Towards a low-carbon economy : A nexus-oriented policy coherence analysis in Greece
Papadopoulou, Chrysaida Aliki ; Papadopoulou, Maria P. ; Laspidou, Chrysi ; Munaretto, Stefania ; Brouwer, Floor - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Nexus governance - Policy analysis - Policy coherence - Policy instruments - Policy objectives - Stakeholder recommendations
The sustainable management of natural resources under climate change conditions is a critical research issue. Among the many approaches emerged in recent times, the so-called 'nexus approach' is gaining traction in academic and policy circles. The nexus approach presupposes the analysis of bio-physical, socio-economic and policy interlinkages among sectors (e.g., water, energy, food) for the identification of integrated solutions and the support of policy decisions. Ultimately, the nexus approach aims to identify synergies and trade-offs among the nexus dimensions. Concerning policy, the nexus approach focuses on policy coherence, i.e., the systematic identification and management of trade-offs and synergies between policies across sectors. This paper investigates the coherence between policies on the water-land-energy-food-climate nexus in Greece. The systematic analysis of policy documents led to the elicitation of nexus-related policy objectives and instruments. Then, the coherence among objectives and between objectives and instruments was assessed using the methodology proposed by Nilsson et al. A stakeholder (trans-disciplinary) orientation was adopted and the need to incorporate stakeholders' recommendations as to policy coherence assessment was highlighted. Overall, the findings revealed that climate and food/agricultural policies represent critical future priorities in Greece by stimulating progress in other nexus-related policies (energy, water, land policies) and being positively influenced by them.
Dietary fibre may mitigate sarcopenia risk: Findings from the NU-AGE cohort of older european adults
Montiel-Rojas, Diego ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Berendsen, Agnes ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Januszko, Olga ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 2072-6643
C-reactive protein - Exercise - Metabolic syndrome - Muscle mass - Protein intake - Systemic inflammation
Sarcopenia is characterised by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical function as well as related metabolic disturbances. While fibre-rich diets can influence metabolic health outcomes, the impact on skeletal muscle mass and function is yet to be determined, and the moderating effects by physical activity (PA) need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to examine links between fibre intake, skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a cohort of older adults from the NU-AGE study. In 981 older adults (71 ± 4 years, 58% female), physical function was assessed using the short-physical performance battery test and handgrip strength. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary fibre intake (FI) was assessed by 7-day food record and PA was objectively determined by accelerometery. General linear models accounting for covariates including PA level, protein intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Women above the median FI had significantly higher SMI compared to those below, which remained in fully adjusted models (24.7 ± 0.2% vs. 24.2 ± 0.1%, p = 0.011, η2p = 0.012). In men, the same association was only evident in those without MetS (above median FI: 32.4 ± 0.3% vs. below median FI: 31.3 ± 0.3%, p = 0.005, η2p = 0.035). There was no significant impact of FI on physical function outcomes. The findings from this study suggest a beneficial impact of FI on skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Importantly, this impact is independent of adherence to guidelines for protein intake and PA, which further strengthens the potential role of dietary fibre in preventing sarcopenia. Further experimental work is warranted in order to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the action of dietary fibre on the regulation of muscle mass.
Pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila protects from fat mass gain but not from bone loss
Lawenius, Lina ; Scheffler, Julia M. ; Gustafsson, Karin L. ; Henning, Petra ; Nilsson, Karin H. ; Colldén, Hannah ; Islander, Ulrika ; Plovier, Hubert ; Cani, Patrice D. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Ohlsson, Claes ; Sjögren, Klara - \ 2020
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 318 (2020)4. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E480 - E491.
Akkermansia - bone mass - gut microbiota - osteoporosis - probiotic
Probiotic bacteria can protect from ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss in mice. Akkermansia muciniphila is considered to have probiotic potential due to its beneficial effect on obesity and insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if treatment with pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila (pAkk) could prevent ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with vehicle or pAkk for 4 wk, starting 3 days before ovx or sham surgery. Treatment with pAkk reduced fat mass accumulation confirming earlier findings. However, treatment with pAkk decreased trabecular and cortical bone mass in femur and vertebra of gonadal intact mice and did not protect from ovx-induced bone loss. Treatment with pAkk increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and increased expression of the calcium transporter Trpv5 in kidney suggesting increased reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys. Serum amyloid A 3 (SAA3) can suppress bone formation and mediate the effects of PTH on bone resorption and bone loss in mice and treatment with pAkk increased serum levels of SAA3 and gene expression of Saa3 in colon. Moreover, regulatory T cells can be protective of bone and pAkk-treated mice had decreased number of regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and bone marrow. In conclusion, treatment with pAkk protected from ovx-induced fat mass gain but not from bone loss and reduced bone mass in gonadal intact mice. Our findings with pAkk differ from some probiotics that have been shown to protect bone mass, demonstrating that not all prebiotic and probiotic factors have the same effect on bone.
