New records and updated checklist of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Lao People's Democratic Republic, with special emphasis on adult and larval surveillance in Khammuane Province
Motoki, Maysa T. ; Vongphayloth, Khamsing ; Rueda, Leopoldo M. ; Miot, Elliott F. ; Hiscox, Alexandra ; Hertz, Jeffrey C. ; Brey, Paul T. - \ 2019
Journal of Vector Ecology 44 (2019)1. - ISSN 1081-1710 - p. 76 - 88.
Culicidae - DNA barcode - Khammuane Province - Lao PDR - mosquito species list - mosquito surveillance
A list of mosquitoes from the Nakai Nam Theun National Protected Area along the Nam Theun, Nam Mon, Nam Noy, and Nam On rivers, Nakai District, Khammuane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is presented. Fifty-four mosquito taxa were identified, including 15 new records in the Lao PDR. A fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, barcode region, was generated for 34 specimens, and together with four specimens already published, it represented 23 species in eight genera. In addition, an updated checklist of 170 mosquito taxa from Lao PDR is provided based on field collections from Khammuane Province, the literature, and specimens deposited in the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History (SI-NMNH), Washington, DC, U.S.A. This paper provides additional information about the biodiversity of mosquito fauna in Lao PDR.
Emissie van stikstofverbindingen uit luchtwassers met biologische wasstap
Melse, R.W. ; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Kupers, G.C.C. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1112) - 16
In de regel wordt aangenomen dat in luchtwassers met een biologische behandelingsstap ammoniak uit stallucht wordt omgezet in nitraat en nitriet, dat vervolgens met het spuiwater wordt afgevoerd. Er zijn echter aanwijzingen dat onder bepaalde condities (grote) hoeveelheden andere gasvormige stikstofverbindingen kunnen ontstaan en emitteren. Uit de steekproef die is uitgevoerd, blijkt dat bij biologische luchtwassers met een lage pH (<6,5) grote hoeveelheden stikstofoxyden (NOy) kunnen ontwijken naar de lucht. Voor dergelijk luchtwassers is de netto stikstofverwijdering veel lager dan de ammoniakverwijdering---In a biotrickling filter treating animal house exhaust air, ammonia is usually converted to dissolved nitrite and nitrate and subsequently removed with the discharge water. However, under certain operating conditions other types of gaseous nitrogen compounds may be emitted to the air. From the survey that was conducted it follows that at low pH values (<6.5) large amounts of gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOy) may be emitted from biotrickling filters. As a result, the net nitrogen removal of these scrubbers is much lower than the ammonia removal efficiency
Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis
Allwood, J.W. ; Cheung, W.W.L. ; Xu, Y. ; Mumm, R. ; Vos, C.H. de; Deborde, C. ; Biais, B. ; Maucourt, M. ; Berger, Y. ; Schaffer, A. ; Rolin, D. ; Moing, A. ; Hall, R.D. ; Goodacre, R. - \ 2014
Phytochemistry 99 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 61 - 72.
charentais cantaloupe melons - volatile organic-compounds - oxidase antisense gene - cucumis-melo - gas-chromatography - flavor compounds - cv makdimon - fruit - constituents - sulfur
Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting cultivars of C. melo subspecies melo were investigated at commercial maturity: three cultivars of var. Cantalupensis group Charentais (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) known to exhibit differences in ripening behaviour and shelf-life, as well as one cultivar of var. Cantalupensis group Ha’Ogan (cv. Noy Yisre’el) and one non-climacteric cultivar of var. Inodorus (cv. Tam Dew). The melon cultivar selection was based upon fruits exhibiting clear differences (cv. Noy Yisre’el and Tam Dew) and similarities (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) in flavour. In total, 58 VOCs were detected by thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS which permitted the discrimination of each cultivar via Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA indicated a reduction in VOCs in the non-climacteric cv. Tam Dew compared to the four Cantalupensis cultivars. Within the group Charentais melons, the differences between the short, mid and long shelf-life cultivars were considerable. 1H NMR analysis led to the quantification of 12 core amino acids, their levels were 3–10-fold greater in the Charentais melons, although they were reduced in the highly fragrant cv. Cézanne, indicating their role as VOC precursors. This study along with comparisons to more traditional labour intensive solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC–MS VOC profiling data has indicated that the high-throughput PDMS method is of great potential for the assessment of melon aroma and quality.
