Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    First step towards developing Covid-19 vaccine
    Pijlman, Gorben ; Oosten, Linda van - \ 2020

    Wageningen virologists and process
    engineers are working on a
    vaccine against the coronavirus.
    The first step have been taken.

    Doing different things – or doing things differently? : Outcome of the consultation process NLandscape, Five years landscapes – what have we learned?
    Oosten, C.J. van; Roosendaal, Lotte ; Mulerrins, J.L. ; Brasser, André - \ 2020
    Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University & Research (WCDI-20-092 ) - 36 p.
    Zandspiering in het Amelander Zeegat : T1-meting voorjaar 2019
    Hal, Ralf van; Volwater, Joey - \ 2019
    IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C105/19) - 33
    Sinds 2017 loopt het onderzoeksprogramma Kustgenese 2.0 met het doel ‘Het genereren van kennis om vanaf 2020 goed onderbouwd besluiten te kunnen nemen over beleid en beheer van het Nederlandse zandige kustsysteem’. Onderdeel van dit programma is de van maart 2018 tot februari 2019 uitgevoerde pilotsuppletie in het Amelander Zeegat. Rondom deze suppletie is er onderzoek verricht binnen de onderzoekslijnen morfologie en ecologie. Voor de onderzoekslijn ecologie is o.a. in september 2017 en juni 2018 een bemonstering van zandspiering uitgevoerd om een basisbeeld en uitgangssituatie (T0-situatie), te krijgen van deze soortsgroep in het Amelander Zeegat. Als vervolg hierop is in juni 2019 een bemonstering (T1-situatie) uitgevoerd welke in het voorliggende rapport wordt beschreven. Met behulp van de zandspieringkor is in de nachten van 3 – 5 juni 2019 gevist op 39 locaties. Deze locaties waren vergelijkbaar met die tijdens de bemonstering in september 2017 en juni 2018 aangevuld met vijf locaties op de uitgevoerde pilotsuppletie. Aanvullend is op 37 van deze locaties een sedimentmonster genomen met een Van Veenhapper waarvan de korrelgroottesamenstelling is bepaald. In totaal zijn er 678 zandspieringen gevangen, waarvan 580 gedetermineerd als kleine zandspiering (Ammodytes tobianus), 59 als Noorse zandspiering (Ammodytes marinus) en 39 als smelt (Hyperoplus lanceolatus). Deze waren gevangen in 25 van de 39 trekken, met de hoogste aantallen op de suppletie en de direct ten zuiden en oosten liggende gebieden. De concentratie in dit gebied, met maar beperkte aantallen in zuidelijkere locaties dichter bij het Borndiep is opvallend ten opzichte van de eerdere bemonsteringen. Naast zandspieren werden er ook platvissen gevangen. Schol (Pleuronectes platessa) werd in 38 van 39 trekken gevangen en was in hoge aantallen aanwezig, ook op de suppletie. Schelpdieren werden in lagere aantallen aangetroffen in vergelijking met de eerdere bemonsteringen. Schelpdieren werden ook gevangen op de suppletie. De sedimentsamenstelling liet een vergelijkbaar beeld zien als in september 2017 met fijn zand (125–250 μm) in het grootste deel van de buitendelta, en medium zand (250-500 μm) op enkele locaties in het zuiden. De suppletie wijkt in korrelgrootte niet af van het omliggende gebied. Omdat de korrelgrootte niet onderscheidend is lijkt dit ook geen verklaring voor de hogere aanwezigheid van zandspiering op de suppletie. Eerder in het gebied aangetroffen soorten zijn ook op de suppletielocatie aangetroffen. In het geval van zandspiering zelfs in hoge aantallen. Het aanleggen van de suppletie lijkt dus niet te hebben geleid tot een negatieve verandering in de bemonsterde visgemeenschap.
    Capable to govern landscape restoration? Exploring landscape governance capabilities, based on literature and stakeholder perceptions
    Oosten, Cora van; Runhaar, Hens ; Arts, Bas - \ 2019
    Land Use Policy (2019). - ISSN 0264-8377
    Balanced outcomes - Capabilities - Challenges - Governance - Landscape - Legitimacy - Restoration

