Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The science base of a strategic research agenda - Executive Summary
Bray, A.W. ; Kim, J.H. ; Schrumpf, M. ; Peacock, C. ; Banwart, S. ; Schipper, L. ; Angers, D. ; Chirinda, N. ; Lopes Zinn, Y. ; Albrecht, A. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Jouquet, P. ; Demenois, J. ; Farrell, M. ; Fontaine, S. ; Soussana, J.F. ; Kuhnert, M. ; Milne, E. ; Taghizadeh-Toosi, A. ; Cerri, C.E.P. ; Corbeels, M. ; Cardinael, R. ; Alcántara Cervantes, V. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Batjes, N.H. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Maia, S.M.F. ; Keesstra, S.D. ; Claessens, L.F.G. ; Madari, B.E. ; Verchot, L. ; Nie, W. - \ 2019
EU - 16 p.
A summary presenting the challenges for soil carbon sequestration research, hypotheis to be further tested and key research (and innvation) products.
How to measure, report and verify soil carbon change to realize the potential of soil carbon sequestration for atmospheric greenhouse gas removal
Smith, Pete ; Soussana, Jean Francois ; Angers, Denis ; Schipper, Louis ; Chenu, Claire ; Rasse, Daniel P. ; Batjes, Niels H. ; Egmond, Fenny van; McNeill, Stephen ; Kuhnert, Matthias ; Arias-Navarro, Cristina ; Olesen, Jorgen E. ; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe ; Fornara, Dario ; Wollenberg, Eva ; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge ; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto ; Klumpp, Katja - \ 2019
Global Change Biology (2019). - ISSN 1354-1013
measurement - monitoring - MRV - reporting - soil organic carbon - soil organic matter - verification

There is growing international interest in better managing soils to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content to contribute to climate change mitigation, to enhance resilience to climate change and to underpin food security, through initiatives such as international ‘4p1000’ initiative and the FAO's Global assessment of SOC sequestration potential (GSOCseq) programme. Since SOC content of soils cannot be easily measured, a key barrier to implementing programmes to increase SOC at large scale, is the need for credible and reliable measurement/monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) platforms, both for national reporting and for emissions trading. Without such platforms, investments could be considered risky. In this paper, we review methods and challenges of measuring SOC change directly in soils, before examining some recent novel developments that show promise for quantifying SOC. We describe how repeat soil surveys are used to estimate changes in SOC over time, and how long-term experiments and space-for-time substitution sites can serve as sources of knowledge and can be used to test models, and as potential benchmark sites in global frameworks to estimate SOC change. We briefly consider models that can be used to simulate and project change in SOC and examine the MRV platforms for SOC change already in use in various countries/regions. In the final section, we bring together the various components described in this review, to describe a new vision for a global framework for MRV of SOC change, to support national and international initiatives seeking to effect change in the way we manage our soils.

European experiences on the use of remote electronic monitoring
Mortensen, L. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Ulrich, C. ; Needle, C. ; Oesterwind, D. ; Kindt-Larsen, L. ; Catchpole, T. ; Mangi, Stephen ; Zimmermann, C. ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Bailey, N. ; Bergsson, Heidrikur ; Dalskov, J. ; Elson, Jon ; Hosken, Malo ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
A Summary of Research Activities from the AgMIP Potato Crop Modeling Intercomparison Pilot
Fleisher, D.H. ; Condori, B. ; Quiroz, R. ; Alva, A. ; Asseng, S. ; Barreda, Carolina ; Berghuijs, H.N.C. ; Bindi, M. ; Boote, K.J. ; Craigon, J. ; Fangmeier, A. ; Ferrise, Roberto ; Franke, A.C. ; Gayler, S. ; Govindakrishnan, P.M. ; Harahagazwe, Dieudonne ; Hoogenboom, G. ; Kremer, P. ; Kroes, J. ; Naresh Kumar, S. ; Merante, Paolo ; Nendel, C. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Parker, P.S. ; Pleijel, H. ; Raes, Dirk ; Raymundo, Rubi ; Reidsma, P. ; Ruana, A. ; Silva, J.V. ; Stella, T. ; Stockle, Claudio ; Supit, I. ; Evert, F.K. van; Vandermeiren, K. ; Vanuytrecht, Eline ; Vorne, V. ; Wolf, J. ; Woli, Prem - \ 2018