Ecosystem responses to reduced and oxidised nitrogen inputs in European terrestrial habitats
Stevens, C.J. ; Manning, P. ; Berg, L.J.L. van den; Graaf, M.C.C. de; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Boxman, A.W. ; Bleeker, A. ; Vergeer, P. ; Arroniz-Crespo, M. ; Limpens, J. ; Lamers, L.P.M. ; Bobbink, R. ; Dorland, E. - \ 2011
Environmental Pollution 159 (2011)3. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 665 - 676.
spruce picea-abies - soil solution chemistry - pinus-sylvestris l - atmospheric ammonia - throughfall deposition - nitrate reduction - acidic grasslands - intracellular ph - species richness - vascular plants
While it is well established that ecosystems display strong responses to elevated nitrogen deposition, the importance of the ratio between the dominant forms of deposited nitrogen (NHx and NOy) in determining ecosystem response is poorly understood. As large changes in the ratio of oxidised and reduced nitrogen inputs are occurring, this oversight requires attention. One reason for this knowledge gap is that plants experience a different NHx:NOy ratio in soil to that seen in atmospheric deposits because atmospheric inputs are modified by soil transformations, mediated by soil pH. Consequently species of neutral and alkaline habitats are less likely to encounter high NH4+ concentrations than species from acid soils. We suggest that the response of vascular plant species to changing ratios of NHx:NOy deposits will be driven primarily by a combination of soil pH and nitrification rates. Testing this hypothesis requires a combination of experimental and survey work in a range of systems.
Nitrogen and sulfar desposition on regional and global scales: A multimodel evaluation
Dentener, F. ; Drevet, J. ; Lamarque, J.F. ; Bey, I. ; Eickhout, B. ; Fiore, A.M. ; Hauglustaine, D. ; Horowitz, L.W. ; Krol, M.C. ; Kulshrestha, U.C. ; Lawrence, M. ; Galy-Lacaux, C. ; Rast, S. ; Shindell, D. ; Stevenson, D. ; Noije, T. van; Atherton, C. ; Bell, N. ; Bergman, D. ; Butler, T. ; Cofala, J. ; Collins, B. ; Doherty, R. ; Ellingsen, K. ; Galloway, J. ; Gauss, M. ; Montanaro, V. ; Müller, J.F. ; Pitari, G. ; Rodriguez, J. ; Sanderson, M. ; Solmon, F. ; Strahan, S. ; Schultz, M. ; Sudo, K. ; Szopa, S. ; Wild, O. - \ 2006
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20 (2006). - ISSN 0886-6236 - 21 p.
tropospheric ozone - biodiversity hotspots - ecosystems - emissions - cycle - aerocom - ammonia - europe - future - model
We use 23 atmospheric chemistry transport models to calculate current and future (2030) deposition of reactive nitrogen (NOy, NHx) and sulfate (SOx) to land and ocean surfaces. The models are driven by three emission scenarios: (1) current air quality legislation (CLE); (2) an optimistic case of the maximum emissions reductions currently technologically feasible (MFR); and (3) the contrasting pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. An extensive evaluation of the present-day deposition using nearly all information on wet deposition available worldwide shows a good agreement with observations in Europe and North America, where 60–70% of the model-calculated wet deposition rates agree to within ±50% with quality-controlled measurements. Models systematically overestimate NHx deposition in South Asia, and underestimate NOy deposition in East Asia. We show that there are substantial differences among models for the removal mechanisms of NOy, NHx, and SOx, leading to ±1 s variance in total deposition fluxes of about 30% in the anthropogenic emissions regions, and up to a factor of 2 outside. In all cases the mean model constructed from the ensemble calculations is among the best when comparing to measurements. Currently, 36–51% of all NOy, NHx, and SOx is deposited over the ocean, and 50–80% of the fraction of deposition on land falls on natural (nonagricultural) vegetation. Currently, 11% of the world's natural vegetation receives nitrogen deposition in excess of the “critical load” threshold of 1000 mg(N) m-2 yr-1. The regions most affected are the United States (20% of vegetation), western Europe (30%), eastern Europe (80%), South Asia (60%), East Asia (40%), southeast Asia (30%), and Japan (50%). Future deposition fluxes are mainly driven by changes in emissions, and less importantly by changes in atmospheric chemistry and climate. The global fraction of vegetation exposed to nitrogen loads in excess of 1000 mg(N) m-2 yr-1 increases globally to 17% for CLE and 25% for A2. In MFR, the reductions in NOy are offset by further increases for NHx deposition. The regions most affected by exceedingly high nitrogen loads for CLE and A2 are Europe and Asia, but also parts of Africa.
