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- Grant Douglas (1)
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- L.L. Furtado (1)
- V.L.M. Huszar (1)
- Vera L. Huszar (1)
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Lanthanum in Water, Sediment, Macrophytes and chironomid larvae following application of Lanthanum modified bentonite to lake Rauwbraken (The Netherlands)
Oosterhout, Frank van; Waajen, Guido ; Yasseri, Said ; Manzi Marinho, Marcelo ; Pessoa Noyma, Natália ; Mucci, Maíra ; Douglas, Grant ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 706 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
Bioavailable - Filterable lanthanum - Lake management - Phoslock® - Sediment release
Lanthanum Modified Bentonite (LMB; Phoslock®) is used to mitigate eutrophication by binding phosphate released from sediments. This study investigated the fate of lanthanum (La) from LMB in water, sediment, macrophytes, and chironomid larvae in Lake Rauwbraken (The Netherlands). Before the LMB application, water column filterable La (FLa) was 0.02 µg L−1, total La (TLa) was 0.22 µg L−1. In sediment the total La ranged 0.03–1.86 g m−2. The day after the application the maximum FLa concentration in the water column was 44 µg L−1, TLa was 528 µg L−1, exceeding the Dutch Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of 10.1 µg L−1 by three to fourfold. TLa declined below the MPC after 15 days, FLa after 75 days. After ten years, FLa was 0.4 µg L−1 and TLa was 0.7 µg L−1. Over the post-application years, FLa and TLa showed statistically significant downward trends. While the LMB settled homogeneously on sediment, after 3 years it redistributed to 0.2–5.4 g La m−2 within shallow zones, and 30.7 g m−2 to 40.0 g La m−2 in deeper zones. In the upper 20 cm of sediment, La concentrations were 7–6702 mg kg −1 dry weight (DW) compared to 0.5–7.0 mg kg−1 before application. Pre-application anaerobic sediment release of FLa was 0.006 mg m−2 day−1. Three months after the application it was 1.02 mg m−2 day−1. Three years later it was 0.063 mg m−2 day−1. Before application La in plants was 0.8–5.1 mg La kg−1 DW, post-application values were up to 2925 mg La kg−1 DW. In chironomid larvae, La increased from 1.7 µg g−1 DW before application to 1421 µg g−1 DW after one month, 3 years later it was 277 µg g−1 DW. Filtration experiments indicate FLa is not truly dissolved free La3+ cations.
Managing Eutrophication in a Tropical Brackish Water Lagoon : Testing Lanthanum-Modified Clay and Coagulant for Internal Load Reduction and Cyanobacteria Bloom Removal
Magalhães, Leonardo de; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Furtado, Luciana Lima ; Drummond, Erick ; Leite, Vivian Balthazar Gonçalves ; Mucci, Maíra ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Lürling, Miquel ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi - \ 2019
Estuaries and coasts 42 (2019)2. - ISSN 1559-2723 - p. 390 - 402.
Geo-engineering - Lake restoration - PAC - Phoslock - Phosphorus control - Sediment release
The release of phosphorus (P) stored in the sediment may cause long-term delay in the recovery of lakes, ponds, and lagoons from eutrophication. In this paper, we tested on a laboratory scale the efficacy of the flocculant polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and a strong P-binding agent (lanthanum-modified bentonite, LMB) on their ability to flocculate a cyanobacterial bloom and hamper P release from a hypertrophic, brackish lagoon sediment. In addition, critical P loading was estimated through PCLake. We showed that cyanobacteria could be effectively settled using a PAC dose of 2 mg Al L−1 combined with 400-mg L−1 LMB; PAC 8 mg Al L−1 alone could also remove cyanobacteria, although its performance was improved adding low concentrations of LMB. The efficacy of LMB to bind P released from the sediment was tested based on potentially available sediment P. A dose of 400 g LMB m−2 significantly reduced the P release from sediment to over-standing water (either deionized water or water from the lagoon with and without cyanobacteria). In sediment cores, LMB + PAC reduced sediment P flux from 9.9 (± 3.3) to − 4.6 (± 0.3) mg P m−2 day−1 for the experimental period of 3 months. The internal P load was 14 times higher than the estimated P critical load (0.7 mg P m−2 day−1), thus even if all the external P sources would be ceased, the water quality will not improve promptly. Hence, the combined LMB + PAC treatment seems a promising in-lake intervention to diminish internal P load bellow the critical load. Such intervention is able to speed up recovery in the brackish lagoon once external loading has been tackled and at a cost of less than 5% of the estimated dredging costs.
Assessment of possible solid-phase phosphate sorbents to mitigate eutrophication : Influence of pH and anoxia
Mucci, Maíra ; Maliaka, Valentini ; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 619-620 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1431 - 1440.