Activity-1 of the potato crop model intercomparison pilot was recently completed and focused on quantifying multi-model uncertainty to climate responses when using common data sets from low-and high-input management sites. Median model ensemble response outperformed any single model in terms of replicatingobserved yield across all sites. Uncertainty among models averaged 15% higher for low-versus high-input sites, with larger differences observed for evapotranspiration (ET), nitrogen uptake, and water use efficiency as compared to dry matter. A minimum of five partial, or three full, calibrated models was required for an ensemble approach to keep variability below that of common field variation. Model variation was not influenced by carbon dioxide (C), but increased as much as 41 and 23% for yield and ET respectively as temperature (T) or rainfall (W) moved away from historical levels. Increases in T accounted for the highest amount of uncertainty, suggesting that methods and parameters for T sensitivity represent a considerable unknown among models. Activity-2 research is on-going and tests the capability of multiple models to mimic effects of elevated C concentration on potato yields measured at eight different locations in Europe. A subset from observed OTC and FACE data was used to initially calibrate the models. This research will also evaluate the stability of the models’ calibration with respect to changes in geographic location, as the same variety was used in all locations. This presentation will summarize the Activity-1 results and discuss the current status of Activity-2 investigations.
Cereal yield gaps across Europe
Schils, René ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian ; Rijk, Bert ; Oberforster, Michael ; Kalyada, Valery ; Khitrykau, Maksim ; Gobin, Anne ; Kirchev, Hristofor ; Manolova, Vanya ; Manolov, Ivan ; Trnka, Mirek ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Paluoso, Taru ; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo ; Jauhiainen, Lauri ; Lorgeou, Josiane ; Marrou, Hélène ; Danalatos, Nikos ; Archontoulis, Sotirios ; Fodor, Nándor ; Spink, John ; Roggero, Pier Paolo ; Bassu, Simona ; Pulina, Antonio ; Seehusen, Till ; Uhlen, Anne Kjersti ; Żyłowska, Katarzyna ; Nieróbca, Anna ; Kozyra, Jerzy ; Silva, João Vasco ; Maçãs, Benvindo Martins ; Coutinho, José ; Ion, Viorel ; Takáč, Jozef ; Mínguez, M.I. ; Eckersten, Henrik ; Levy, Lilia ; Herrera, Juan Manuel ; Hiltbrunner, Jürg ; Kryvobok, Oleksii ; Kryvoshein, Oleksandr ; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Groot, Hugo de; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Bussel, Lenny van; Wolf, Joost ; Zijlstra, Mink ; Loon, Marloes P. van; Ittersum, Martin K. van - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy 101 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 109 - 120.
Barley - Crop modelling - Grain maize - Nitrogen - Wheat - Yield potential

Europe accounts for around 20% of the global cereal production and is a net exporter of ca. 15% of that production. Increasing global demand for cereals justifies questions as to where and by how much Europe's production can be increased to meet future global market demands, and how much additional nitrogen (N) crops would require. The latter is important as environmental concern and legislation are equally important as production aims in Europe. Here, we used a country-by-country, bottom-up approach to establish statistical estimates of actual grain yield, and compare these to modelled estimates of potential yields for either irrigated or rainfed conditions. In this way, we identified the yield gaps and the opportunities for increased cereal production for wheat, barley and maize, which represent 90% of the cereals grown in Europe. The combined mean annual yield gap of wheat, barley, maize was 239 Mt, or 42% of the yield potential. The national yield gaps ranged between 10 and 70%, with small gaps in many north-western European countries, and large gaps in eastern and south-western Europe. Yield gaps for rainfed and irrigated maize were consistently lower than those of wheat and barley. If the yield gaps of maize, wheat and barley would be reduced from 42% to 20% of potential yields, this would increase annual cereal production by 128 Mt (39%). Potential for higher cereal production exists predominantly in Eastern Europe, and half of Europe's potential increase is located in Ukraine, Romania and Poland. Unlocking the identified potential for production growth requires a substantial increase of the crop N uptake of 4.8 Mt. Across Europe, the average N uptake gaps, to achieve 80% of the yield potential, were 87, 77 and 43 kg N ha−1 for wheat, barley and maize, respectively. Emphasis on increasing the N use efficiency is necessary to minimize the need for additional N inputs. Whether yield gap reduction is desirable and feasible is a matter of balancing Europe's role in global food security, farm economic objectives and environmental targets.

