Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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ENSPRESO - an open, EU-28 wide, transparent and coherent database of wind, solar and biomass energy potentials
Ruiz, P. ; Nijs, W. ; Tarvydas, D. ; Sgobbi, A. ; Zucker, A. ; Pilli, R. ; Jonsson, R. ; Camia, A. ; Thiel, C. ; Hoyer-Klick, C. ; Longa, F. Dalla; Kober, T. ; Badger, J. ; Volker, P. ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Brosowski, A. ; Thrän, D. - \ 2019
Energy Strategy Reviews 26 (2019). - ISSN 2211-467X
Biomass - Energy system model - National - Open data - Potentials - Regional - Renewable - Solar - Wind

Data on the potential generation of energy from wind, solar and biomass is crucial for analysing their development, as it sets the limits on how much additional capacity it is feasible to install. This paper presents the methodologies used for the development of ENSPRESO, ENergy System Potentials for Renewable Energy SOurces, an EU-28 wide, open dataset for energy models on renewable energy potentials, at national and regional levels for the 2010–2050 period. In ENSPRESO, coherent GIS-based land-restriction scenarios are developed. For wind, resource evaluation also considers setback distances, as well as high resolution geo-spatial wind speed data. For solar, potentials are derived from irradiation data and available area for solar applications. Both wind and solar have separately a potential electricity production which is equivalent to three times the EU's 2016 electricity demand, with wind onshore and solar requiring 16% and 1.4% of total land, respectively. For biomass, agriculture, forestry and waste sectors are considered. Their respective sustainable potentials are equivalent to a minimum 10%, 1.5% and 1% of the total EU primary energy use. ENSPRESO can enrich the results of any energy model (e.g. JRC-EU-TIMES) by improving its analyses of the competition and complementarity of energy technologies.