Geo-engineering - Phosphate adsorption - Phosphorus control
Managing eutrophication remains a challenge to water managers. Currently, the manipulation of biogeochemical processes (i.e., geo-engineering) by using phosphorus-adsorptive techniques has been recognized as an appropriate tool to manage the problem. The first step in finding potential mitigating materials is conducting a sequence of upscaling studies that commence with controlled laboratory experiments. Here, the abilities of 10 possible solid–phase-sorbents (SPS) to adsorb P were examined. Four materials adsorbed P, and two of these materials were modified, i.e., a lanthanum-modified-bentonite (LMB) and an aluminum-modified-zeolite (AMZ), and had the highest adsorption capacities of 11.4 and 8.9 mg P g− 1, respectively. Two natural materials, a red soil (RS) and a bauxite (BAU), were less efficient with adsorption capacities of 2.9 and 3.4 mg P g− 1, respectively. Elemental composition was not related to P adsorption. Since SPS might be affected by pH and redox status, we also tested these materials at pH values of 6, 7, 8 and 9 and under anoxic condition. All tested materials experienced decreased adsorption capacities under anoxic condition, with maximum adsorptions of 5.3 mg P g− 1 for LMB, 5.9 mg P g− 1 for AMZ, 0.2 mg P g− 1 for RS and 0.2 mg P g− 1 for BAU. All materials were able to adsorb P across the range of pH values that were tested. The maximum adsorption capacities of LMB and RS were highest at pH 6, AMZ was higher at a pH of 9 and BAU at a pH of 8. Thus, pH influenced P adsorption differently. Given the effects of pH and anoxia, other abiotic variables should also be considered. Considering the criteria that classify a useful SPS (i.e., effective, easy to produce, cheap and safe), only the two modified materials that were tested seem to be suitable for upscaling to enclosure studies with anoxic sediments.
Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance
Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Magalhães, Leonardo De; Miranda, Marcela ; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi ; Lima, Eduardo R.A. ; Lurling, Miquel - \ 2017
PLoS ONE 12 (2017)6. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16 p.
Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan) with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite) to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil). We tested the effect of different cyanobacterial biomass concentrations on removal efficiency. We also examined if zeta potential was altered by treatments. Addition of low doses of PAC and chitosan (1±8 mg Al L-1) to the cyanobacterial suspensions caused flock formation, but did not settle the cyanobacteria. When those low dose coagulants were combined with ballast, effective settling in a dose-dependent way up to 99.7% removal of the flocks could be achieved without any effect on the zeta potential and thus without potential membrane damage. Removal efficacy was influenced by the cyanobacterial biomass and at higher biomass more ballast was needed to achieve good removal. The combined coagulant-ballast technique provides a promising alternative to algaecides in lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria
Lurling, Miguel ; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Miranda, Marcela ; Mucci, Maíra ; Oosterhout, F. van; Huszar, Vera L.M. ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi - \ 2017
Harmful Algae 66 (2017). - ISSN 1568-9883 - p. 1 - 12.
Cyanobacterial blooms - Eutrophication - Flock and sink - Mitigation - Nuisance control
Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial blooms, as well as high alkalinity may hamper the coagulation of chitosan and thus impair its ability to effectively remove positively buoyant cyanobacteria from the water column. The underlying mechanism is likely a shielding of the protonated groups by anions. Inasmuch as there are many chitosan formulations, thorough testing of each chitosan prior to its application is essential. Results obtained in glass tubes were similar to those from standard jar tests demonstrating that glass tube tests can be used for testing effects of coagulants and ballasts in cyanobacteria removal whilst allowing far more replicates. There was no relation between zeta potential and precipitated cyanobacteria. Given the well-known antibacterial activity of chitosan and recent findings of anti-cyanobacterial effects, pre-application tests are needed to decipher if chitosan may cause cell leakage of cyanotoxins. Efficiency- and side-effect testing are crucial for water managers to determine if the selected approach can be used in tailor-made interventions to control cyanobacterial blooms and to mitigate eutrophication.
Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis
Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira ; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Miranda, Marcela ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Guedes, Iamê Alves ; Huszar, Vera L.M. ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2017
Water Research 118 (2017). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 121 - 130.
Cell lysis - Cell viability - Cyanobacterial blooms - Eutrophication - Lake restoration - Photosystem II efficiency
Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show that chitosan may rapidly compromise membrane integrity and kill certain cyanobacteria leading to release of cell contents in the water. A strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and one strain of Planktothrix agardhii were most sensitive. A 1.3 h exposure to a low dose of 0.5 mg l−1 chitosan already almost completely killed these cultures resulting in release of cell contents. After 24 h, reductions in PSII efficiencies of all cyanobacteria tested were observed. EC50 values varied from around 0.5 mg l−1 chitosan for the two sensitive strains, via about 5 mg l−1 chitosan for an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae strain, a toxic P. agardhii strain and two Anabaena cylindrica cultures, to more than 8 mg l−1 chitosan for a Microcystis aeruginosa strain and another A. flos-aquae strain. Differences in sensitivity to chitosan might be related to polymeric substances that surround cyanobacteria. Rapid lysis of toxic strains is likely and when chitosan flocking and sinking of cyanobacteria is considered in lake restoration, flocculation efficacy studies should be complemented with investigation on the effects of chitosan on the cyanobacteria assemblage being targeted.