On the preconditions for large-scale collective action
Jagers, Sverker C. ; Harring, Niklas ; Löfgren, Åsa ; Sjöstedt, Martin ; Alpizar, Francisco ; Brülde, Bengt ; Langlet, David ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Almroth, Bethanie Carney ; Dupont, Sam ; Steffen, Will - \ 2020
Ambio 49 (2020). - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 1282 - 1296.
Facilitators - Global commons - Large-scale collective action - Social dilemmas - Stressors
The phenomenon of collective action and the origin of collective action problems have been extensively and systematically studied in the social sciences. Yet, while we have substantial knowledge about the factors promoting collective action at the local level, we know far less about how these insights travel to large-scale collective action problems. Such problems, however, are at the heart of humanity’s most pressing challenges, including climate change, large-scale natural resource depletion, biodiversity loss, nuclear proliferation, antibiotic resistance due to overconsumption of antibiotics, and pollution. In this paper, we suggest an analytical framework that captures the theoretical understanding of preconditions for large-scale collective action. This analytical framework aims at supporting future empirical analyses of how to cope with and overcome larger-scale collective action problems. More specifically, we (i) define and describe the main characteristics of a large-scale collective action problem and (ii) explain why voluntary and, in particular, spontaneous large-scale collective action among individual actors becomes more improbable as the collective action problem becomes larger, thus demanding interventions by an external authority (a third party) for such action to be generated. Based on this, we (iii) outline an analytical framework that illustrates the connection between third-party interventions and large-scale collective action. We conclude by suggesting avenues for future research.
Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search
Brown, Peter ; Zhou, Yaoqi ; Tan, Aik Choon ; El-Esawi, Mohamed A. ; Liehr, Thomas ; Blanck, Oliver ; Gladue, Douglas P. ; Almeida, Gabriel M.F. ; Cernava, Tomislav ; Sorzano, Carlos O. ; Yeung, Andy W.K. ; Engel, Michael S. ; Chandrasekaran, Arun R. ; Muth, Thilo ; Staege, Martin S. ; Daulatabad, Swapna V. ; Widera, Darius ; Zhang, Junpeng ; Meule, Adrian ; Honjo, Ken ; Pourret, Olivier ; Yin, Cong Cong ; Zhang, Zhongheng ; Cascella, Marco ; Flegel, Willy A. ; Goodyear, Carl S. ; Raaij, Mark J. van; Bukowy-Bieryllo, Zuzanna ; Campana, Luca G. ; Kurniawan, Nicholas A. ; Lalaouna, David ; Hüttner, Felix J. ; Ammerman, Brooke A. ; Ehret, Felix ; Cobine, Paul A. ; Tan, Ene Choo ; Han, Hyemin ; Xia, Wenfeng ; McCrum, Christopher ; Dings, Ruud P.M. ; Marinello, Francesco ; Nilsson, Henrik ; Nixon, Brett ; Voskarides, Konstantinos ; Yang, Long ; Costa, Vincent D. ; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan ; Bradshaw, William ; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Heijne, Marloes - \ 2019
Database : the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 2019 (2019). - ISSN 1758-0463 - p. 1 - 67.
Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations. More importantly, annotations of the same document pairs contributed by different scientists were highly concordant. We further show that the three representative baseline methods used to generate recommended articles for evaluation (Okapi Best Matching 25, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency and PubMed Related Articles) had similar overall performances. Additionally, we found that these methods each tend to produce distinct collections of recommended articles, suggesting that a hybrid method may be required to completely capture all relevant articles. The established database server located at https://relishdb.ict.griffith.edu.au is freely available for the downloading of annotation data and the blind testing of new methods. We expect that this benchmark will be useful for stimulating the development of new powerful techniques for title and title/abstract-based search engines for relevant articles in biomedical science.
Data from: Assessing specialized metabolite diversity in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia L.