Encouraging encounters: unusual aggregations of bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus in the western Fram Strait
Boer, M.N. de; Janinhoff, N. ; Nijs, G. ; Verdaat, H. - \ 2019
Endangered Species Research 39 (2019). - ISSN 1863-5407 - p. 51 - 62.
Bowhead whale - Balaena mysticetus - Svalbard stock - Abundance - Platform of opportunity - Conservation - Fram Strait
The subpopulation of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus in the East Greenland-Svalbard-Barents Sea is endangered and until recently was believed to number in the tens. Recent studies have suggested that this subpopulation appears to be increasing. Here, we report on unusual aggregations of bowhead whales within the Fram Strait. We present opportunistic and effort-corrected observations of bowhead whales made from a small expedition vessel during
cruises in June (2015−2018). Bowhead whales were sighted on 85 occasions (220−227 whales). An aggregation in 2015 (n = 84 whales) and high numbers in 2018 (n = 104−110) exceeded all previous records. The index of whale abundance was significantly higher in open water-leads (1.08−1.14 whales km−1 of survey effort) compared to areas with drift-ice (0.51−0.53 whales km−1). The highest abundance index was measured in deep waters where the bottom slope was relatively steep. Our findings highlight the temporal and spatial consistency of this species in areas with relatively loose ice cover (open water-leads) and steep slopes. It is unknown how global warming and resultant changes in ice-extent are going to affect bowhead whales within the Strait
and whether they will find new feeding grounds due to an expanding open-ocean habitat. These slopes may become increasingly important to bowhead whales and Arctic top predators as a spring/early summer feeding ground. These relatively large numbers of bowhead whales are encouraging and can help direct future research monitoring programs to study the population ecology of these endangered whales.
Ontwikkeling standaard stresstest hitte
Nijs, T. de; Bosch, P. ; Brand, E. ; Heusinkveld, B. ; Hoeven, F. van der; Jacobs, C. ; Klok, L. ; Kluck, J. ; Koekoek, A. ; Koopmans, S. ; Nieuwaal, K. van; Ronda, R. ; Steeneveld, G. - \ 2019
Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM briefrapport 2019-0008) - 121
The temperature is rising due to climate change, resulting in more heat waves and more hot days and nights. All government agencies (municipalities, provincial governments and water boards) in the Netherlands must therefore identify the bottlenecks relating to flooding, heat, drought and floods before 2020. RIVM has proposed standardising the ‘test for heat stress’. To this end, a guideline has been drawn up for municipalities to enable them to list 24 possible risks, divided into 5 themes: health, networks, water, quality of life and outdoor space.A new method has been developed for calculating heat maps, with the wind chill temperature as starting point, that can be used to assess heat stress. Using this new method, the standard heat map, with wind chill temperature, can be calculated on a hot day.There are currently a lot of heat maps available, all showing the heat in different ways. Urban areas are often warmer than rural ones, partly because of the use of dark materials, such as asphalt, and lower wind speeds (heat island). The standard calculation takes into account various weather parameters, the local spatial situation, the land use and the location of buildings and trees. In this study, standardised maps have been developed for the city of Wageningen. For the stress test to become more applicable, it is important that new heat maps are developed on a national scale and made available in the Climate Effect Atlas. A map with the number of hot nights has already been included in this digital atlas.Prolonged periods of heat can cause nuisance, varying from a lack of sleep to a life-threatening disturbance of bodily functions, as is the case with sunstroke. More people die than ‘normal’ when it is very hot; the elderly and people with chronic disorders, such as pulmonary and cardiac complaints, are particularly vulnerable. RIVM recommends theidentification of these health risks for the Netherlands. The most important parameters are the number of additional hospitalisations resulting from the heat and the number of deaths in excess of the ‘normal’ numbers.
Proficiency test for deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyl-DONs and DON-3G in cereals : EURL-PT_MP01 (2018)
Pereboom, D.P.K.H. ; Dam, R.C.J. ; Rijk, T.C. van; Nijs, M. de; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2019.007) - 45
Assessing chronic fatigue syndrome: Self-reported physical functioning and correlations with physical testing
Eyskens, Jan B. ; Illegems, Jela ; Nil, Luc De; Nijs, Jo ; Kampen, Jarl K. ; Moorkens, Greta - \ 2019
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 23 (2019)3. - ISSN 1360-8592 - p. 598 - 603.
Fatigue - Gait - Physical assessment - Physical endurance - Posture - Self-reporting - Walking

The pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) remains unclear; no biomarkers have thus far been identified or physical tests designed to underpin its diagnosis. Assessment mainly uses Fukuda's criteria and is based on the exclusion of symptoms related to other diseases/syndromes, subjective self-reporting, and outcomes of self-report questionnaires. In order to improve the baseline assessment and progress evaluation of individuals suspected of CFS and using an association-oriented research strategy and a cross-correlational design, this study investigates possible associations between the performance on two physical tests, i.e. ‘Timed Loaded Standing’ (TLS), assessing trunk-arm endurance, and the ‘Stops Walking with Eyes Closed while performing a secondary Cognitive Task’ (SWECCT), measuring impaired automaticity of gait, and the results of two self-report questionnaires, the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS, total score and fatigue subscale score) and the physical functioning and vitality subscales of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to gauge the participants’ subjective feelings of fatigue and beliefs regarding their abilities to perform daily-life activities. Comparisons of the outcomes obtained in 27 female patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CFS revealed that trunk-arm endurance as measured with the TLS correlated with the SF-36 physical functioning subscale only (raw p value: 0.004). None of the other correlations were statistically significant. It is concluded that the TLS may have potential as an objective assessment tool to support the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment effects in CFS.

