Dietary fibre may mitigate sarcopenia risk: Findings from the NU-AGE cohort of older european adults
Montiel-Rojas, Diego ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Berendsen, Agnes ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Januszko, Olga ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 2072-6643
C-reactive protein - Exercise - Metabolic syndrome - Muscle mass - Protein intake - Systemic inflammation
Sarcopenia is characterised by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical function as well as related metabolic disturbances. While fibre-rich diets can influence metabolic health outcomes, the impact on skeletal muscle mass and function is yet to be determined, and the moderating effects by physical activity (PA) need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to examine links between fibre intake, skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a cohort of older adults from the NU-AGE study. In 981 older adults (71 ± 4 years, 58% female), physical function was assessed using the short-physical performance battery test and handgrip strength. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary fibre intake (FI) was assessed by 7-day food record and PA was objectively determined by accelerometery. General linear models accounting for covariates including PA level, protein intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Women above the median FI had significantly higher SMI compared to those below, which remained in fully adjusted models (24.7 ± 0.2% vs. 24.2 ± 0.1%, p = 0.011, η2p = 0.012). In men, the same association was only evident in those without MetS (above median FI: 32.4 ± 0.3% vs. below median FI: 31.3 ± 0.3%, p = 0.005, η2p = 0.035). There was no significant impact of FI on physical function outcomes. The findings from this study suggest a beneficial impact of FI on skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Importantly, this impact is independent of adherence to guidelines for protein intake and PA, which further strengthens the potential role of dietary fibre in preventing sarcopenia. Further experimental work is warranted in order to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the action of dietary fibre on the regulation of muscle mass.
Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria
Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.
Changing from a Western to a Mediterranean-style diet does not affect iron or selenium status : results of the New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE) 1-year randomized clinical trial in elderly Europeans
Jennings, Amy ; Tang, Jonathan ; Gillings, Rachel ; Perfecto, Antonio ; Dutton, John ; Speakman, Jim ; Fraser, William D. ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta ; Caumon, Elodie ; Caille, Aurélie ; Ostan, Rita ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. - \ 2020
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 111 (2020)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 98 - 109.
elderly - Europeans - fish - iron - meat - Mediterranean-style diet - randomized controlled trial - selenium
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diets limit red meat consumption and increase intakes of high-phytate foods, a combination that could reduce iron status. Conversely, higher intakes of fish, a good source of selenium, could increase selenium status. OBJECTIVES: A 1-y randomized controlled trial [New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE)] was carried out in older Europeans to investigate the effects of consuming a Mediterranean-style diet on indices of inflammation and changes in nutritional status. METHODS: Selenium and iron intakes and status biomarkers were measured at baseline and after 1 y in 1294 people aged 65-79 y from 5 European countries (France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom) who had been randomly allocated either to a Mediterranean-style diet or to remain on their habitual, Western diet. RESULTS: Estimated selenium intakes increased significantly with the intervention group (P < 0.01), but were not accompanied by changes in serum selenium concentrations. Iron intakes also increased (P < 0.001), but there was no change in iron status. However, when stratified by study center, there were positive effects of the intervention on iron status for serum ferritin for participants in Italy (P = 0.04) and France (P = 0.04) and on soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) for participants in Poland (P < 0.01). Meat intake decreased and fish intake increased to a greater degree in the intervention group, relative to the controls (P < 0.01 for both), but the overall effects of the intervention on meat and fish intakes were mainly driven by data from Poland and France. Changes in serum selenium in the intervention group were associated with greater changes in serum ferritin (P = 0.01) and body iron (P = 0.01), but not sTfR (P = 0.73); there were no study center × selenium status interactions for the iron biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming a Mediterranean-style diet for 1 y had no overall effect on iron or selenium status, although there were positive effects on biomarkers of iron status in some countries. The NU-AGE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.
Gender-specific association of body composition with inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans from the NU-AGE study
Santoro, Aurelia ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Ostan, Rita ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Fabbri, Cristina ; Bertarelli, Claudia ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith ; Berendsen, Agnes ; Brzozowska, Anna ; Januszko, Olga ; Kozlowska, Katarzyna ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Caumon, Elodie ; Napoli, Alessandro ; Mercatelli, Daniele ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Capri, Miriam ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Bazzocchi, Alberto - \ 2019
European Radiology 29 (2019)9. - ISSN 0938-7994 - p. 4968 - 4979.
ObjectivesThe aim of this work was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between body composition (BC) markers for adipose and lean tissue and bone mass, and a wide range of specific inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans. Methods A whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was made in 1121 healthy (65–79 years) women and men from five European countries of the “New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy aging in Europe” project (NCT01754012) cohort to measure markers of adipose and lean tissue and bone mass. Pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-6Rα, TNF-α, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, pentraxin 3, CRP, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β1) molecules as well as adipose-related markers such as leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and resistin were measured by magnetic bead-based multiplex-specific immunoassays and biochemical assays. Results BC characteristics were different in elderly women and men, and more favorable BC markers were associated with a better adipose-related inflammatory profile, with the exception of skeletal muscle mass index. No correlation was found with the body composition markers and circulating levels of some standard pro- and anti-inflammatory markers like IL-6, pentraxin 3, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6Rα, glycoprotein 130, TNF-α-R1, and TNF-α-R2.Conclusions The association between BC and inflammatory and adipose-related biomarkers is crucial in decoding aging and pathophysiological processes, such as sarcopenia. DXA can help in understanding how the measurement of fat and muscle is important, making the way from research to clinical practice.
Supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 prevents Decline of Mucus Barrier in Colon of Accelerated Aging Ercc1-/Δ7 Mice
Beek, A.A. van; Sovran, B. ; Hugenholtz, F. ; Meijer, B. ; Hoogerland, Joanne ; Mihailova, Violeta ; Ploeg, Corine van der; Belzer, C. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J. ; Vermeij, W.P. ; Vos, P. de; Wells, J.M. ; Leenen, P.M. ; Nicoletti, C. ; Hendriks, R.W. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2016
Mus musculus - GSE87368 - PRJNA344500
Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-wk bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20wk, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (<10µm) mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum – but not with L. casei and B. breve – prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly.
Factors influencing the incidence and prevalence of food allergy
Cochrane, S. ; Beyer, K. ; Clausen, M. ; Wjst, M. ; Hiller, R. ; Nicoletti, C. ; Szepfalusi, Z. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Breiteneder, H. ; Manios, Y. ; Crittenden, R. ; Burney, P. - \ 2009
Allergy 64 (2009)9. - ISSN 0105-4538 - p. 1246 - 1255.
placebo-controlled trial - cows milk allergy - 1st 6 months - randomized controlled-trial - bovine beta-lactoglobulin - lactic-acid bacteria - koala birth cohort - breast-fed infants - life risk-factors - atopic-dermatitis
Food allergy is an increasing problem in Europe and elsewhere and severe reactions to food are also becoming more common. As food allergy is usually associated with other forms of allergic sensitisation it is likely that many risk factors are common to all forms of allergy. However the potential severity of the disease and the specific public heath measures required for food allergy make it important to identify the specific risk factors for this condition. Food allergy is unusual in that it often manifests itself very early in life and commonly remits with the development of tolerance. Hypotheses that explain the distribution of food allergy include specific genetic polymorphisms, the nature of the allergens involved and the unique exposure to large quantities of allergen through the gut. Progress has been made in developing more specific and testable hypotheses but the evidence for any of these is still only preliminary. Further collaborative research is required to develop an appropriate public health response to this growing problem.