Ernst, Madeleine ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Hooft, Justin van der; Silva, Ricardo R. ; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C.H. ; Grace, Olwen M. ; Martinez-Swatson, Karen ; Hassemer, Gustavo ; Funez, Luís A. ; Simonsen, Henrik T. ; Medema, Marnix ; Staerk, Dan ; Nilsson, Niclas ; Lovato, Paola ; Dorrestein, P.C. ; Rønsted, Nina - \ 2019
Euphorbia - immunomodulatory testing - Diterpenes - Coevolution - computational metabolomics - chemodiversity
Coevolutionary theory suggests that an arms race between plants and herbivores yields increased plant specialized metabolite diversity and the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts that coevolutionary interactions vary across geographic scales. Consequently, plant specialized metabolite diversity is expected to be highest in coevolutionary hotspots, geographic regions, which exhibit strong reciprocal selection on the interacting species. Despite being well established theoretical frameworks, technical limitations have precluded rigorous hypothesis testing. Here we aim at understanding how geographic separation over evolutionary time may have impacted chemical differentiation in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia. We use a combination of state-of-the-art computational mass spectral metabolomics tools together with cell-based high-throughput immunomodulatory testing. Our results show significant differences in specialized metabolite diversity across geographically separated phylogenetic clades. Chemical structural diversity of the highly toxic Euphorbia diterpenoids is significantly reduced in species native to the Americas, compared to Afro-Eurasia. The localization of these compounds to young stems and roots, suggest a possible ecological relevance in herbivory defense. This is further supported by reduced immunomodulatory activity in the American subclade as well as herbivore distribution patterns. We conclude that computational mass spectrometric metabolomics coupled with relevant ecological data provide a strong tool for exploring plant specialized metabolite diversity in a chemo-evolutionary framework.
A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production
Dainese, Matteo ; Martin, Emily A. ; Aizen, Marcelo A. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Carvalheiro, Luisa G. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Ghazoul, Jaboury ; Grab, Heather ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Karp, Daniel S. ; Kennedy, Christina M. ; Kleijn, David ; Kremen, Claire ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Poveda, Katja ; Rader, Romina ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Badenhausser, Isabelle ; Baensch, Svenja ; Bezerra, Antonio D.M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Boreux, Virginie ; Bretagnolle, Vincent ; Caballero-Lopez, Berta ; Cavigliasso, Pablo ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Chacoff, Natacha P. ; Classen, Alice ; Cusser, Sarah ; Silva E Silva, Felipe D. Da; Groot, G.A. de; Dudenhöffer, Jan H. ; Ekroos, Johan ; Fijen, Thijs ; Franck, Pierre ; Freitas, Breno M. ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hipólito, Juliana ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Hunt, Lauren ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Jha, Shalene ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Klatt, Björn K. ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Krewenka, Kristin M. ; Krishnan, Smitha ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Lavigne, Claire ; Liere, Heidi ; Maas, Bea ; Mallinger, Rachel E. ; Pachon, Eliana Martinez ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Nesper, Maike ; Nilsson, Lovisa ; O'Rourke, Megan E. ; Peters, Marcell K. ; Plećaš, Milan ; Potts, Simon G. ; L. Ramos, Davi de; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Sáez, Agustín ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schleuning, Matthias ; Schmack, Julia M. ; Sciligo, Amber R. ; Seymour, Colleen ; Stanley, Dara A. ; Stewart, Rebecca ; Stout, Jane C. ; Sutter, Louis ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Viana, Blandina F. ; Westphal, Catrin ; Willcox, Bryony K. ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Yoshioka, Akira ; Zaragoza-Trello, Carlos ; Zhang, Wei ; Zou, Yi ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)10. - ISSN 2375-2548
Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield-related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance of species richness, abundance, and dominance for pollination; biological pest control; and final yields in the context of ongoing land-use change. Pollinator and enemy richness directly supported ecosystem services in addition to and independent of abundance and dominance. Up to 50% of the negative effects of landscape simplification on ecosystem services was due to richness losses of service-providing organisms, with negative consequences for crop yields. Maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystem service providers is therefore vital to sustain the flow of key agroecosystem benefits to society.
Disentangling ‘ecosystem services’ and ‘nature’s contributions to people’
Kadykalo, Andrew N. ; López-Rodriguez, María D. ; Ainscough, Jacob ; Droste, Nils ; Ryu, Hyeonju ; Ávila-Flores, Giovanni ; Clec’h, Solen Le; Muñoz, Marcia C. ; Nilsson, Lovisa ; Rana, Sakshi ; Sarkar, Priyanka ; Sevecke, Katharina J. ; Harmáčková, Zuzana V. - \ 2019
Ecosystems and People 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 2639-5908 - p. 269 - 287.