Chemische en fysische gevaren in de Nederlandse diervoederketen
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Asselt, E.D. van; Adamse, P. ; Nijkamp, M.N. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Pikkemaat, M. ; Nijs, M. de; Mol, H. ; Raamsdonk, L. van; Hoogenboom, R. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2019
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2019.002) - 85
Review of analytical approaches for the identification of non-intentionally added substances in paper and board food contact materials
Peters, Ruud J.B. ; Groeneveld, Iris ; Sanchez, Patricia Lopez ; Gebbink, Wouter ; Gersen, Arjen ; Nijs, Monique de; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2019
Trends in Food Science and Technology 85 (2019). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 44 - 54.
Bio-assay - Chemical analysis - Effect directed analysis - Food contact materials - In silico tools - Non-intentionally added substances

Background: Food contact materials (FCM) may contain non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) as a result of reaction by-products, oligomers, degradation processes, chemical reactions between packaging materials and foodstuff, or as impurities from the raw materials used for their production. Scope and approach: In this review, current approaches for the detection and identification of NIAS from paper and board FCM are presented. Reviewed are the definition of NIAS, approaches for NIAS identification and quantification, the comprehensive analysis of NIAS and the role of in silico tools and bioassays. Key Findings and Conclusions: NIAS in paper and board are mostly components from printing inks, adhesives, sizing agents and surface coatings. Recycled paper contains overall more NIAS than fresh paper. Targeted analysis is generally performed for predicted NIAS, whereas an untargeted, or full-scan screening method is applied to detect and identify unpredicted NIAS. Sample preparation and contact conditions fall in two categories; migration and extraction. Migration studies are performed with food simulants while extraction studies are Soxhlet or ultrasound assisted solvent extraction. In untargeted analysis in silico tools are gaining importance in the identification of NIAS. Bioassays are used to determine the bioactivity of extracts or fractions in order to assess the potential toxicity of NIAS present in the mixture. A combination of bioassays and chemical analysis is used to direct the identification of unknown bioactive NIAS in complex mixtures like those from paper and board FCM. However, future research is required into the selection of bioassays since these should not only be sensitive enough for detecting all compounds of concern but should also have a relevance with human health.

Determination of zearalenone, zeranol and other RALs in bovine and human hair
Mol, J.G.J. ; Essers, M.L. ; Repossi, Adele ; Groot, M.J. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de; Sterk, S.S. - \ 2018
Proficiency test for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCbs in feed oil
Elbers, I.J.W. ; Dam, Guillaume ten; Pereboom, D.P.K.H. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2018
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-report 2018.007 (version 2)) - 23
The response of metal leaching from soils to climate change and land management in a temperate lowland catchment
Perk, Marcel van der; Stergiadi, Maria ; Nijs, Ton C.M. de; Comans, Rob N.J. ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. - \ 2018
Catena 171 (2018). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 426 - 439.
CENTURY model - Climate change - Heavy metals - Leaching - Soil organic matter - Spatial modelling

Changes in soil hydrology as a result of climate change or changes in land management may affect metal release and leaching from soils. The aim of this study is to assess the cascading response of SOM and DOC levels and metal leaching to climate change in the medium-sized lowland Dommel catchment in the southern part of the Netherlands. We implemented the CENTURY model in a spatial setting to simulate SOM, DOC, and water dynamics in topsoils of the Dutch portion of the Dommel catchment under various climate and land management scenarios. These CENTURY model outputs were subsequently used to calculate changes in the topsoil concentrations, solubility, and leaching of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) for current (1991–2010) and future (2081–2100) conditions using empirical partition-relations. Since the metal leaching model could not be evaluated quantitatively against measured values, we focus mainly on the trends in the projected metal concentrations and leaching rates for the different scenarios. Our results show that under all climate and land management scenarios, the SOM contents in the topsoil of the Dommel catchment are projected to increase by about 10% and the DOC concentrations to decrease by about 20% in the period from present to 2100. These changes in SOM and DOC only have a minor influence on metal concentrations and leaching rates under the climate change scenarios. Our scenario calculations show a considerable decrease in topsoil Cd concentrations in the next century as a result of increased percolation rates. Zinc, however, shows an increase due to agricultural inputs to soil via manure application. These trends are primarily controlled by the balance between atmospheric and agricultural inputs and output via leaching. While SOM and DOC are important controls on the spatial variation in metal mobility and leaching rates, climate-induced changes in SOM and DOC only have a minor influence on metal concentrations and leaching rates. The climate-induced changes in metal concentrations in both the topsoil and the soil leachate are primarily driven by changes in precipitation and associated water percolation rates.