Continuous wet denuder measurements of atmospheric nitric and nitrous acids during the 1999 Atlanta Supersite
Genfa, Z. ; Slanina, J. ; Boring, C.B. ; Jongejan, A.C. ; Purnendu, K.D. - \ 2003
Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1351 - 1364.
effluent diffusion denuder - ion chromatography systems - ambient air - annular denuder - particulate nitrate - urban area - spectroscopy - ammonium - sulfate - filter
Two different measurement methods for atmospheric nitric and nitrous acid during the Atlanta Supersite study are described and compared. Both approaches combined wet denuder collection coupled to ion chromatographic analysis. One of these utilized a rotating wet annular denuder maintained indoor with a very dilute Na2CO3 solution as an absorber, operated by the Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN), ion chromatography (IC) being conducted with a carbonate eluent system. Data from this instrument was available for a 15 min sample every hour. The other wet denuder was of the parallel plate design and was deployed on the roof of the measurement shelter. This device used dilute H2O2 solution as an absorber and was coupled to an IC operated with a hydroxide eluent. Operated by Texas Tech University (TTU), this instrument provided data with 10 min time resolution. When both instruments were seemingly operating properly, data from TTU and ECN instruments were well correlated, although the peak HNO3 values during high NO2/NOy periods were lower for the TTU instrument. Daily peaks in HNO3, typically ranging in magnitude between 3 and 6 ppbv (7.8 ppbv registered by the ECN instrument on the highest NOy day) were observed. HONO results from both TTU and ECN instruments exhibited strong diurnal variations with nighttime peaks up to ~5 ppbv. Data from the middle of the study period for the two instruments were correlated with a r2 value of 0.78. The relationship was not statistically distinguishable from a 1:1 correspondence. A similar correlation of r2=0.76 was observed for the HNO3 data; in this case the peak concentrations occurring in day time
Future trends in worldwide river nitrogen transport and related nitrous oxide emissions : a scenario analysis
Kroeze, C. ; Seitzinger, S.P. ; Domingues, R. - \ 2001
The Scientific World Journal 1 (2001)S2. - ISSN 1537-744X - p. 328 - 335.
We analyze possible future trends in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by world rivers and associated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). Our scenarios either assume that current trends continue or that nitrogen (N) inputs to aquatic systems are reduced as a result of changes in agriculture practices and fuel combustion technologies. The results indicate that moderate changes in the human diet in North America and Europe, reducing worldwide fertilizer use by only 16°relative to Business-as-Usual (BAU) levels, may reduce DIN export rates to the North Atlantic and European Seas by about one third and associated N2O emissions by 36 to 77ÐWe furthermore calculate that relatively large reductions in NOy deposition rates in Europe (of about 80€may reduce DIN export by rivers by a moderate 8␘r less, relative to BAU levels. The potential effect of reduced NOy deposition on riverine DIN export is moderate, because most N in European rivers stems from agriculture, and not from fuel combustion. Nevertheless, the calculated 9␛eduction (relative to BAU) in DIN inputs to the North Sea as a potential side effect of air pollution control may help achieve the international policy targets for reduced N inputs to the North Sea.
Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part I: hypotheses and approach to the study
Vries, W. de; Klap, J.M. ; Erisman, J.W. - \ 2000
Water Air and Soil Pollution 119 (2000)1-4. - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 317 - 333.
bosbouw - zure depositie - stikstof - zwavel - europa - bosschade - forestry - forest damage - acid deposition - nitrogen - sulfur - europe
This paper is the first in a series of four, describing the hypothesis and approach of a correlative study between observed data on crown condition in Europe, monitored since 1986 at a systematic 16 x 16 km grid, and site-specific estimations of various natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The study was based on the hypothesis that forests respond to various natural and anthropogenic stress factors, whose contribution depend on the geographic region considered. In view of this hypothesis, major stand and site characteristics, chemical soil composition, meteorological stress factors (temperature and drought stress indices) and air pollution stress (concentrations and/or depositions of SOx, NOy, NHx and O-3) were included as predictor variables. The response variables considered were actual defoliation and changes/trends in defoliation for five major tree species. The spatial distribution of the average defoliation during the period 1986-1995 shows high defoliation in Central Europe and in partsof Scandinavia and of Southern Europe. There are, however, sharp changes at country borders, which are due to methodological differences between countries. The spatial distribution of the calculated trends show a distinct cluster of large deterioration in parts of Central and Eastern Europe and in Spain and a rather scattered pattern of positive and negative trends for most of Europe, indicating that other factors than air pollution only have a strong impact on defoliation. The limitations of the study are discussed in view of the quality of the considered response and predictor variables.
Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part II: estimation of stress induced by meteorology and air pollutants
Leeuwen, E.P. van; Hendriks, K.C.M.A. ; Klap, J.M. ; Vries, W. de; Jong, E. de; Erisman, J.W. - \ 2000
Water Air and Soil Pollution 119 (2000)1-4. - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 335 - 362.
In order to assess the relationship between environmental stress and crown condition of forest trees monitored since 1986 in Europe, estimates of stress factors, including temperature stress, drought stress and air pollution stress, were derived with the best data, methods and models currently available. This paper presents information on the methods used to derive such stress factors, and on the overall ranges, the temporal trends, the spatial distribution and the reliability of the calculated stress factors. The temperature stress indices did not show much temporal variation between 1985 to 1995. As expected spatial patterns were north-south orientated, going from colder northern regions to warmer southern regions. The calculated relative transpiration showed a more complex pattern, coinciding to a large extend with patterns of rainfall and temperature. Potential acid deposition decreased between 1986 and 1992, but remained fairly constant after 1992. The strong decrease was mainly the result of the decrease in SOx deposition, and to a small decrease in NOy deposition. Highest levels of the S and N deposition were calculated in Central and Western Europe. Base cation deposition was largest in coastal areas and in southern Europe. This is mainly due to soil dust, Sahara dust and sea salt. Base cation deposition can compensate almost entirely for the potential inputs in the south of Europe, whereas in central Europe it equalled about 25% of the potential acid input. A comparison between site specific modelled deposition and deposition derived from throughfall data showed that the total acid deposition is usually overestimated by the model, whereas the total nitrogen deposition is underestimated, especially at plots with high nitrogen loads. There is, however, a significant correlation between measured and modelled data for all S and N deposition, thus allowing their use in a statistical analyses.
Potential impact on the global atmospheric N2O budget of the increased nitrogen input required to meet future global food demands
Mosier, A. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2000
Chemosphere : global change science 2 (2000). - ISSN 1465-9972 - p. 465 - 473.
In most soils, biogenic formation of N2O is enhanced by an increase in available mineral N through increased nitrification and denitrification. N-fertilization, therefore, directly results in additional N2O formation. In addition, these inputs may lead to indirect formation of N2O after N leaching or runoff, or following deposition of NOy and NHx from gaseous losses of NOx and NH3. Anthropogenic N input into agricultural systems includes N from synthetic fertilizer, animal wastes, increased biological N-fixation, mineralization of crop residue returned to the field and cultivation of organic soils through enhanced organic matter mineralization. Nitrous oxide may be emitted (1) directly to the atmosphere from agricultural fields, (2) from animal confinements or pastoral systems, or (3) from N applied to agricultural systems which is transported into ground and surface waters through atmospheric deposition, sewage and surface runoff and eventually into surface water (rivers and oceans) where additional N2O is produced. Eventually, all N that moves through the soil system will be either terminally sequestered in soil or buried sediments or denitrified in aquatic systems. Using Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) databases for fertilizer input, crop and animal production, and human population and the IPCC (1997) methodology for estimating N2O from soil, we first estimated the N input into food production and then calculated N2O emissions derived from N input into food production systems from 1500 until the year 2020. Using these estimates for N2O emissions (~6 Tg N in 1990 and ~9 Tg N in 2020) as input to a simple atmospheric box model we estimated global atmospheric N2O concentrations over time. During the 20th century, a fast expansion of agricultural land coupled with intensification of land use probably caused about 80␘f the net increase in atmospheric N2O, from ~275 ppbv in 1900 to ~294 ppbv in 1970, to projected concentrations of ~317 in 2000 and ~345 in 2020. With the increasing amount of fertilizer N application needed to feed an additional 1.5 billion people in the next 20 years, an accelerated rate of N2O accumulation in the atmosphere is calculated for the coming decades. This is in contrast with the observed trends during the past decade, which indicate a linear increase in atmospheric N2O, but is in line with observed trends during the whole 20th century, which show a non-linear increase in atmospheric N2O.
Effects of N application on agronomic and environmental parameters in silage maize production on sandy soils
Schröder, J.J. ; Neeteson, J.J. ; Withagen, J.C.M. ; Noy, I.G.A.M. - \ 1998
Field Crops Research 58 (1998). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 55 - 67.