Ecosystem services - IPBES - nature’s benefits to people - nature’s contributions to people - NCP - Patricia Balvanera - people and nature - science–policy interface
People depend on functioning ecosystems, which provide benefits that support human existence and wellbeing. The relationship between people and nature has been experienced and conceptualized in multiple ways. Recently, ecosystem services (ES) concepts have permeated science, government policies, multi-national environmental agreements, and science–policy interfaces. In 2017, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) introduced a new and closely related concept–Nature’s Contributions to People (NCP). The introduction of NCP has sparked some lively discussion and confusion about the distinguishing characteristics between ES and NCP. In order to clarify their conceptual relation, we identify eleven specific claims about novel elements from the latest NCP literature and analyze how far ES research has already contributed to these corresponding conceptual claims in the existing ES literature. We find a mixed-picture, where on six specific conceptual claims (culture, social sciences and humanities, indigenous and local knowledge, negative contributions of nature, generalizing perspective, non-instrumental values and valuation) NCP does not differ greatly from past ES research, but we also find five conceptual claims (diverse worldviews, context-specific perspective, relational values, fuzzy and fluid reporting categories and groups, inclusive language and framing) where NCP provides novel conceptualizations of people and nature relations.
High-resolution peat volume change in a northern peatland: Spatial variability, main drivers, and impact on ecohydrology
Nijp, Jelmer J. ; Metselaar, Klaas ; Limpens, Juul ; Bartholomeus, Harm M. ; Nilsson, Mats B. ; Berendse, Frank ; Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2019
Ecohydrology 12 (2019)6. - ISSN 1936-0584
compression - ecohydrology - geostatistics - groundwater - peat volume change - peatlands - photogrammetry - spatial patterns
The depth of the groundwater table below the surface and its spatiotemporal variability are major controls on all major biogeophysical processes in northern peatlands, including ecohydrology, carbon balance, and greenhouse gas exchange. In these ecosystems, water table fluctuations are buffered by compression and expansion of peat. Controls on peat volume change and its spatial variability, however, remain elusive, hampering accurate assessment of climate change impact on functioning of peatlands. We therefore (1) analysed patterning of seasonal surface elevation change at high spatial resolution (0.5 m); (2) assessed its relationship with vegetation, geohydrology, and position within the peatland; and (3) quantified the consequences for peatland surface topography and ecohydrology. Changes in surface elevation were monitored using digital close-range photogrammetry along a transect in a northern peatland from after snowmelt up to midgrowing season (May–July). Surface elevation change was substantial and varied spatially from −0.062 to +0.012 m over the measurement period. Spatial patterns of peat volume change were correlated up to 40.8 m. Spatial variation of peat volume change was mainly controlled by changes in water table, and to a lesser extent to vegetation, with peat volume change magnitude increasing from lawn < hollow < flark. Our observations suggest that patchiness and vertical variability of peatland surface topography are a function of the groundwater table. In dry conditions, the variability of surface elevation increases and more localized groundwater flows may develop. Consequently, spatially variable peat volume change may enhance peatland water retention and thereby sustain carbon uptake during drought.
Assessing specialized metabolite diversity in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia l.
Ernst, Madeleine ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Silva, Ricardo R. ; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C.H. ; Grace, Olwen M. ; Martinez-Swatson, Karen ; Hassemer, Gustavo ; Funez, Luís A. ; Simonsen, Henrik T. ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Staerk, Dan ; Nilsson, Niclas ; Lovato, Paola ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Rønsted, Nina - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Coevolution - Computational metabolomics - Euphorbia - Immunomodulatory testing - Specialized metabolites
Coevolutionary theory suggests that an arms race between plants and herbivores yields increased plant specialized metabolite diversity and the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts that coevolutionary interactions vary across geographic scales. Consequently, plant specialized metabolite diversity is expected to be highest in coevolutionary hotspots, geographic regions, which exhibit strong reciprocal selection on the interacting species. Despite being well-established theoretical frameworks, technical limitations have precluded rigorous hypothesis testing. Here we aim at understanding how geographic separation over evolutionary time may have impacted chemical differentiation in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia. We use a combination of state-of-the-art computational mass spectral metabolomics tools together with cell-based high-throughput immunomodulatory testing. Our results show significant differences in specialized metabolite diversity across geographically separated phylogenetic clades. Chemical structural diversity of the highly toxic Euphorbia diterpenoids is significantly reduced in species native to the Americas, compared to Afro-Eurasia. The localization of these compounds to young stems and roots suggest a possible ecological relevance in herbivory defense. This is further supported by reduced immunomodulatory activity in the American subclade as well as herbivore distribution patterns. We conclude that computational mass spectrometric metabolomics coupled with relevant ecological data provide a strong tool for exploring plant specialized metabolite diversity in a chemo-evolutionary framework.