    Scholars, planners and practitioners worldwide are increasingly recognising that landscape governance is a promising approach for restoring forested landscapes and simultaneously achieving ecological, economic and social objectives. Because of its integrative nature, landscape governance involves actors who restore landscapes while operating in different economic and policy sectors and at various scales. Consequently, the governance of landscape restoration is typically associated with multi-stakeholder dialogue and negotiation on the different types and forms of restoration, and what these mean in terms of necessary trade-offs. In this article we consider landscape governance to be an indispensable element of landscape restoration that deserves specific attention in the restoration debate. Despite the growing body of literature on the challenges faced in landscape restoration, literature on the role of landscape governance in overcoming these challenges is scarce. Scholars often refer to the importance of the capabilities of the landscape actors involved, but without specifying the capabilities required, which actors require them and why. This article aims to fill this knowledge gap by analysing landscape restoration from a governance perspective, focusing on the key challenges faced by landscape governance and the key capabilities required by landscape actors to overcome them. To define landscape governance capabilities, and to identify their dimensions and categorisations, we consult the literature on landscape governance and on capability. We complement this literature review with our empirical data on the landscape governance capabilities as perceived by landscape professionals engaged in landscape restoration projects and programmes. Based on both, we develop an analytical framework that specifies some of the typical capabilities required for addressing the challenges faced by landscape governance aiming to achieve well-balanced and long-lasting landscape restoration legitimately. The framework not only helps fill a knowledge gap but can also be used to structure the debate on landscape restoration by elucidating landscape governance in various contexts.

    AsaseFest – Nature Based Solutions : Workshop report
    Krijgsman, Amanda ; Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2019
    Ghana : Global Landscapes Forum (GLF) - 2 p.
    Minimaal watergebruik in Midden-Oosten
    Campen, Jouke - \ 2019
    Gezonde honingbijen met Varroa : Mijten bestrijden of bijen selecteren?
    Blacquiere, T. - \ 2019
    Nieuwsbrief van bijen@wur (2019). - 3 p.
    Honingbijen van de soort Apis mellifera, van nature voorkomend in Afrika, Europa en het midden Oosten, worden nu door mensen overal ter wereld gebruikt. Deze bijen hebben last van een uit Azië afkomstige parasitaire mijt, Varroa destructor. De weerbaarheid van de honingbijen tegen die mijt houdt niet over en de door imkers gebruikte bijenvolken overleven niet of nauwelijks tenzij de imker de mijten regelmatig bestrijdt. Toch bezitten de honingbijen wel eigenschappen in hun fysiologie en gedrag waarmee ze de mijten kunnen bestrijden. We kennen ze lang nog niet allemaal, maar een van de eigenschappen is het varroa-gevoelige hygiënisch gedrag (afgekort in het Engels: VSH).
    Types of innovation needed to achieve productive and sustainable landscapes
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2019
    WURcast
    system innovation - landscape - landscape analysis
    Hatching failure and accumulation of organic pollutants through the terrestrial food web of a declining songbird in Western Europe
    Oosten, H.H. van; Burg, Arnold B. van den; Arlt, Debora ; Both, Christiaan ; Brink, Nico W. van den; Chiu, Suzanne ; Crump, Doug ; Jeppsson, Tobias ; Kroon, Hans de; Traag, Wim ; Siepel, Henk - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 650 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1547 - 1553.
    Dioxin - DLC - Embryo - Inbreeding - Malformation - Passerine

    Population growth in passerine birds is largely driven by fecundity. If fecundity is affected, for instance by hatching failure, populations may decline. We noted high hatching failure of up to 27% per year in relict populations of the Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) in The Netherlands, a strongly declining, migratory passerine in Europe. This hatching failure itself can cause population decline, irrespective of other adverse factors. Additionally, we investigated the cause of hatching failure. Unhatched eggs showed egg yolk infections or embryonic malformations, part of which is associated with the actions of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Indeed, DLCs appear to bioaccumulate in the local foodweb, where the soil contained only background concentrations, similar to those found at many other locations. DLC concentrations in Dutch eggs were six-fold higher than those in a reference population in Sweden, where egg failure was only 6%. However, Northern wheatears appear to be only moderately sensitive to the actions of DLCs, because of their specific Ah-receptor type which may moderate the receptor mediated effects of DLCs. This indicates that the concentrations of DLCs, although elevated, may not have caused the embryo malformations or the low hatching rates. We discuss whether other toxins may be important or imbalances in the nutrition and if inbreeding may play a larger role than expected.