Simulation of soil organic carbon effects on long-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) production under varying fertilizer inputs
Ghaley, Bhim B. ; Wösten, Henk ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Schelde, Kirsten ; Baby, Sanmohan ; Karki, Yubaraj K. ; Børgesen, Christen D. ; Smith, Pete ; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh ; Ferrise, Roberto ; Bindi, Marco ; Kuikman, Peter ; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Porter, John R. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Crop productivity - DAISY model - Grain yield - Long-term experiment - Nitrogen - Pedotransfer functions - Plant available water

Soil organic carbon (SOC) has a vital role to enhance agricultural productivity and for mitigation of climate change. To quantify SOC effects on productivity, process models serve as a robust tool to keep track of multiple plant and soil factors and their interactions affecting SOC dynamics. We used soil-plant-atmospheric model viz. DAISY, to assess effects of SOC on nitrogen (N) supply and plant available water (PAW) under varying N fertilizer rates in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Denmark. The study objective was assessment of SOC effects on winter wheat grain and aboveground biomass accumulation at three SOC levels (low: 0.7% SOC; reference: 1.3% SOC; and high: 2% SOC) with five nitrogen rates (0–200 kg N ha−1) and PAW at low, reference, and high SOC levels. The three SOC levels had significant effects on grain yields and aboveground biomass accumulation at only 0–100 kg N ha−1 and the SOC effects decreased with increasing N rates until no effects at 150–200 kg N ha−1. PAW had significant positive correlation with SOC content, with high SOC retaining higher PAW compared to low and reference SOC. The mean PAW and SOC correlation was given by PAW% = 1.0073 × SOC% + 15.641. For the 0.7–2% SOC range, the PAW increase was small with no significant effects on grain yields and aboveground biomass accumulation. The higher winter wheat grain and aboveground biomass was attributed to higher N supply in N deficient wheat production system. Our study suggested that building SOC enhances agronomic productivity at only 0–100 kg N ha−1. Maintenance of SOC stock will require regular replenishment of SOC, to compensate for the mineralization process degrading SOC over time. Hence, management can maximize realization of SOC benefits by building up SOC and maintaining N rates in the range 0–100 kg N ha−1, to reduce the off-farm N losses depending on the environmental zones, land use and the production system.

The Hot Serial Cereal Experiment for modeling wheat response to temperature: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations
Martre, Pierre ; Kimball, Bruce A. ; Ottman, Michael J. ; Wall, Gerard W. ; White, Jeffrey W. ; Asseng, Senthold ; Ewert, Frank ; Cammarano, Davide ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Anothai, Jakarat ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Doltra, Jordi ; Dumont, Benjamin ; Fereres, Elias ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Hunt, Leslie A. ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jabloun, Mohamed ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kassie, Belay T. ; Kersebaum, Kurt C. ; Koehler, Ann-Kristin ; Müller, Christoph ; Kumar, Soora Naresh ; Liu, Bing ; Lobell, David B. ; Nendel, Claas ; O'Leary, Garry ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Palosuo, Taru ; Priesack, Eckart ; Rezaei, Ehsan Eyshi ; Ripoche, Dominique ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; Semenov, Mikhail A. ; Stöckle, Claudio ; Stratonovitch, Pierre ; Streck, Thilo ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Thorburn, Peter ; Waha, Katharina ; Wang, Enli ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhao, Zhigan ; Zhu, Yan - \ 2018
ODjAR : open data journal for agricultural research 4 (2018). - ISSN 2352-6378 - p. 28 - 34.
