Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Developing sensor technologies to inform breeding approaches to reduce damaging behaviour in laying hens and pigs: The GroupHouseNet approach
Rodenburg, T.B. ; Bennewitz, J. ; Haas, E.N. De; Košťál, L. ; Pichová, K. ; Piette, D. ; Tetens, J. ; Visser, B. ; Klerk, B. De; Sluis, M. Van Der; Zande, L.E. Van Der; Siegford, J. ; Toscano, M. ; Norton, T. ; Guzhva, O. ; Ellen, E.D. - \ 2019
In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 467 - 470.
Automatic tracking - Damaging behaviour - Genetic selection

The European COST Action GroupHouseNet aims to provide synergy for preventing damaging behaviour in group-housed pigs and laying hens. One area of focus of this network is how genetic and genomic tools can be used to breed animals that are less likely to develop damaging behaviour directed at their pen-mates. Reducing damaging behaviour in large groups is a challenge, because it is difficult to identify and monitor individual animals. With the current developments in sensor technologies and animal breeding, there is the possibility to identify individual animals, monitor individual behaviour, and link this information to the genotype. Using a combination of sensor technologies and genomics enables us to select against damaging behaviour in pigs and laying hens.

Reduce damaging behaviour in laying hens and pigs by developing sensor technologies to inform breeding programs
Rodenburg, T.B. ; Zande, Lisette van der; Haas, E.N. de; Kostal, L. ; Pichova, Katarina ; Piette, Deborah ; Tetens, Jens ; Visser, Bram ; Klerk, Britt de; Sluis, M. van der; Bennewitz, Jörn ; Siegford, Janice ; Norton, Tomas ; Guzhva, Oleksiy ; Ellen, E.D. - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the 53rd Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE). - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863389 - p. 364 - 364.
The COST Action GroupHouseNet aims to facilitate the prevention of damaging behaviourin group-housed pigs and laying hens. One area of focus is on how genetic and genomictools can be used to breed for animals that are less likely to develop damaging behaviour.The behaviours we are focusing on are feather pecking in laying hens and tail biting in pigs.Both species are kept in groups, and identifying actual performers of this behaviour (peckersand biters), and tracking them at the individual level remains challenging, but is essential forbreeding programs. It is possible to use traditional behavioural observation, but this is timeconsumingand costly. Sensor technology is a rapidly developing field and may offer solutionsfor phenotyping animals at the individual level. We propose that sensor technology combinedwith genomic methods may be useful in solving the problems of damaging behaviour in grouphousedpigs and laying hens. When evaluating the sensor technologies used until now, forlaying hens RFID and accelerometer-based approaches seem most promising. In pigs, computervision is already used to record technical performance, and there seems to be potential forexpanding this approach to the recording of damaging behaviour. If sensor signatures andgenomic fingerprints of individual animals can be combined, this would significantly improveour possibilities to reduce damaging behaviour through genetic selection.
Review of sensor technologies in animal breeding: Phenotyping behaviors of laying hens to select against feather pecking
Ellen, Esther D. ; Sluis, Malou Van Der; Siegford, Janice ; Guzhva, Oleksiy ; Toscano, Michael J. ; Bennewitz, Jörn ; Zande, Lisette E. Van Der; Eijk, Jerine A.J. Van Der; Haas, Elske N. de; Norton, Tomas ; Piette, Deborah ; Tetens, Jens ; Klerk, Britt de; Visser, Bram ; Bas Rodenburg, T. - \ 2019
Animals 9 (2019)3. - ISSN 2076-2615
-omics - Computer vision - Damaging behavior - Genetic selection - Identification - Measuring behavior - Radio frequency identification - Ultra-wideband

Damaging behaviors, like feather pecking (FP), have large economic and welfare consequences in the commercial laying hen industry. Selective breeding can be used to obtain animals that are less likely to perform damaging behavior on their pen-mates. However, with the growing tendency to keep birds in large groups, identifying specific birds that are performing or receiving FP is difficult. With current developments in sensor technologies, it may now be possible to identify laying hens in large groups that show less FP behavior and select them for breeding. We propose using a combination of sensor technology and genomic methods to identify feather peckers and victims in groups. In this review, we will describe the use of “-omics” approaches to understand FP and give an overview of sensor technologies that can be used for animal monitoring, such as ultra-wideband, radio frequency identification, and computer vision. We will then discuss the identification of indicator traits from both sensor technologies and genomics approaches that can be used to select animals for breeding against damaging behavior.