Lipoprotein lipase in mouse kidney : effects of nutritional status and high-fat diet
Nyrén, Rakel ; Makoveichuk, Elena ; Malla, Sandhya ; Kersten, Sander ; Nilsson, Stefan K. ; Ericsson, Madelene ; Olivecrona, Gunilla - \ 2019
American Journal of Physiology : Renal Physiology 316 (2019)3. - ISSN 1931-857X - p. F558 - F571.
angiopoietin-like protein 4 - high-fat diet - lipoprotein lipase - mouse - triglyceride uptake
Activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is high in mouse kidney, but the reason is poorly understood. The aim was to characterize localization, regulation, and function of LPL in kidney of C57BL/6J mice. We found LPL mainly in proximal tubules, localized inside the tubular epithelial cells, under all conditions studied. In fed mice, some LPL colocalized with the endothelial markers CD31 and GPIHBP1 and could be removed by perfusion with heparin, indicating a vascular location. The role of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) for nutritional modulation of LPL activity was studied in wild-type and Angptl4-/- mice. In Angptl4-/- mice, kidney LPL activity remained high in fasted animals, indicating that ANGPTL4 is involved in suppression of LPL activity on fasting, like in adipose tissue. The amount of ANGPTL4 protein in kidney was low, and the protein appeared smaller in size, compared with ANGPTL4 in heart and adipose tissue. To study the influence of obesity, mice were challenged with high-fat diet for 22 wk, and LPL was studied after an overnight fast compared with fasted mice given food for 3 h. High-fat diet caused blunting of the normal adaptation of LPL activity to feeding/fasting in adipose tissue, but in kidneys this adaptation was lost only in male mice. LPL activity increases to high levels in mouse kidney after feeding, but as no difference in uptake of chylomicron triglycerides in kidneys is found between fasted and fed states, our data confirm that LPL appears to have a minor role for lipid uptake in this organ.
Short Telomere Length Is Related to Limitations in Physical Function in Elderly European Adults
Montiel Rojas, Diego ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Ponsot, Elodie ; Brummer, Robert J. ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Berendsen, Agnes ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Madej, Dawid ; Caumon, Elodie ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2018
Frontiers in Physiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-042X
The present study aims to explore the potential influence of leucocyte telomere length (LTL) on both a single indicator and a composite construct of physical functioning in a large European population of elderly men and women across diverse geographical locations. A total of 1,221 adults (65–79 years) were recruited from five European countries within the framework of NU-AGE study. The physical functioning construct was based on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Handgrip strength was used as a single indicator of muscle function and LTL was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Women had significantly longer (p < 0.05) LTL than men. Participants in Poland had significantly shorter LTL than in the other study centers, whereas participants in the Netherlands had significantly longer LTL than most of the other centers (p < 0.01). An analysis of LTL as a continuous outcome against physical functioning by using linear models revealed inconsistent findings. In contrast, based on an analysis of contrasting telomere lengths (first vs. fifth quintile of LTL), a significant odds ratio (OR) of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1 – 2.6; p < 0.05) of having functional limitation was observed in those belonging to the first LTL quintile compared to the fifth. Interestingly, having the shortest LTL was still related to a higher likelihood of having physical limitation when compared to all remaining quintiles (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 – 2.1; p < 0.05), even after adjustment by study center, age, sex, and overweight status. Collectively, our findings suggest that short LTL is an independent risk factor that accounts for functional decline in elderly European populations. The influence of LTL on functional limitation seems driven by the detrimental effect of having short telomeres rather than reflecting a linear dose-response relationship.
Peatland vegetation composition and phenology drive the seasonal trajectory of maximum gross primary production
Peichl, Matthias ; Gažovič, Michal ; Vermeij, Ilse ; Goede, Eefje De; Sonnentag, Oliver ; Limpens, Juul ; Nilsson, Mats B. - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
Gross primary production (GPP) is a key driver of the peatland carbon cycle. Although many studies have explored the apparent GPP under natural light conditions, knowledge of the maximum GPP at light-saturation (GPPmax) and its spatio-temporal variation is limited. This information, however, is crucial since GPPmax essentially constrains the upper boundary for apparent GPP. Using chamber measurements combined with an external light source across experimental plots where vegetation composition was altered through long-term (20-year) nitrogen addition and artificial warming, we could quantify GPPmax in-situ and disentangle its biotic and abiotic controls in a boreal peatland. We found large spatial and temporal variations in the magnitudes of GPPmax which were related to vegetation species composition and phenology rather than abiotic factors. Specifically, we identified vegetation phenology as the main driver of the seasonal GPPmax trajectory. Abiotic anomalies (i.e. in air temperature and water table level), however, caused species-specific divergence between the trajectories of GPPmax and plant development. Our study demonstrates that photosynthetically active biomass constrains the potential peatland photosynthesis while abiotic factors act as secondary modifiers. This further calls for a better representation of species-specific vegetation phenology in process-based peatland models to improve predictions of global change impacts on the peatland carbon cycle.