The data set reported here includes the part of a Hot Serial Cereal Experiment (HSC) experiment recently used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat models and quantify their response to temperature. The HSC experiment was conducted in an open-field in a semiarid environment in the southwest USA. The data reported herewith include one hard red spring wheat cultivar (Yecora Rojo) sown approximately every six weeks from December to August for a two-year period for a total of 11 planting dates out of the 15 of the entire HSC experiment. The treatments were chosen to avoid any effect of frost on grain yields. On late fall, winter and early spring plantings temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) apparatus utilizing infrared heaters with supplemental irrigation were used to increase air temperature by 1.3°C/2.7°C (day/night) with conditions equivalent to raising air temperature at constant relative humidity (i.e. as expected with global warming) during the whole crop growth cycle. Experimental data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial conditions, detailed crop measurements taken at three growth stages during the growth cycle, and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models.
Data from global field experiments for potato simulations
Raymundo, Rubi ; Asseng, Senthold ; Prasad, Rishi ; Kleinwechter, Ulrich ; Condori, Bruno ; Bowen, Walter ; Wolf, J. ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Dong, Qiaoxue ; Zotarelli, Lincoln ; Gastelo, Manuel ; Alva, Ashok ; Travasso, Maria ; Arora, Vijay - \ 2018
potato - field experimental data - simulations
Global field experiments for potato simulations
Raymundo, Rubi ; Asseng, Senthold ; Prasad, Rishi ; Kleinwechter, Ulrich ; Condori, Bruno ; Bowen, Walter ; Wolf, Joost ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Dong, Qiaoxue ; Zotarelli, Lincoln ; Gastelo, Manuel ; Alva, Ashok ; Travasso, Maria ; Arora, Vijay - \ 2018
ODjAR : open data journal for agricultural research 4 (2018). - ISSN 2352-6378 - p. 35 - 44.
A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, temperature, cultivars, and locations. For all experiments, measurements include tuber fresh and dry weight. For some experiments, measurements include in-season biomass, leaf area index, stem and leaf weight, N uptake, soil water, and soil N contents. Each experiment has soil characteristics and daily data for solar radiation, rainfall, and maximum and minimum temperature. The data have been quality checked and used in a previous simulation exercise. All data are in AGMIP format.
Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context-Participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment
Hyder, Kieran ; Weltersbach, Marc Simon ; Armstrong, Mike ; Ferter, Keno ; Townhill, Bryony ; Ahvonen, Anssi ; Arlinghaus, Robert ; Baikov, Andrei ; Bellanger, Manuel ; Birzaks, Janis ; Borch, Trude ; Cambie, Giulia ; Graaf, Martin De; Diogo, Hugo M.C. ; Dziemian, Łukasz ; Gordoa, Ana ; Grzebielec, Ryszard ; Hartill, Bruce ; Kagervall, Anders ; Kapiris, Kostas ; Karlsson, Martin ; Kleiven, Alf Ring ; Lejk, Adam M. ; Levrel, Harold ; Lovell, Sabrina ; Lyle, Jeremy ; Moilanen, Pentti ; Monkman, Graham ; Morales-Nin, Beatriz ; Mugerza, Estanis ; Martinez, Roi ; O'Reilly, Paul ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Papadopoulos, Anastasios ; Pita, Pablo ; Radford, Zachary ; Radtke, Krzysztof ; Roche, William ; Rocklin, Delphine ; Ruiz, Jon ; Scougal, Callum ; Silvestri, Roberto ; Skov, Christian ; Steinback, Scott ; Sundelöf, Andreas ; Svagzdys, Arvydas ; Turnbull, David ; Hammen, Tessa van der; Voorhees, David Van; Winsen, Frankwin Van; Verleye, Thomas ; Veiga, Pedro ; Vølstad, Jon-Helge ; Zarauz, Lucia ; Zolubas, Tomas ; Strehlow, Harry V. - \ 2018
Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)2. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 225 - 243.