Research challenges for cultural ecosystem services and public health in (peri-)urban environments
Chen, Xianwen ; Vries, Sjerp de; Assmuth, Timo ; Dick, Jan ; Hermans, Tia ; Hertel, Ole ; Jensen, Anne ; Jones, Laurence ; Kabisch, Sigrun ; Lanki, Timo ; Lehmann, Irina ; Maskell, Lindsay ; Norton, Lisa ; Reis, Stefan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 2118 - 2129.
Cultural ecosystem services - Nature-based solutions - Public health - Urban green/blue infrastructure

Urbanization is a global trend, and consequently the quality of urban environments is increasingly important for human health and wellbeing. Urban life-style is typically associated with low physical activity and sometimes with high mental stress, both contributing to an increasing burden of diseases. Nature-based solutions that make effective use of ecosystem services, particularly of cultural ecosystem services (CES), can provide vital building blocks to address these challenges. This paper argues that, the salutogenic, i.e. health-promoting effects of CES have so far not been adequately recognised and deserve more explicit attention in order to enhance decision making around health and wellbeing in urban areas. However, a number of research challenges will need to be addressed to reveal the mechanisms, which underpin delivery of urban CES. These include: causal chains of supply and demand, equity, and equality of public health benefits promoted. Methodological challenges in quantifying these are discussed. The paper is highly relevant for policy makers within and beyond Europe, and also serves as a review for current researchers and as a roadmap to future short- and long-term research opportunities.

Opportunities for soil sustainability in Europe
Putten, W.H. van der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Poesen, Jean ; Winding, A. ; Lemanceau, Philippe ; Lisa, Lenka ; Simek, Miloslaw ; Moora, M. ; Setala, Heikki ; Zaitsev, A. ; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria ; Hornung, E. ; Wall, David ; Angelis, P. de; Lipiec, Jerzy ; Briones, M.J.I. ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Heijden, M. ; Six, Johan ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Powlson, D. ; Goulding, K. ; Norton, Michael - \ 2018
European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) (EASAC policy report 36) - ISBN 9783804738980 - 48 p.
Maritime spatial planning supported by infrastructure for spatial information in Europe (INSPIRE)
Abramic, Andrej ; Bigagli, Emanuele ; Barale, Vittorio ; Assouline, Michael ; Lorenzo-Alonso, Alberto ; Norton, Conor - \ 2018
Ocean & Coastal Management 152 (2018). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 23 - 36.
The implementation of Directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE can improve and actually strengthen the information management and data infrastructures needed for setting up Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) processes. Evidence for this comes from three parallel analyses: links between the MSP Framework Directive and INSPIRE components and implementation; the availability of marine and maritime data through the INSPIRE Geo-Portal; and the adequacy of using an INSPIRE data model for mapping maritime spatial plans. The first item identifies INSPIRE as a relevant instrument not only for data collection, but additionally for increasing transparency of the MSP processes, using already operational national and European data infrastructure. The marine/maritime data availability analysis highlights a significant difference in data sharing within European marine regions. Finally, the INSPIRE data model is adequate for mapping maritime activities and for the integration of sea and land planning in an overview of cross-border planning for a given sea region.
Integrating methods for ecosystem service assessment : Experiences from real world situations
Dunford, Rob ; Harrison, Paula ; Smith, Alison ; Dick, Jan ; Barton, David N. ; Martin-Lopez, Berta ; Kelemen, Ezsther ; Jacobs, Sander ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Turkelboom, Francis ; Verheyden, Wim ; Hauck, Jennifer ; Antunes, Paula ; Aszalós, Réka ; Badea, Ovidu ; Baró, Francesc ; Berry, Pam ; Carvalho, Laurence ; Conte, Giulio ; Czúcz, Bálint ; Garcia Blanco, Gemma ; Howard, Dave ; Giuca, Relu ; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik ; Grizetti, Bruna ; Izakovicova, Zita ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Langemeyer, Johannes ; Luque, Sandra ; Lapola, David M. ; Martinez-Pastur, Guillermo ; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima ; Roy, S.B. ; Niemelä, Jari ; Norton, Lisa ; Ochieng, John ; Odee, David ; Palomo, Ignacio ; Pinho, Patricia ; Priess, Joerg ; Rusch, Graciella ; Saarela, Sanna Riikka ; Santos, Rui ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der; Vadineanu, Angheluta ; Vári, Ágnes ; Woods, Helen ; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 499 - 514.