Impact of prediagnostic smoking and smoking cessation on colorectal cancer prognosis : A meta-analysis of individual patient data from cohorts within the CHANCES consortium
Ordóñez-Mena, J.M. ; Walter, V. ; Schöttker, B. ; Jenab, M. ; O'Doherty, M.G. ; Kee, F. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B. ; Peeters, P.H.M. ; Stricker, B.H. ; Ruiter, R. ; Hofman, A. ; Söderberg, S. ; Jousilahti, P. ; Kuulasmaa, K. ; Freedman, N.D. ; Wilsgaard, T. ; Wolk, A. ; Nilsson, L.M. ; Tjønneland, A. ; Quirós, J.R. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Siersema, P.D. ; Boffetta, P. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Brenner, H. - \ 2018
Annals of Oncology 29 (2018)2. - ISSN 0923-7534 - p. 472 - 483.
Colorectal neoplasms - Meta-analysis - Smoking - Smoking cessation - Survival
Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies and might also be associated with prognosis after CRC diagnosis. However, current evidence on smoking in association with CRC prognosis is limited. Patients and methods: For this individual patient data meta-analysis, sociodemographic and smoking behavior information of 12 414 incident CRC patients (median age at diagnosis: 64.3 years), recruited within 14 prospective cohort studies among previously cancer-free adults, was collected at baseline and harmonized across studies. Vital status and causes of death were collected for a mean follow-up time of 5.1 years following cancer diagnosis. Associations of smoking behavior with overall and CRC-specific survival were evaluated using Cox regression and standard meta-analysis methodology. Results: A total of 5229 participants died, 3194 from CRC. Cox regression revealed significant associations between former [hazard ratio (HR)=1.12; 95 % confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.20] and current smoking (HR=1.29; 95% CI=1.04-1.60) and poorer overall survival compared with never smoking. Compared with current smoking, smoking cessation was associated with improved overall (HR<10 years=0.78; 95% CI=0.69-0.88; HR≥10 years=0.78; 95% CI=0.63-0.97) and CRC-specific survival (HR≥10 years=0.76; 95% CI=0.67-0.85). Conclusion: In this large meta-analysis including primary data of incident CRC patients from 14 prospective cohort studies on the association between smoking and CRC prognosis, former and current smoking were associated with poorer CRC prognosis compared with never smoking. Smoking cessation was associated with improved survival when compared with current smokers. Future studies should further quantify the benefits of nonsmoking, both for cancer prevention and for improving survival among CRC patients, in particular also in terms of treatment response.
Semeijn, Cindy ; Buwalda, Pieter L. - \ 2018
In: Starch in Food / Sjöö, Malin, Nilsson, Lars, Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780081008683 - p. 353 - 372.
Amylopectin - Amylose - Food - Gelatinization - Granule - Modification - Potato starch - Texture - Waxy
Potato starch and its derivatives are of major commercial importance because they govern the texture and hence the liking of food stuffs. The mode of actions of starches is governed by the granular and molecular architecture of the starch and the interaction with the food processing. In this chapter an overview is given of the starch characteristics of normal and waxy potato starch in comparison to other starches. Furthermore an overview of derivatizations is presented and their impact on the processibility during food production. The chapter ends with an outlook on future trends in starch-altering methods.
The Sphagnome Project : enabling ecological and evolutionary insights through a genus-level sequencing project
Weston, David J. ; Turetsky, Merritt R. ; Johnson, Matthew G. ; Granath, Gustaf ; Lindo, Zoë ; Belyea, Lisa R. ; Rice, Steven K. ; Hanson, David T. ; Engelhardt, Katharina A.M. ; Schmutz, Jeremy ; Dorrepaal, Ellen ; Euskirchen, Eugénie S. ; Stenøien, Hans K. ; Szövényi, Péter ; Jackson, Michelle ; Piatkowski, Bryan T. ; Muchero, Wellington ; Norby, Richard J. ; Kostka, Joel E. ; Glass, Jennifer B. ; Rydin, Håkan ; Limpens, Juul ; Tuittila, Eeva Stiina ; Ullrich, Kristian K. ; Carrell, Alyssa ; Benscoter, Brian W. ; Chen, Jin Gui ; Oke, Tobi A. ; Nilsson, Mats B. ; Ranjan, Priya ; Jacobson, Daniel ; Lilleskov, Erik A. ; Clymo, R.S. ; Shaw, A.J. - \ 2018
New Phytologist 217 (2018)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 16 - 25.