Ecosysteemdiensten in Zuid-Holland : ecosysteemdiensten op de kaart voor de beleidsvisie Rijke Groenblauwe Leefomgeving
Hendriks, Kees ; Grashof-Bokdam, Carla ; Nijs, Ton C.M. de; Vos, Claire ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Schouten, Thijs ; Zoest, Roland van; Schuiling, Rini ; Wegman, Ruut - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2892) - 63
Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products
Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H. ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Spanjer, Martien ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Mol, Hans G.J. ; Nijs, Monique de - \ 2018
Food Chemistry 242 (2018). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 443 - 450.
Codeine - LC-MS/MS - Morphine - Narceine - Noscapine - Papaverine - Thebaine

A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with acetonitrile/water/formic acid, ten-fold dilution and analysis by LC-MS/MS using a pH 10 carbonate buffer. The method was applied for the analysis of 41 samples collected in 2015 in the Netherlands and Germany. All samples contained morphine ranging from 0.2 to 240 mg/kg. The levels of codeine and thebaine ranged from below LOQ to 348 mg/kg and from below LOQ to 106 mg/kg, respectively. Sixty percent of the samples exceeded the guidance reference value of 4 mg/kg of morphine set by BfR in Germany, whereas 25% of the samples did not comply with the limits set for morphine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine by Hungarian legislation.

Fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids during processing of milk of cows treated with ragwort
Nijs, Monique de; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Klijnstra, Mirjam D. ; Driehuis, Frank ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. - \ 2017
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)12. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 2212 - 2219.
dairy products - processing - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids - transfer
To investigate the fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) during milk processing, milk of cows treated via rumen fistula with a mixture of 84% (w/w) ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea) and 16% narrow-leaved ragwort (Senecio inaequidens) was processed using laboratory scale heating systems with industrial settings. Pasteurised and sterilised (UHT) milk were produced, as well as set-type yoghurt and cheese. Samples were analysed for 29 PAs using LC-MS/MS, of which 11 PAs were detected above LOQ in the samples (0.1 µg l−1). Alterations in the PA concentration and composition between the standardised milk and the corresponding end-product(s) were evaluated. The heat treatments applied for pasteurisation and UHT sterilisation to prepare semi-skimmed consumption milk did not affect the PA levels in the end-products. In yoghurt, after fermentation of standardised milk (6 h, pH 4.4), 73% of total PAs were recovered. The PA concentration, specifically dehydrojacoline, was decreased, although not quantifiable, during cheese production. A further decrease of 38% during 6 weeks of ripening was observed. The results show that the PA concentration of natural contaminated cow’s milk is not affected by heat treatment applied for pasteurised and sterilised milk, but that microbial fermentation of the milk leads to a lowered PA concentration in yoghurt and cheese. This is probably due to microbiological degradation, since PAs are fairly stable under acidic conditions.
Survey of moniliformin in wheat- and corn-based products using a straightforward analytical method
Herrera, Marta ; Dam, Ruud van; Spanjer, Martien ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Mol, Hans ; Nijs, Monique de; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia - \ 2017
Mycotoxin Research 33 (2017)4. - ISSN 0178-7888 - p. 333 - 341.
LC-MS/MS - LC-Orbitrap-HRMS - Maize - Moniliformin - Wheat
A straightforward analytical method was developed and validated to determine the mycotoxin moniliformin in cereal-based foods. Moniliformin is extracted with water and quantified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and its presence confirmed with liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was validated for flour, bread, pasta and maize samples in terms of linearity, matrix effect, recovery, repeatability and limit of quantification. Quantification was conducted by matrix-matched calibration. Positive samples were confirmed by standard addition. Recovery ranged from 77 to 114% and repeatability from 1 to 14%. The limit of quantification, defined as the lowest concentration tested at which the validation criteria of recovery and repeatability were fulfilled, was 10 μg/kg. The method was applied to 102 cereal-based food samples collected in the Netherlands and Germany. Moniliformin was not detected in bread samples. One of 22 flour samples contained moniliformin at 10.6 μg/kg. Moniliformin occurred in seven out of 25 pasta samples at levels around 10 μg/kg. Moniliformin (MON) was present in eight out of 23 maize products at levels ranging from 12 to 207 μg/kg.
Degradation and excretion of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol by an edible insect, the Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.)
Broekhoven, S. van; Mota Gutierrez, J. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Nijs, W.C.M. de; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2017
World Mycotoxin Journal 10 (2017)2. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 163 - 169.
degradation - deoxynivalenol - edible insect - excretion