The Ecosystem Services (ES) concept highlights the varied contributions the environment provides to humans and there are a wide range of methods/tools available to assess ES. However, in real-world decision contexts a single tool is rarely sufficient and methods must be combined to meet practitioner needs. Here, results from the OpenNESS project are presented to illustrate the methods selected to meet the needs of 24 real-world case studies and better understand why and how methods are combined to meet practical needs. Results showed that within the cases methods were combined to: i) address a range of ES; ii) assess both supply and demand of ES; iii) assess a range of value types; iv) reach different stakeholder groups v) cover weaknesses in other methods used and vi) to meet specific decision context needs. Methods were linked in a variety of ways: i) as input-output chains of methods; ii) through learning; iii) through method development and iv) through comparison/triangulation of results. The paper synthesises these case study-based experiences to provide insight to others working in practical contexts as to where, and in what contexts, different methods can be combined and how this can add value to case study analyses.
Selecting methods for ecosystem service assessment : A decision tree approach
Harrison, Paula A. ; Dunford, Rob ; Barton, David N. ; Kelemen, Eszter ; Martín-López, Berta ; Norton, Lisa ; Termansen, Mette ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Hendriks, Kees ; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik ; Czúcz, Bálint ; García-Llorente, Marina ; Howard, David ; Jacobs, Sander ; Karlsen, Martin ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Madsen, Andes ; Rusch, Graciela M. ; Eupen, Michiel van; Verweij, Peter ; Smith, Ron ; Tuomasjukka, Diana ; Zulian, Grazia - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 481 - 498.
Biophysical - Decision trees - Guidance - Method - Monetary - Socio-cultural - Tool
A range of methods are available for assessing ecosystem services. Methods differ in their aims; from mapping and modelling the supply and demand of ecosystem services to appraising their economic and non-economic importance through valuation techniques. Comprehensive guidance for the selection of appropriate ecosystem service assessment methods that address the requirements of different decision-making contexts is lacking. This paper tackles this gap using the experience from 27 case studies which applied different biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary valuation methods to operationalise the ecosystem service concept towards sustainable land, water and urban management. A survey of the reasons why the case study teams selected particular methods revealed that stakeholder-oriented reasons, such as stakeholder participation, inclusion of local knowledge and ease of communication, and decision-oriented reasons, such as the purpose of the case study and the ecosystem services at stake, were key considerations in selecting a method. Pragmatic reasons such as available data, resources and expertise were also important factors. This information was used to develop a set of linked decision trees, which aim to provide guidance to researchers and practitioners in choosing ecosystem service assessment methods that are suitable for their context.
Multi-functionality and sustainability in the European Union's forests
Aszalós, Réka ; Ceulemans, Reinhart J.M. ; Glatzel, Gerhard ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Kakaras, Emmanuel ; Kotiaho, Janne ; Lindroth, Anders ; Lubica, Ditmarová ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan ; Mackay, John ; Marek, Michal V. ; Morgante, Michele ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Ovaskainen, Otso ; Pais, Maria Salomé ; Schaub, Marcus ; Tahvonen, Olli ; Vesala, Timo ; Gillett, William ; Norton, Michael - \ 2017
Halle, Germany : (EASAC policy report 32) - ISBN 9783804737280 - 43 p.
Self-crafting vegetable snacks : testing the IKEA-effect in children
Raghoebar, Sanne ; Kleef, Ellen van; Vet, Emely de - \ 2017
British Food Journal 119 (2017)6. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1301 - 1312.