ecological genomics - ecosystem engineering - evolutionary genetics - genome sequencing - niche construction - peatlands - Sphagnome - Sphagnum
Considerable progress has been made in ecological and evolutionary genetics with studies demonstrating how genes underlying plant and microbial traits can influence adaptation and even ‘extend’ to influence community structure and ecosystem level processes. Progress in this area is limited to model systems with deep genetic and genomic resources that often have negligible ecological impact or interest. Thus, important linkages between genetic adaptations and their consequences at organismal and ecological scales are often lacking. Here we introduce the Sphagnome Project, which incorporates genomics into a long-running history of Sphagnum research that has documented unparalleled contributions to peatland ecology, carbon sequestration, biogeochemistry, microbiome research, niche construction, and ecosystem engineering. The Sphagnome Project encompasses a genus-level sequencing effort that represents a new type of model system driven not only by genetic tractability, but by ecologically relevant questions and hypotheses.
Habituation and conditioning in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) : Effects of aversive stimuli, reward and social hierarchies
Folkedal, Ole ; Fernö, Anders ; Nederlof, Marit A.J. ; Fosseidengen, Jan E. ; Cerqueira, Marco ; Olsen, Rolf E. ; Nilsson, Jonatan - \ 2018
Aquaculture Research 49 (2018)1. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 335 - 340.
Anticipatory behaviour - Classical conditioning - Feeding behaviour - Habituation - Learning - Welfare
To tailor the farming environment to a fish species, we should understand the species-specific responses to stimuli, including the degree of adaption and learning. Groups of gilthead sea bream were given a delay Pavlovian conditioning regime using a conditioning stimulus (CS) of light flashes signalling arrival of food. Controls were exposed to light flashes unrelated to feeding. Fish in both treatments showed an initial fear response of moving away from the CS combined with reduced swimming speed. In subsequent trials, the Control fish largely habituated the fleeing response but sustained to respond by reducing the swimming speed. The Conditioning fish also stopped to escape from the CS, but opposed to the Control group they gradually increased their swimming speed in response to the CS. In addition, the number of fish in the feeding/CS area increased and became similar to basal level after around 16 trials. A small and variable proportion of the fish displayed black vertical bands on their body and territorial behaviour, and a social hierarchy could interfere with the processes of habituation and conditioning. The swimming speed of the fish increased with number of dark individuals, but this was not found during the CS and the light stimulus thus seemed to overrule the effect of territorial behaviour. The persistent negative response to light flashes in the Control suggests that fish seemingly adapted to repetitive stressors are still in a state of alertness. The change in the response to light shows the potential for rewarding aversive stimuli to reduce stress.
Association between plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and metabolic markers of lipid, hepatic, inflammation and glycaemic pathways in eight European countries: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-InterAct study
Zheng, Ju-Sheng ; Sharp, Stephen J. ; Imamura, Fumiaki ; Koulman, Albert ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Ye, Zheng ; Griffin, Jules ; Guevara, Marcela ; Huerta, José María ; Kröger, Janine ; Sluijs, Ivonne ; Agudo, Antonio ; Barricarte, Aurelio ; Boeing, Heiner ; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra ; Dow, Courtney ; Dorronsoro, Miren ; Dinesen, Pia T. ; Fagherazzi, Guy ; Franks, Paul W. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kühn, Tilman ; Katzke, Verena Andrea ; Key, Timothy J. ; Khaw, Kay-Tee ; Magistris, Maria Santucci De; Mancini, Francesca Romana ; Molina-Portillo, Elena ; Nilsson, Peter M. ; Olsen, Anja ; Overvad, Kim ; Palli, Domenico ; Quirós, Jose Ramón ; Rolandsson, Olov ; Ricceri, Fulvio ; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W. ; Slimani, Nadia ; Tagliabue, Giovanna ; Tjonneland, Anne ; Tumino, Rosario ; Schouw, Yvonne T. Van Der; Langenberg, Claudia ; Riboli, Elio ; Forouhi, Nita G. ; Wareham, Nicholas J. - \ 2017
BMC Medicine 15 (2017)1. - ISSN 1741-7015
Accumulating evidence suggests that individual circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are heterogeneous in their associations with cardio-metabolic diseases, but evidence about associations of SFAs with metabolic markers of different pathogenic pathways is limited. We aimed to examine the associations between plasma phospholipid SFAs and the metabolic markers of lipid, hepatic, glycaemic and inflammation pathways.