Insects could provide an alternative and more sustainable source of animal protein compared to conventional livestock. Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) can be grown on diets composed of organic by-products. However, these diets could be contaminated with mycotoxins. Thus far, little is known about possible retention, sequestration, excretion or detoxification of mycotoxins by edible insects. T. molitor larvae were grown on wheat flour naturally contaminated with mycotoxins among which deoxynivalenol (DON) was predominant (4.9 mg/kg), wheat flour spiked with 8 mg/kg pure DON, and uncontaminated wheat flour. Larval survival and weight gain on the three diets were compared. Survival was high for larvae on all dietary treatments (>98%) and no difference in weight gain was observed when comparing larvae grown on uncontaminated control diet with larvae grown on contaminated diets (P=0.091). Presence of mycotoxins in larvae and larval faeces was analysed using LC-MS/MS. No DON or DON-derivatives were detected in T. molitor after harvest of the larvae, pointing to degradation by the larvae. Excretion of DON in larval faeces was ca. 14% of the amount of DON ingested for larvae grown on naturally contaminated diet and ca. 41% for larvae grown on DON-spiked diet. These are promising results with respect to food safety of mealworms or derived products grown on mycotoxin-contaminated feed. However, enzymatic degradation of DON in T. molitor, as well as possible toxicity of the resulting metabolites, remain to be further investigated.

Short inventory of EU legislation on plant toxins in food
Nijs, M. de; Noordam, M.Y. ; Mol, H.G.J. - \ 2017
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 9 (2017)1. - ISSN 1757-8361 - p. 129 - 139.
Botanical impurities - Food - Legal limits - Plant toxins - Regulations

Plant toxins, secondary metabolites that are not essential for the survival of the organism itself but are toxic to human health, are produced by many plants. Plant toxins can be present as inherent metabolites in daily foods such as potatoes, herbs and spices or in herbal preparations. Plant toxins can be present as contaminants in foods as a result of unintentionally co-harvested weeds, transfer from feed to products of animal origin, or as residue after application of plant toxins as natural pesticides. Incidents with plant toxins are reported in Europe, mainly as a result of mixing-up of plant species used in herbal remedies or similarities between edible crops and certain weeds. EU legislation on plant toxins in food, if existing at all, is scattered over different legal acts, such as acts on contaminants, flavourings and residues. Limits for plant toxins are, furthermore, mentioned in product specifications of approved novel foods and thus related to one specific plant product. It was concluded that there is a need for a more coherent legislation on plant toxins in food in the EU to ensure consumer health.