Children - IKEA-effect - Vegetable consumption
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al., 2012) – better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others – can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. Design/methodology/approach: A between-subjects experiment was conducted at an after school care facility. In total, 86 children aged four to six either crafted a peacock with vegetables or with non-food objects following an example. After the task, children ate snack vegetables ad libitum, and rated their liking for the vegetables and pride in crafting the peacock. Findings: No significant main effect of the vegetable snack creation on consumption and liking was observed. Also, perceived pride did not mediate the effect of self-crafting vegetable snacks on consumption of and liking for vegetables. Research limitations/implications: Vegetable consumption did not differ between children who were either simply exposed to vegetable snacks while crafting or those who were crafting the vegetable snacks themselves. The equal consumption might suggest that this is caused by simple exposure, but more research is needed comparing self-crafting and exposure to a condition where there is no initial exposure to vegetables. Originality/value: Although the IKEA-effect has been demonstrated in adults, this is one of the first studies evaluating the IKEA-effect in children and as a means to increase liking for a generally disliked product in this target group, i.e. vegetables. The IKEA-effect could not be replicated under these more stringent conditions, where the experimental set-up enabled disentangling exposure and crafting effects.
Applying weather index insurance to agricultural pest and disease risks
Norton, Michael ; Sprundel, Gert Jan van; Turvey, Calum G. ; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M. - \ 2016
International Journal of Pest Management 62 (2016)3. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 195 - 204.
Insurance - Karnal bunt - market-based - pesticide use efficiency - risk - Stewart's disease - weather

In this paper, we explore the application of weather index insurance to plant pest and disease management strategies using two distinct models: (1) insuring crop loss due to disease incidence (“Crop Insurance”) and (2) insuring the use of pesticides (“Pesticide Insurance”). We find that despite the seeming ease of applying weather-based pest incidence models to an insurance product, insuring plant disease incidence models is presently unsuitable for the insurance market for both scientific and behavioral reasons. However, derivative-like applications of weather index insurance to insure pesticide use offer a means to introduce financial leverage into pesticide usage decisions. Risk management with weather index insurance would thus function as a complement to existing risk management strategies using pesticides, and offer a market-based mechanism for pesticide abatement. We conclude that more interdisciplinary collaboration is needed to develop weather index insurance for remuneration of losses due to plant pests and diseases, but weather index insurance offers a potential mechanism to reduce inefficiencies and negative externalities in agricultural markets if pesticide expenditures are insured instead of crop losses.

Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]: Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance
Khoury, C.K. ; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P. ; Achicanoy, H.A. ; Sosa, C.C. ; Bernau, V. ; Kassa, M.T. ; Norton, S.L. ; Maesen, L. ; Upadhyaya, H.D. ; Ramirez-Villegas, J. ; Jarvis, A. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2015
Biological Conservation 184 (2015). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 259 - 270.
species distribution models - global food security - male-sterility - climate-change - osmotic adjustment - diversity - bias - biodiversity - adaptation - accessions
Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a versatile, stress-tolerant, and nutritious grain legume, possessing traits of value for enhancing the sustainability of dry sub-tropical and tropical agricultural systems. The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in pigeonpea breeding has been successful in providing important resistance, quality, and breeding efficiency traits to the crop. Current breeding objectives for pigeonpea include increasing its tolerance to abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, drought, and waterlogging. Here we assess the potential for pigeonpea CWR to be further employed in crop improvement by compiling wild species occurrence and ex situ conservation information, producing geographic distribution models for the species, identifying gaps in the omprehensiveness of current germplasm collections, and using ecogeographic information to identify CWR populations with the potential to contribute agronomic traits of priority to breeders. The fifteen prioritized relatives of pigeonpea generally occur in South and Southeast Asia to Australia, with the highest concentrations of species in southern India and northern Australia. These taxa differ considerably among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation and edaphic conditions. We find that these wild genetic resources are broadly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems, with 80% of species assessed as high priority for further collecting, thus their availability to plant breeders is insufficient. We identify species and highlight geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of pigeonpea CWR germplasm collections, with particular emphasis on potential traits for abiotic stress tolerance.