We measured nine individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and derived three SFA groups (odd-chain: C15:0 + C17:0, even-chain: C14:0 + C16:0 + C18:0, and very-long-chain: C20:0 + C22:0 + C23:0 + C24:0) in individuals from the subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study across eight European countries. Using linear regression in 15,919 subcohort members, adjusted for potential confounders and corrected for multiple testing, we examined cross-sectional associations of SFAs with 13 metabolic markers. Multiplicative interactions of the three SFA groups with pre-specified factors, including body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption, were tested.
Higher levels of odd-chain SFA group were associated with lower levels of major lipids (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB)) and hepatic markers (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)). Higher even-chain SFA group levels were associated with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides, ApoB, ApoB/A1 ratio, ALT, AST, GGT and CRP, and lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA1. Very-long-chain SFA group levels showed inverse associations with triglycerides, ApoA1 and GGT, and positive associations with TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, ApoB and ApoB/A1. Associations were generally stronger at higher levels of BMI or alcohol consumption.
Subtypes of SFAs are associated in a differential way with metabolic markers of lipid metabolism, liver function and chronic inflammation, suggesting that odd-chain SFAs are associated with lower metabolic risk and even-chain SFAs with adverse metabolic risk, whereas mixed findings were obtained for very-long-chain SFAs. The clinical and biochemical implications of these findings may vary by adiposity and alcohol intake.
Tea and coffee consumption in relation to DNA methylation in four European cohorts
Ek, Weronica E. ; Tobi, Elmar W. ; Ahsan, Muhammad ; Lampa, Erik ; Ponzi, Erica ; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A. ; Georgiadis, Panagiotis ; Lumey, L.H. ; Heijmans, Bastiaan T. ; Botsivali, Maria ; Bergdahl, Ingvar A. ; Karlsson, Torgny ; Rask-Andersen, Mathias ; Palli, Domenico ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Hedman, Åsa K. ; Nilsson, Lena Maria ; Vineis, Paolo ; Lind, Lars ; Flanagan, James M. ; Johansson, Åsa - \ 2017
Human Molecular Genetics 26 (2017)16. - ISSN 0964-6906 - p. 3221 - 3231.
Lifestyle factors, such as food choices and exposure to chemicals, can alter DNAmethylation and lead to changes in gene activity. Two such exposures with pharmacologically active components are coffee and tea consumption. Both coffee and tea have been suggested to play an important role inmodulating disease-risk in humans by suppressing tumour progression, decreasing inflammation and influencing estrogenmetabolism. Thesemechanismsmay bemediated by changes in DNA methylation. To investigate if DNAmethylation in blood is associated with coffee and tea consumption, we performed a genome-wide DNAmethylation study for coffee and tea consumption in four European cohorts (N=3,096). DNAmethylation wasmeasured fromwhole blood at 421,695 CpG sites distributed throughout the genome and analysed inmen and women both separately and together in each cohort. Meta-analyses of the results and additional regional-level analyses were performed. After adjusting formultiple testing, themeta-analysis revealed that two individual CpG-sites,mapping to DNAJC16 and TTC17, were differentiallymethylated in relation to tea consumption in women. No individual sites were associated withmen or with the sex-combined analysis for tea or coffee. The regional analysis revealed that 28 regions were differentiallymethylated in relation to tea consumption in women. These regions contained genes known to interact with estradiolmetabolismand cancer. No significant regions were found in the sex-combined andmale-only analysis for either tea or coffee consumption.
Global Goal Setting for Improving National Governance and Policy
Biermann, F. ; Stevens, C. ; Bernstein, S. ; Gupta, A. ; Kanie, N. ; Nilsson, M. ; Scobie, M. - \ 2017
In: Governing through Goals: Sustainable Development Goals as Governance Innovation / Kanie, Norichika, Biermann, Frank, Cambridge : MIT Press (Earth System Governance: A Core Research Project of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change ) - ISBN 9780262035620 - p. 75 - 98.
Can better governance, in itself, be a subject for global goal setting? This question stands at the center of this chapter, which focuses on the inclusion of “governance goals” in global goal-setting mechanisms, especially the Sustainable Development Goals agreed upon by the UN General Assembly in September 2015 as part of its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UNGA 2015). While our discussion is inspired by the negotiations around governance goals and targets within the context of Sustainable Development Goals, we seek to build a broader analytic approach that goes beyond the integration of governance in this specific context.