Towards an ecosystem-based approach of Guam's coral reefs : The human dimension
Weijerman, M. ; Grace-McCaskey, Cynthia ; Grafeld, Shanna L. ; Kotowicz, Dawn M. ; Oleson, Kirsten L.L. ; Putten, Ingrid E. van - \ 2016
Marine Policy 63 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 8 - 17.
Coral reef ecosystem - Fisheries - Guam - Marine resource use - Socio-ecological model - Tourism
Management of tropical reef ecosystems under pressure from terrestrial and extractive marine activities is not straightforward, especially when the interests of extractive and non-extractive marine resource sectors compete. Before implementing management actions, potential outcomes of alternative management strategies can be evaluated in order to avoid adverse or unintended consequences. In tropical reef ecosystems the continued existence of the cultural and recreational fishing activities and the economically important dive-based tourism and recreation industry rest on sustainably managed marine resources. Through a case study of Guam, an ecosystem model was linked with human behavior models for participation in fishing and diving to evaluate future socio-ecological impacts of different management options. Ecosystem indices for reef status and resilience, and extraction potential were identified to evaluate the performance of alternative management scenarios. These marine ecosystem indices link the natural system to human uses (fishing and dive-based tourism and recreation). Evaluating management scenarios indicate that applying a single management tool, such as input controls or marine preserves, without also managing the watershed, is suboptimal. Combining different management tools has negative near-term costs, particularly for the fishing sector, but these are likely to be outweighed by the long-term benefits obtained from greater species abundance. Adopting watershed management measures in addition to fishery regulations distributes the burden for improving the reef status across multiple sectors that contribute to reef pressures.
Cultural bequest values for ecosystem service flows among indigenous fishers: A discrete choice experiment validated with mixed methods
Oleson, K.L.L. ; Barnes, M. ; Brander, L. ; Olvier, T.A. ; Beek, I.J.M. van; Zafindrasilivonona, B. ; Beukering, P. - \ 2015
Ecological Economics 114 (2015). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 104 - 116.
Perhaps the most understudied ecosystem services are related to socio-cultural values tied to non-material benefits arising from human–ecosystem relationships. Bequest values linked to natural ecosystems can be particularly significant for indigenous communities whose livelihoods and cultures are tied to ecosystems. Here we apply a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to determine indigenous fishers' preferences and willingness-to-pay for bequest gains from management actions in a locally managed marine area in Madagascar, and use our results to estimate an implicit discount rate. We validate our results using a unique rating and ranking game and other mixed methods. We find that bequest is highly valued and important; respondents were willing to pay a substantial portion of their income to protect ecosystems for future generations. Through all of our inquiries, bequest emerged as the highest priority, even when respondents were forced to make trade-offs among other livelihood-supporting ecosystem services. This study is among a relative few to quantify bequest values and apply a DCE to model trade-offs, value ecosystem service flows, and estimate discount rates in a developing country. Our results directly inform coastal management in Madagascar and elsewhere by providing information on the socio-cultural value of bequest in comparison to other ecosystem service benefits
Evolutionary dynamics and genetic diversity from three genes of Anguilid thabdovirus
Bellec, L. ; Cabon, J. ; Bergmann, S. ; Boisseson, C. de; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Haenen, O.L.M. ; Morin, T. ; Oleson, N.J. ; Schuetze, H. ; Toffan, A. ; Way, K. ; Bigarré, L. - \ 2014
Journal of General Virology 95 (2014)Pt 11. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 2390 - 2401.
vesicular stomatitis-virus - hemorrhagic septicemia virus - fresh-water eels - european eel - phylogenetic analysis - dna polymorphism - fish rhabdovirus - spring viremia - carp virus - p-gene
Wild freshwater eel populations have dramatically declined in recent past decades in Europe and America, partially through the impact of several factors including the wide spread of infectious diseases. The anguillid rhabdoviruses eel virus European X (EVEX) and eel virus American (EVA) potentially play a role in this decline, even if their real contribution is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics and genetic diversity of anguiillid rhabdoviruses by analysing sequences from the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein (P) genes of 57 viral strains collected from seven countries over 40 years using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic trees from the three genes are congruent and allow two monophyletic groups, European and American, to be clearly distinguished. Results of nucleotide substitution rates per site per year indicate that the P gene is expected to evolve most rapidly. The nucleotide diversity observed is low (2–3¿%) for the three genes, with a significantly higher variability within the P gene, which encodes multiple proteins from a single genomic RNA sequence, particularly a small C protein. This putative C protein is a potential molecular marker suitable for characterization of distinct genotypes within anguillid rhabdoviruses. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first molecular characterization of EVA, brings new insights to the evolutionary dynamics of two genotypes of Anguillid rhabdovirus, and is a baseline for further investigations on the tracking of its spread.
|Quantification of uncertainty in climate change impact assessment
Downing, T.E. ; Barrow, E.M. ; Brooks, R.J. ; Butterfield, R.E. ; Carter, T.R. ; Harisson, P.A. ; Hulme, M. ; Oleson, J.E. ; Porter, J.R. ; Schellberg, J. ; Semenov, M.A. ; Vinther, F.P. ; Wheeler, T.R. ; Wolf, J. - \ 2000
In: Climate Change, Climatic Variability and Agriculture in Europe / Downing, T.E., Harrison, P.A., Butterfield, R.E., Lonsdale, K.G., Oxford, UK : Environmental Change Institute - ISBN 9781874370222 - p. 435 - 441.