Ecosystem services and ethics
Jax, K. ; Barton, D.N. ; Chan, K.M.A. ; Groot, R.S. de; Doyle, U. ; Eser, U. ; Goerg, C. ; Gomez-Baggethun, E. ; Griewald, Y. ; Haber, W. ; Haines-Young, R. ; Heink, U. ; Jahn, T. ; Joosten, H. ; Kerschbaumer, L. ; Korn, H. ; Luck, G.W. ; Matzdorf, B. ; Muraca, B. ; Nesshover, C. ; Norton, B. ; Ott, K. ; Potschin, M. ; Rauschmayer, F. ; Haaren, C. von; Wichmann, S. - \ 2013
Ecological Economics 93 (2013). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 260 - 268.
environmental ethics - conservation - biodiversity - valuation - values - economics - ecology - science
A major strength of the ecosystem services (ESS) concept is that it allows a succinct description of how human well-being depends on nature, showing that the neglect of such dependencies has negative consequences on human well-being and the economy. As ESS refer to human needs and interests, values are to be considered when dealing with the concept in practice. As a result we argue that in using the concept there is a need to be clear about what different dimensions of value are involved, and be aware of ethical issues that might be associated with the concept. A systematic analysis of the ethical implications associated to the ESS concept is still lacking. We address this deficiency by scrutinising value dimensions associated with the concept, and use this to explore the associated ethical implications. We then highlight how improved transparency in the use of the ESS concept can contribute to using its strengths without succumbing to possible drawbacks arising from ethical problems. These problems concern the dangers that some uses of the concept have in obscuring certain types of value, and in masking unevenness in the distribution of costs and benefits that can arise in the management of ESS.
First report of phoresy by an oribatid mite (Trhypochthoniidae: Archegozetes magnus) on a frog (Leptodactylidae: Engystomops pustulosus)
Beaty, L.E. ; Esser, H.J. ; Miranda, R. ; Norton, R.A. - \ 2013
International Journal of Acarology 39 (2013)4. - ISSN 0164-7954 - p. 325 - 326.
Numerous adults and some juveniles of the oribatid mite Archegozetes magnus (Trhypochthoniidae) were collected from a single adult male túngara frog, Engystomops pustulosus (Leptodactylidae), in Panama. This is the first record of a non-parasitic mite species found on an anuran.
Raindrop and flow interactions for interrill erosion with wind-driven rain
Erpul, G. ; Gabriels, D. ; Darell Norton, L. ; Dennis, C. ; Huang, C.H. ; Visser, S.M. - \ 2013
Journal of Hydraulic Research 51 (2013)5. - ISSN 0022-1686 - p. 548 - 557.
sediment transport capacity - splash-saltation - water erosion - sand detachment - overland-flow - soil-erosion - impact - prediction - tunnel - model
Wind-driven rain (WDR) experiments were conducted to evaluate the interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project model with a two-dimensional experimental set-up in a wind tunnel. Synchronized wind and rain simulations were applied to soil surfaces on windward and leeward slopes of 7, 15 and 20%. Since WDR fall trajectory varied with horizontal wind velocities of 6, 10, and 14 m s-1, magnitude of raindrop normal and lateral stresses on flow at the impact-flow boundary also changed and differentially directed lateral jets of raindrop splashes with respect to downward flows occurred. To account for interactions between raindrop impact and interrill shallow flow, a vector approach with kinetic energy fluxes of both raindrop splashes and flow were used and this resulted in greater correlations in predicting sediment delivery rates
Mechanics of interrill erosion with wind-driven rain
Erpul, G. ; Gabriels, D. ; Norton, L.D. ; Flanagan, D.C. ; Huang, C. ; Visser, S.M. - \ 2013
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38 (2013)2. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 160 - 168.