The efficiency of combined coagulant and ballast to remove harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a tropical shallow system
Miranda, Marcela ; Noyma, Natália ; Pacheco, Felipe S. ; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Pinto, Ernani ; Santos, Suzan ; Soares, Maria Fernanda A. ; Huszar, Vera L. ; Lurling, Miguel ; Marinho, Marcelo M. - \ 2017
Harmful Algae 65 (2017). - ISSN 1568-9883 - p. 27 - 39.
Chitosan - Cyanobacteria mitigation - Cylindrospermopsis - Eutrophication control - Microcystis
We tested the hypothesis that a combination of coagulant and ballast could be efficient for removal of positively buoyant harmful cyanobacteria in shallow tropical waterbodies, and will not promote the release of cyanotoxins. This laboratory study examined the efficacy of coagulants [polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and chitosan (made of shrimp shells)] alone, and combined with ballast (lanthanum modified bentonite, red soil or gravel) to remove the natural populations of cyanobacteria collected from a shallow eutrophic urban reservoir with alternating blooms of Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis. PAC combined with ballast was effective in settling blooms dominated by Microcystis or Cylindrospermopsis. Contrary to our expectation, chitosan combined with ballast was only effective in settling Cylindrospermopsis-dominated blooms at low pH, whereas at pH ≥ 8 no effective flocculation and settling could be evoked. Chitosan also had a detrimental effect on Cylindrospermopsis causing the release of saxitoxins. In contrast, no detrimental effect on Microcystis was observed and all coagulant-ballast treatments were effective in not only settling the Microcystis dominated bloom, but also lowering dissolved microcystin concentrations. Our data show that the best procedure for biomass reduction also depends on the dominant species.
Efficacy of Coagulants and Ballast Compounds in Removal of Cyanobacteria (Microcystis) from Water of the Tropical Lagoon Jacarepaguá (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Magalhães, Leonardo de; Noyma, Natália Pessoa ; Furtado, Luciana Lima ; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Huszar, Vera L.M. ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi ; Lurling, Miguel - \ 2017
Estuaries and coasts 40 (2017)1. - ISSN 1559-2723 - p. 121 - 133.
Bloom control - Chitosan - Cyanobacteria - Eutrophication - Mitigation - PAC
Eutrophication is considered the most important water quality problem in freshwaters and coastal waters worldwide promoting frequent occurrence of blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a combination of coagulant and ballast is a promising technique for mitigation and an alternative to the use of algaecides. In laboratory, we tested experimentally the efficiency of two coagulants, polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and chitosan (made of shrimp shells), alone and combined with two ballasts: red soil (RS) and the own lagoon sediment, to remove natural populations of cyanobacteria, from an urban brackish coastal lagoon. PAC was a very effective coagulant when applied at low doses (≤8 mg Al L−1) and settled the cyanobacteria, while at high doses (≥16 mg Al L−1) large flocks aggregated in the top of test tubes. In contrast, chitosan was not able to form flocks, even in high doses (>16 mg L−1) and did not efficiently settle down cyanobacteria when combined with ballast. The RS itself removed 33–47 % of the cyanobacteria. This removal was strongly enhanced when combined with PAC in a dose-dependent matter; 8 mg Al L−1 was considered the best dose to be applied. The lagoon sediment alone did not promote any settling of cyanobacteria but removal was high when combined with PAC. Combined coagulant and ballast seems a very efficient, cheap, fast and safe curative measure to lessen the harmful cyanobacteria bloom nuisance in periods when particularly needed, such as around the 2016 Olympics in Jacarepaguá Lagoon.
Controlling cyanobacterial blooms through effective flocculation and sedimentation with combined use of flocculants and phosphorus adsorbing natural soil and modified clay
Pessoa Noyma, Natalia ; Magalhaes, L. de; Furtado, L.L. ; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, M. ; Oosterhout, M. van; Huszar, V.L.M. ; Marinho, M.M. ; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W. - \ 2016
Water Research 97 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 26 - 38.
Cyanobacteria bloom - Geo-engineering in lakes - Lake restoration - Local red soil - Phosphorus mitigation
Eutrophication often results in blooms of toxic cyanobacteria that hamper the use of lakes and reservoirs. In this paper, we experimentally evaluated the efficacy of a metal salt (poly-aluminium chloride, PAC) and chitosan, alone and combined with different doses of the lanthanum modified bentonite Phoslock® (LMB) or local red soil (LRS) to sediment positively buoyant cyanobacteria from Funil Reservoir, Brazil, (22°30’S, 44°45’W). We also tested the effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) on suspended and settled cyanobacterial photosystem efficiency, and evaluated the soluble reactive P (SRP) adsorbing capacity of both LMB and LRS under oxic and anoxic conditions. Our data showed that buoyant cyanobacteria could be flocked and effectively precipitated using a combination of PAC or chitosan with LMB or LRS. The SRP sorption capacity of LMB was higher than that of LRS. The maximum P adsorption was lowered under anoxic conditions especially for LRS ballast. CaO2 addition impaired photosystem efficiency at 1 mg L-1 or higher and killed precipitated cyanobacteria at 4 mg L-1 or higher. A drawback was that oxygen production from the peroxide gave positive buoyancy again to the settled flocs. Therefore, further experimentations with slow release pellets are recommended.