European marine recreational fisheries - fisheries assessment and management - fishing effort and expenditure - participation - surveys and monitoring of marine recreational fisheries
Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high-participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on numbers of fishers, participation rates, days fished, expenditures, and catches of two widely targeted species were synthesized to provide European estimates of MRF and placed in the global context. Uncertainty assessment was not possible due to incomplete knowledge of error distributions; instead, a semi-quantitative bias assessment was made. There were an estimated 8.7 million European recreational sea fishers corresponding to a participation rate of 1.6%. An estimated 77.6 million days were fished, and expenditure was €5.9 billion annually. There were higher participation, numbers of fishers, days fished and expenditure in the Atlantic than the Mediterranean, but the Mediterranean estimates were generally less robust. Comparisons with other regions showed that European MRF participation rates and expenditure were in the mid-range, with higher participation in Oceania and the United States, higher expenditure in the United States, and lower participation and expenditure in South America and Africa. For both northern European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Moronidae) and western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae) stocks, MRF represented 27% of the total removals. This study highlights the importance of MRF and the need for bespoke, regular and statistically sound data collection to underpin European fisheries management. Solutions are proposed for future MRF data collection in Europe and other regions to support sustainable fisheries management.
Sustainable Nitrogen Management in Denmark
Dalgaard, Tommy ; Brock, S. ; Graversgaard, Morten ; Hansen, Brigitte ; Hashemi, F. ; Häsler, B. ; Hertel, O. ; Hutchings, N.J. ; Jacobsen, B.H. ; Stoumann Jensen, L. ; Kjeldsen, Chris ; Olesen, J.E. ; Schjorring, J.K. ; Sigsgaard, T. ; Stubkjaer Andersen, P. ; Termansen, Mette ; Vejre, H. ; Vestergaard Odgaard, M. ; Vries, W. de; Wiborg, I.A. - \ 2017
In: Innovative solutions for sustainable management of nitrogen. - Aarhus University and the dNmark.org Research Alliance - ISBN 9788793398825 - p. 13 - 16.
Innovative solutions for sustainable management of nitrogen : Conference proceedings
Dalgaard, Tommy ; Olesen, J.E. ; Schjorring, J.K. ; Jensen, J.S. ; Vejre, H. ; Andersen, P.S. ; Gundersen, P. ; Jacobsen, B.H. ; Jensen, J. ; Häsler, B. ; Termansen, Mette ; Hertel, O. ; Brock, S. ; Kronvang, B. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Sigsgaard, T. ; Hansen, B. ; Thorling, L. ; Højberg, A.L. ; Wiborg, I.A. ; Piil, K. ; Kjeldsen, Chris ; Graversgaard, Morten ; Hutchings, N. ; Vries, W. de; Christensen, J. ; Mukendi, T. - \ 2017
- 142 p.
Author Correction: The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions
Wang, Enli ; Martre, Pierre ; Zhao, Zhigan ; Ewert, Frank ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; Kimball, Bruce A. ; Ottman, Michael J. ; Wall, Gerard W. ; White, Jeffrey W. ; Reynolds, Matthew P. ; Alderman, Phillip D. ; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Anothai, Jakarat ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Cammarano, Davide ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Doltra, Jordi ; Dumont, Benjamin ; Fereres, Elias ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Hunt, Leslie A. ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jabloun, Mohamed ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kersebaum, Kurt C. ; Koehler, Ann-Kristin ; Liu, Leilei ; Müller, Christoph ; Kumar, Soora Naresh ; Nendel, Claas ; O’Leary, Garry ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Palosuo, Taru ; Priesack, Eckart ; Rezaei, Ehsan Eyshi ; Ripoche, Dominique ; Ruane, Alex C. ; Semenov, Mikhail A. ; Shcherbak, Iurii ; Stöckle, Claudio ; Stratonovitch, Pierre ; Streck, Thilo ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Thorburn, Peter ; Waha, Katharina ; Wallach, Daniel ; Wang, Zhimin ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhu, Yan ; Asseng, Senthold - \ 2017
Nature Plants 3 (2017)10. - ISSN 2055-026X - p. 833 - 833.
Epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic nevrosis virus (IHNV) in the Netherlands since 2008
Haenen, O.L.M. ; Vos, C.J. de; Boender, G.J. ; Schuetze, H. ; Cieslak, Michael ; Oldenburg, S. ; Spierenburg, M.A.H. ; Roozenburg-Hengst, R.E.M. ; Voorbergen-Laarman, H.A. ; Gelderen, E. van; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Olesen, Niels J. - \ 2017
Epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic nevrosis virus (IHNV) in the Netherlands since 2008
Haenen, O.L.M. ; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de; Boender, G.J. ; Schuetze, H. ; Cieslak, M. ; Oldenburg, S. ; Spierenburg, M.A.H. ; Roozenburg-Hengst, R.E.M. ; Voorbergen-Laarman, H.A. ; Gelderen, E. van; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Olesen, N.J. - \ 2017
Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio
Way, K. ; Haenen, O. ; Stone, D. ; Adamek, M. ; Bergmann, S.M. ; Bigarré, L. ; Diserens, Nicolas ; El-Matbouli, M. ; Gjessing, M.C. ; Jung-Schroers, V. ; Leguay, E. ; Matras, M. ; Olesen, Niels J. ; Panzarin, Valentina ; Piačková, V. ; Toffan, A. ; Vendramin, N. ; Veselý, T. ; Waltzek, T. - \ 2017
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 126 (2017)2. - ISSN 0177-5103 - p. 155 - 166.
Aquaculture - CEVD - Cyprinus carpio - Koi sleepy disease - PCR - Poxvirus
Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Although the structure of the CEV genome is not yet elucidated, molecular epidemiology studies have suggested distinct geographical populations of CEV infecting both koi and common carp. Detection and identification of cases of CEVD in common carp were unreliable using the original PCR primers. New primers for conventional and quantitative PCR (qPCR) have been designed that improve detection, and their sequences are provided in this paper. The qPCR primers have successfully detected CEV DNA in archive material from investigations of unexplained carp mortalities conducted >15 yr ago. Improvement in disease management and control is possible, and the principles of biosecurity, good health management and disease surveillance, applied to koi herpesvirus disease, can be equally applied to CEVD. However, further research studies are needed to fill the knowledge gaps in the disease pathogenesis and epidemiology that, currently, prevent an accurate assessment of the likely impact of CEVD on European koi and common carp aquaculture and on wild carp stocks.
The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions
Wang, Enli ; Martre, Pierre ; Zhao, Zhigan ; Ewert, Frank ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; Kimball, Bruce A. ; Ottman, Michael J. ; Wall, Gerard W. ; White, Jeffrey W. ; Reynolds, Matthew P. ; Alderman, Phillip D. ; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Anothai, Jakarat ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Cammarano, Davide ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Doltra, Jordi ; Fereres, Elias ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Hunt, Leslie A. ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jabloun, Mohamed ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian ; Koehler, Ann Kristin ; Liu, Leilei ; Müller, Christoph ; Naresh Kumar, Soora ; Nendel, Claas ; O'Leary, Garry ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Palosuo, Taru ; Priesack, Eckart ; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan ; Ripoche, Dominique ; Ruane, Alex C. ; Semenov, Mikhail A. ; Shcherbak, Iurii ; Stöckle, Claudio O. ; Stratonovitch, Pierre ; Streck, Thilo ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Thorburn, Peter J. ; Waha, Katharina ; Wallach, Daniel ; Wang, Zhimin ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhu, Yan ; Asseng, Senthold ; Dumont, Benjamin - \ 2017
Nature Plants 3 (2017). - ISSN 2055-026X
Increasing the accuracy of crop productivity estimates is a key element in planning adaptation strategies to ensure global food security under climate change. Process-based crop models are effective means to project climate impact on crop yield, but have large uncertainty in yield simulations. Here, we show that variations in the mathematical functions currently used to simulate temperature responses of physiological processes in 29 wheat models account for >50% of uncertainty in simulated grain yields for mean growing season temperatures from 14 °C to 33 °C. We derived a set of new temperature response functions that when substituted in four wheat models reduced the error in grain yield simulations across seven global sites with different temperature regimes by 19% to 50% (42% average). We anticipate the improved temperature responses to be a key step to improve modelling of crops under rising temperature and climate change, leading to higher skill of crop yield projections.