sediment transport rate - splash-saltation - water erosion - soil-erosion - sand detachment - prediction - model - raindrops - incident - tunnel
The vector physics of wind-driven rain (WDR) differs from that of wind-free rain, and the interrill soil detachment equations in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model were not originally developed to deal with this phenomenon. This article provides an evaluation of the performance of the interrill component of the WEPP model for WDR events. The interrill delivery rates were measured in the wind tunnel facility of the International Center for Eremology (ICE), Ghent University, Belgium with an experimental setup to study different raindrop impact velocity vectors. Synchronized wind and rain simulations with wind velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m s–1 were applied to a test surface placed on windward and leeward slopes of 7, 15 and 20%. Since both rainfall intensity and raindrop impact velocity varied greatly depending on differences in the horizontal wind velocity under WDRs, the resultant kinetic energy flux (KEr, in J m–2 s–1) was initially used in place of the WEPP model intensity term in order to incorporate the effect of wind on impact velocity and frequency of raindrops. However, our results showed only minor improvement in the model predictions. For all research data, the model Coefficients of Determination (r2) were 0·63 and 0·71, when using the WEPP and the KEr approaches, respectively. Alternately, integrating the angle of rain incidence into the model by vectorally partitioning normal kinetic energy flux (KErn, in J m–2 s–1) from the KEr greatly improved the model's ability to estimate the interrill sediment delivery rates (r2¿=¿0·91). This finding suggested that along with the fall trajectory of wind-driven raindrops with a given frequency, raindrop velocity and direction at the point of impact onto the soil surface provided sufficient physical information to improve WEPP sediment delivery rate predictions under WDR
Set-membership approach for identification of parameter and prediction uncertainty in power-law relationships: The case of sediment yield
Keesman, K.J. ; Norton, J.P. ; Croke, B. ; Newham, L. ; Jakeman, A.J. - \ 2013
Environmental Modelling & Software 40 (2013). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 171 - 180.
bounded noise - models - fluctuations - distributions - framework - origin
Power laws are used to describe a large variety of natural and industrial phenomena. Consequently, they are used in a wide range of scientific research and management applications. This paper focuses on the identification of bounds on the parameter and prediction uncertainty in a power-law relation from experimental data, assuming known bounds on the error between model output and observations. The prediction uncertainty bounds can subsequently be used as constraints, for example in optimisation and scenario studies. The set-membership approach involves identification and removal of outliers, estimation of the feasible parameter set, evaluation of the feasible model-output set and tuning of the specified bounds on model-output error. As an example the procedure is applied to data of scattered sediment yield versus catchment area (Wasson, 1994). The key result is an un-falsified relationship between sediment yield and catchment area with uncertainty bounds on its parameters. The set-membership results are compared with the results from a conventional least-squares approach with first-order variance propagation, assuming a zero-mean, symmetrical error distribution.
Uncertainty modelling and analysis of environmental systems: a river sediment yield example
Keesman, K.J. ; Koskela, J. ; Guillaume, J.H. ; Norton, J.P. ; Croke, B. ; Jakeman, A. - \ 2011
Abstract: Throughout the last decades uncertainty analysis has become an essential part of environmental model building (e.g. Beck 1987; Refsgaard et al., 2007). The objective of the paper is to introduce stochastic and setmembership uncertainty modelling concepts, which basically differ in the assumptions that are made with respect to the uncertainty characterization. Stochastic uncertainty modelling is most frequently applied and is characterized by probability density functions (pdf’s) or simply by means and (co)variances. Typical approaches are the Bayesian and the Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods. Alternatively, a set-membership or bounded-error characterization, as opposed to a stochastic characterization, is favoured when assumptions about distribution or estimates of mean and covariance cannot be satisfactorily tested, as with small data sets or heavily structured (modelling) errors. The bounded-error characterization is in essence deterministic. Both approaches, using tools as DREAM, GLUE, exact and approximate bounding, MCSM and a pavement-based technique, were tested on a real-world example. The example, based on Wasson’s (1994) sediment yield – area data and after a log-log transformation of the data, is a linear static problem with two parameters.
Landscape Architectural Design as Scientific Inquiry?
Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2011
This presentation discusses ‘landscape architectural design as scientific inquiry’ and exemplifies this with the description of a design process within climate-responsive design leading to new design knowledge. ‘Research and design’ are issues that need increasing attention within landscape architecture academia. Substantial contributions on ‘research’ and ‘design’ exist within architectural theory [1,2,3,4]. However, within landscape architecture, there are only few publications on this topic. In those publications, either the definition of ‘research’ was not clearly stated [5] or from the onset, design was not considered to be research “by definition” [6]. This is in contrast to several assertions within architectural theory where design is considered as scientific research. So the question remains: can landscape architectural design also be scientific research? Here, it is stated that design can be scientific research when the design method is similar to a ‘scientific’ method and the aim of the design process is the generation of new knowledge. This requires that research questions are clearly formulated and a systematic, transparent and reliable method of looking for answers is guaranteed. Since there are various ways of conducting scientific research, consequently some ways of ‘design as scientific research’ can be thought of. For instance, ‘design as scientific inquiry’ can mean that design is done similar to action research- as a communicative process from which new knowledge can be gained [7]. But it can also mean that design processes are conducted similar to the methods in the classical empirical sciences. In this presentation, the focus will be on this latter method. In the empirical sciences, normally the research process consists of formulating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in experiments and generating new knowledge from that. To guarantee reliability, the results are controlled through peer- review. When design is considered an inquiry similar to empirical sciences, possible design solutions are treated as hypotheses and then tested. Zeisel and other authors [8,9,10] proposed this earlier, but they were not clear about the ways design can be tested. Yet, the reliability of testing design is crucial for ‘design as scientific inquiry’. Actually, nowadays modern computer simulation methods offer new avenues for testing designs. With such simulations, the expected effect of design can be tested for many different issues and they can be used within a ‘design as scientific inquiry’ to generate new knowledge. Design processes to generate new knowledge that use these techniques are also widely found within engineering research and development. In this presentation, a similar ‘design as scientific inquiry’ process will be illustrated by an example- a process of climate responsive design to generate new design guidelines for microclimate responsive design of urban squares. This process consisted of generating various design alternatives- or hypotheses- that were expected to be a potential design guideline. These design alternatives were fit for mid-sized urban squares within a Northwest-European maritime climate context. They were all assumed to improve microclimate in the problematic situations: too windy spring and autumn and very hot summer circumstances. The design alternatives were composed of different configurations of vegetation and other elements like pergolas or wind screens that were expected to bring about microclimate improvement. These alternatives are tested with microclimate simulations and the alternative that shows the best effects can be considered as new design knowledge. This design process which had great similarity with scientific research processes can be considered an example for ‘landscape architectural design as scientific research’. [1] Lang. J. 1987. Creating architectural theory, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York [2] Cross, N. 2007. Designerly ways of knowing, Springer, London [3] Laurel, Brenda, ed., 2003, Design Research: Methods and Perspectives. Cambridge: MIT Press [4] de Jong, T.M. and Van der Voordt, D.J.M., 2002, Ways to study and research urban, architectural and technical design, Delft University Press, Delft [5] Milburn, L.S. Brown, Mulley, S.J., Hilts, Steward G., 2003, Assessing academic contributions in landscape architecture, Landscape and Urban Planning 64: 119-129 [6] Milburn, L.S. and Brown, R.D. 2003, The relationship between research and design in landscape architecture, Landscape and Urban Planning 64: 47-66 [7] De Jonge, J.M. (2009) Landscape Architecture between Politics and Science. PhD dissertation, Wageningen University. Blauwdruk, Wageningen [8 ] Zeisel, J. 2006, Inquiry by design (revised edition) W.W. Norton & Company, New York [9] Cross, N., Naughton, J., Walker, D. 1981. Design method and scientific method, Design Studies vol 2 no. 4 pp. 195-201 [10] de Jong, T.M and van der Voordt, D.J.M. 2002 Criteria for scientific study and design, in: de Jong, T.M. and Van der Voordt, D.J.M. (eds.), Ways to study and research urban, architectural and technical design, Delft University Press, Delft, p. 19-30
Evaluation of interrill erosion under wind-driven rain events in northern Burkina Faso
Visser, S.M. ; Erpul, G. ; Gabriels, D. ; Flanagan, D. ; Huang, C.H. ; Darrell Norton, L. ; Stroosnijder, L. - \ 2011
In: Land degradation processes and assessment : wind erosion, interrill erosion, gully erosion, land cover features / Vermang, J., Gabriels, D., Cornelis, W., de Boever, M., Ghent, Belgium : UNESCO chair of Eremology - ISBN 9789059894396 - p. 25 - 31.
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