective biomonitor for further investigation in this region.
Effects of seasonal variations on physicochemical properties and concentrations of faecal coliform in river Kabul
Javed, Faryal ; Ahmed, Muhammad Nauman ; Shah, Hamid Ullah ; Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid ; Wahid, Abdul ; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed - \ 2014
World Applied Sciences Journal 29 (2014)1. - ISSN 1818-4952 - p. 142 - 149.
Climate change - Developing countries - Drinking water - Risk assessment - South Asia
Physicochemical properties of water pH, EC and TDS has relationship with total coliform count, total bacterial count and E. coli in terms of seasonal variations. It had been observed the highest values of TCC, TBC and fecal coliform was significantly higher in July as compare to April and December, Because the monsoon floods in river Kabul carries more pollutants from nearby fields. All these factors contribute in deteriorating the drinking water quality of study area. pH has positive effect on the growth and persistence of E.coli. Similarly, EC and TDS have influence on transport and fate of these faecal coliform. E. coli is extensively used as indicator organism for faecal contamination of water. The disease risk due to waterborne pathogens is directly related to the concentration of waterborne pathogens in surface and drinking water. This pathogen concentration is influenced by extreme precipitation and floods. More pathogens enter the surface water when floods flush ineffectively treated sewage and manure into surface waters and increase concentrations. As future extreme precipitation and flood frequencies are expected to increase due to climate change, it is essential to better understand the relationship between extreme precipitation, flooding and the concentration of waterborne pathogens in the surface waters. Water managers can then prepare for possible increased health risk in these situations.