The current nitrogen (N) use in silage maize production can lead to considerable N losses to the environment. Maize growers fear that a reduction of N inputs needed to minimize N losses might depress yields. The objective of this study was therefore to quantify: (1) the response of silage maize dry matter (DM) yields to N, (2) the economically optimal N reserve, and (3) the trade-off between silage maize DM yield and N losses. The indicators of N losses used in this study were the difference between N input and N uptake and the post-harvest residual soil mineral N. Regression models were used to fit DM yields and N uptakes of silage maize measured in 25 experiments on sandy soils in the Netherlands to the sum (SUMN) of the soil mineral N reserve (SMNearly) in March–April, plus mineral N in fertilizer, plus ammonium N in spring-applied slurry. The values obtained for the economically optimal SUMN in the upper 30 and 60 cm of soil were, respectively, 173 and 195 kg N ha−1, when we assumed that the value of 1 kg fertilizer N equals the value of 5 kg silage DM. The economically optimal SUMN was not significantly related to the attainable DM yield. The apparent N recovery (ANR) of maize averaged 53% at the economically optimal SUMN. The ANR rose considerably, however, when N was applied at lower rates, indicating that N losses may be considerably smaller in less intensive maize cropping. When maize was fertilized at 100 kg N ha−1 below the economic optimum, the ANR was 73%, the difference between the mineral N input and the N crop uptake decreased by 57 kg N ha−1 and the soil mineral N residue at the end of the growing season (0–60 cm) decreased by 24 kg N ha−1. The associated reduction in DM yield averaged 16%. Fertilizer prices would have to be as much as four times higher to make maize growers spontaneously reduce the application rates by a 100 kg N ha−1, however. It is concluded that adjusting the N input to a level below the economically optimal rate can reduce the risks for N losses to the environment associated with conventional maize production, with a limited effect on silage yields.
|Multifunctioneel bouwland. Projectvoorstel in: Duurzaam landgebruik: van voorbeeldsystemen naar systeemonderzoek
Wingerden, W.K.R.E. van; Hassink, J. ; Meyer, W.J.M. ; Noy, I.G.A.M. ; Oosterbaan, A. - \ 1997
|Landgoedlandbouw. Landbouw met verbrede doelstelling: agrarische productie in combinatie met recreatie, natuur- en landschapsbeheer, energieproductie en waterberging
Wingerden, W.K.R.E. van; Oosterbaan, A. ; Roest, C.W.J. ; Noy, I.G.A.M. - \ 1997
In: Duurzaam landgebruik: van wensen en mogelijkheden naar voorbeeldsystemen
|Multifunctionele waterzuiveringsvelden. Projectvoorstel in: Duurzaam landgebruik: van voorbeeldsystemen naar systeemonderzoek
Oosterbaan, A. ; Noy, I.G.A.M. ; Smit, A.L. - \ 1997
|A systematic implementation of control measures for airborne contaminants in workplace air.
Buringh, E. ; Noy, D. ; Pouwels, H. ; Swuste, P. - \ 1992
Staub : Reinhaltung der Luft 52 (1992). - ISSN 0039-0771 - p. 347 - 351.
Semiquantitative estimates of exposure to methylene chloride and styrene: the influence of quantitative exposure data.
Post, W. ; Kromhout, K. ; Heederik, D. ; Noy, D. ; Smit Duyzentkunst, R. - \ 1991
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 6 (1991). - ISSN 1047-322X - p. 197 - 204.
|Gender relations and their impact on a development project, a case study.
Noy, F.T.M. - \ 1991
In: Proc. Workshop Women and development and gender relations. Bangalore, India (1991) 25 pp
|The assessment of personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide in epidemiological studies.
Noy, D. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Houthuijs, D. ; Koning, R. - \ 1990
Atmospheric Environment 24A (1990). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 2903 - 2909.
|Simulated yields of wheat and rice in current weather and when ambient CO2 has doubled.
Penning de Vries, F.W.T. ; Keulen, H. van; Diepen, C.A. van; Noy, I.G.A.M. ; Goudriaan, J. - \ 1989
In: Climate and food security. IRRI/Am. Assoc. Advancement of Science, Los Banos, Philippines (1989). - ISBN 971104210X - p. 347 - 357.
|Stikstofdioxide en tabaksrook in de binnenlucht: persoonlijke blootstelling en effecten op de gezondheid.
Brunekreef, B. ; Noy, D. ; Remijn, B. ; Fischer, P. ; Houthuys, D. ; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1987
Unknown Publisher - 41 p.