Kool in Nederland (herziene versie) : Geschiedenis van teelt en veredeling
Pistorius, R. ; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, J. ; Arron, R. ; Barten, D. ; Boukema, I.W. ; Dekker, M. ; Groot, N. ; Koomen, N. ; Nieuwhof, M. ; Nijs, J. de; Tjeertes, P. ; Troost, R. ; Visser, L. ; Zeijden, D. van der - \ 2017
Al sinds de zeventiende eeuw speelt Nederland een belangrijke rol in de teelt en veredeling van koolgewassen. De ontwikkeling van de teelt en veredeling van kool is exemplarisch voor de opkomst van de Nederlandse tuinbouw en in het bijzonder de Nederlandse zaadbedrijven.
Molecular biogeography of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) shows traces of recent range expansion
Andrea, Luigi D'; Meirmans, Patrick ; Wiel, Clemens van de; Guadagnuolo, Roberto ; Treuren, Robbert van; Kozlowski, Gregor ; Nijs, Hans den; Felber, François - \ 2017
Journal of Heredity 108 (2017)2. - ISSN 0022-1503 - p. 194 - 206.
Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L., Asteraceae), a wild relative of cultivated lettuce, is an autogamous species which greatly expanded throughout Western and Northern Europe during the last 2 centuries. Here, we present a large-scale biogeographic genetic analysis performed on a dataset represented by 2622 individuals from 110 wild European populations. Thirty-two maternally inherited chloroplast RFLP-markers and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci were used. Microsatellites revealed low genetic variation and high inbreeding coefficients within populations, as well as strong genetic differentiation between populations, which was in accordance with the autogamous breeding system. Analysis of molecular variance based clustering indicated the presence of 3 population clusters, which showed strong geographical patterns. One cluster occupied United Kingdom and part of Northern Europe, and characterized populations with a single predominant genotype. The second mostly combined populations from Northern Europe, while the third cluster grouped populations particularly from Southern Europe. Kriging of gene diversity for L. serriola corroborated northwards and westwards spread from Central (Eastern) Europe. Significant lower genetic diversity characterized the newly colonized parts of the range compared to the historical ones, confirming the importance of founder effects. Stronger pattern of isolation by distance was assessed in the newly colonized areas than in the historical areas (Mantel’s r = 0.20). In the newly colonized areas, populations at short geographic distances were genetically more similar than those in the historical areas. Our results corroborate the species’ recent and rapid northward and westward colonization from Eastern Europe, as well as a decrease of genetic diversity in recently established populations.
A model for risk-based monitoring of contaminants in feed ingredients
Fels, Ine van der; Adamse, P. ; Jong, J. de; Hoogenboom, R. ; Nijs, M. de; Bikker, P. - \ 2017
Food Control 72 (2017)part B. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 211 - 218.
Compound feed - Contaminants - Dioxins - Feed ingredients - Food/feed safety - Risk based monitoring

A qualitative spreadsheet model has been developed for ranking feed ingredients on the basis of the potential risk of exceeding existing guidance or maximum levels in the EU for a certain contaminant, and the potential consequence of the presence of this contaminant on the health of animals and/or humans. The approach was based on the general concept of risk, being frequency times consequences of presence of the contaminant. Contamination of compound feeds due to presence of the contaminant in feed ingredients was estimated, per animal category, by: annual volumes of feed ingredients used for feed production, stratified per country of origin; the portion of each ingredient in compound feed formulations used for various animal categories; and the potential contamination of an ingredient per country of origin. The consequences of the contamination were accounted for by two consequence factors, both estimated per animal category: one for the potential impact of the contaminant on the health of the target animal, and one for the impact on human health, related to the possible formation of residues in animal derived food products.The use of the model was demonstrated by its application to the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in compound feed for farm animals produced in the Netherlands in 2013 and 2014. Model results include the relative contribution, based on relative ranking scores, of each feed ingredient to the chance of exceeding limits and potential consequences on animal and human health. Feed ingredients ranking highest were palm oil, other fats and oils, dried products like bakery products, sunflower expeller/extracted, maize, and fish meal.The model can be used by risk managers in feed industry and by governmental bodies for supporting decision making on the optimal allocation of resources for control of ingredients for compound feed production for presence of contaminants.

Proficiency test for pesticides in soy acid oil and soybean meal
Pereboom, D.P.K.H. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (Rikilt report 2017.008) - 57
Proficiency test for pesticides in soy acid oil and soybean meal: report
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