Research for AGRI Committee : preserving agricultural soils in the EU - Study
Berge, H.F.M. ten; Schroder, J.J. ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Giraldez Cervera, J.V. - \ 2017
Brussels : European Parliament - ISBN 9789184609550 - 135 p.
soil management - soil quality - european union - soil organic matter - biodiversity - agriculture - organic farming - bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - europese unie - organisch bodemmateriaal - biodiversiteit - landbouw - biologische landbouw
This study explains how threats to soils and soil services are linked to agricultural soil management, how threats can be mitigated, and which barriers complicate this. It highlights trade-offs and synergies that exist between different interests affected by soil management, such as climate change mitigation, water and air quality, biodiversity, food security and farm income. Conservation of peatland and extensive agro-forestry systems, and protecting soils against sealing, erosion and compaction are ranked as highest priorities. Potential policy elements are suggested.
Breeding and genetics symposium : Climate change and selective breeding in aquaculture
Sae-Lim, P. ; Kause, A. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Olesen, I. - \ 2017
Journal of Animal Science 95 (2017)4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1801 - 1812.
Adaptation - Climate change - Resilience - Robustness - Selective breeding

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector and it contributes significantly to global food security. Based on Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture production must increase significantly to meet the future global demand for aquatic foods in 2050. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and FAO, climate change may result in global warming, sea level rise, changes of ocean productivity, freshwater shortage, and more frequent extreme climate events. Consequently, climate change may affect aquaculture to various extents depending on climatic zones, geographical areas, rearing systems, and species farmed. There are 2 major challenges for aquaculture caused by climate change. First, the current fish, adapted to the prevailing environmental conditions, may be suboptimal under future conditions. Fish species are often poikilothermic and, therefore, may be particularly vulnerable to temperature changes. This will make low sensitivity to temperature more important for fish than for livestock and other terrestrial species. Second, climate change may facilitate outbreaks of existing and new pathogens or parasites. To cope with the challenges above, 3 major adaptive strategies are identified. First, general ‘robustness’ will become a key trait in aquaculture, whereby fish will be less vulnerable to current and new diseases while at the same time thriving in a wider range of temperatures. Second, aquaculture activities, such as input power, transport, and feed production contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Selection for feed efficiency as well as defining a breeding goal that minimizes greenhouse gas emissions will reduce impacts of aquaculture on climate change. Finally, the limited adoption of breeding programs in aquaculture is a major concern. This implies inefficient use of resources for feed, water, and land. Consequently, the carbon footprint per kg fish produced is greater than when fish from breeding programs would be more heavily used. Aquaculture should use genetically improved and robust organisms not suffering from inbreeding depression. This will require using fish from well-managed selective breeding programs with proper inbreeding control and breeding goals. Policymakers and breeding organizations should provide incentives to boost selective breeding programs in aquaculture for more robust fish tolerating climatic change.

Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Cabon, J. ; Louboutin, L. ; Castric, J. ; Bergmann, S. ; Bovo, G. ; Matras, M. ; Haenen, O. ; Olesen, N.J. ; Morin, T. - \ 2017
Journal of Fish Diseases 40 (2017)5. - ISSN 0140-7775 - p. 687 - 701.
common carp - CyHV-3-specific antibodies - Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 - koi - method validation - serum neutralization test
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious infective, notifiable disease affecting common carp and varieties. In survivors, infection is generally characterized by a subclinical latency phase with restricted viral replication. The CyHV-3 genome is difficult to detect in such carrier fish that represent a potential source of dissemination if viral reactivation occurs. In this study, the analytical and diagnostic performance of an alternative serum neutralization (SN) method based on the detection of CyHV-3-specific antibodies was assessed using 151 serum or plasma samples from healthy and naturally or experimentally CyHV-3-infected carp. French CyHV-3 isolate 07/108b was neutralized efficiently by sera from carp infected with European, American and Taiwanese CyHV-3 isolates, but no neutralization was observed using sera specific to other aquatic herpesviruses. Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and repeatability of 95.9%, 99.0% and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained, as well as a compliance rate of 89.9% in reproducibility testing. Neutralizing antibodies were steadily detected in infected carp subjected to restrictive or permissive temperature variations over more than 25 months post-infection. The results suggest that this non-lethal diagnostic test could be used in the future to improve the epidemiological surveillance and control of CyHV-3 disease.
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