    Active land policy in small municipalities in the Netherlands: “We don’t do it, unless...”.
    Oosten, Thomas van; Witte, Patrick ; Hartmann, Thomas - \ 2018
    Land Use Policy 77 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 829 - 836.
    Due to their active role in land development, Dutch municipalities have suffered considerably from the economic crisis. The financial and economic effects are particularly striking in small municipalities. We conducted an empirical analysis to highlight the magnitude of the financial effects both pre- and post-crisis and to determine the potential reasons for these differences in small Dutch municipalities. Aside from the main reasons, such as housing demand stagnation and declining land prices, some additional causes are specifically responsible for the struggles of small Dutch municipalities. These causes include a downward adjustment of housing building, optimistic acting of municipalities and political motives. Furthermore, several contextual causes have led to financial disappointments. Dutch land policy is an extreme example of active land policy as municipalities are heavily involved in the development of land, which seems to be partly inspired by reasons related to ideology, the institutional framework and enrichment strategies. The lessons from the Netherlands can be seen as an indicator for other countries who are conducting or experimenting with forms of active land policy.
    From product to place
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2018
    Corrigendum to Strategies for achieving environmental policy integration at the landscape level. A framework illustrated with an analysis of landscape governance in Rwanda
    Oosten, Cora van; Uzamukunda, Assumpta ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2018
    Environmental Science & Policy 84 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - 1 p.
    The authors regret the mistakes that occurred in the table on page 67. The published version does not show the relation between the strategies employed and the actors involved. While in reality, with regard to productive bricolage (category 1) diversification of land use is mainly employed by farmers and companies; while those allowing for diversification/intensification of land use are the district staff. With regard to institutional bricolage (category 2), the actors informally changing the rules are the companies, while the actors providing institutional space for dialogue are the district staff and authorities. And with regard to institutional entrepreneurship (category 3) the actors formalising dialogue are the district authorities while those institutionalising partnerships are the national authorities.
    Strategies for achieving environmental policy integration at the landscape level. A framework illustrated with an analysis of landscape governance in Rwanda
    Oosten, Cora van; Uzamukunda, Assumpta ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2018
    Environmental Science & Policy 83 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 63 - 70.
    Institutional entrepreneurship - Institutional/productive bricolage - Landscape governance - Landscape restoration - Policy incoherence - Policy integration
    Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) refers to the incorporation of environmental concerns into sectoral policies in order to reduce policy incoherence and achieve synergies to more effectively address environmental problems such as environmental degradation. Landscape governance can be considered as a specific, spatial manifestation of EPI: it aims to balance agricultural production, nature conservation and livelihood needs at the landscape level through multi-stakeholder decision making. Despite their common focus on policy conflicts, both concepts have been elaborated in largely isolated bodies of literature, while little is known about their common concern of how actors at the landscape level deal with these policy conflicts. This paper addresses this under-explored theme, by drawing from both EPI and landscape governance theories, and adding new insights from institutional and innovation literature. We develop a framework specifying how actors at local, district and national levels deal with policy conflicts and employ strategies to overcome them. We illustrate the analytical framework with a case from Rwanda, where landscape restoration has become a new policy area which has brought sectoral policy conflicts to the fore. We characterise these policy conflicts, and analyse the ways in which local, district and national actors manage to overcome them, by using the landscape as a functional regulatory space for policy integration. What we learn from this case is that EPI is not just designed at national levels by formally assigned policy makers, but it happens in landscapes where landscape actors define their priorities and set hierarchically defined policy objectives to their hand. They flexibly fit in and conform to existing rules yet informally combining these to suit their spatial context; or they entrepreneurially stretch and transform the rules, while seeking alliances with policy makers to have the outcomes institutionalised. In both cases they contribute to solving policy conflicts in both the horizontal and the vertical sense. By doing so, we show the usefulness of the framework for identifying policy conflicts and contributing to policy integration at the landscape level.
    From product to place - Spatializing governance in a commodified landscape
    Oosten, C.J. van; Moeliono, Moira ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2018
    Environmental Management 62 (2018)1. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 157 - 169.
    This article analyzes the potential for landscape governance in large-scale commodity landscapes in Indonesia.
    It conceptualizes landscape governance as the spatialization of governance, which entails the interplay between natural-spatial conditions of place, public-private actor constellations, and policy responses. The article presents the case of a commodified oil palm landscape in West Kalimantan, where a potentially new type of landscape
    governance is emerging out of the experimental activities of an ecologically responsible commercial enterprise. It describes the development of a multifunctional concession
    as a process of productive bricolage involving the creative combination of different land uses within a single productive space. It also describes how such a multifunctional
    concession does not fit into existing policies, which are sectorally defined and embedded in sticky institutional frames. The formation of new public–private institutional
    arrangements needed for the development of multifunctional concessions is a difficult process, as it requires an alignment of contrasting discourses and an integration of
    sectorally-defined policy frames. If successful, it might facilitate the transition from multifunctional concessions to multifunctional landscapes. Such a fundamental change in
    land use and production relations however requires intensive stakeholder engagement and policy dialog. Indonesia’s continuous decentralization process offers opportunities
    for this, as it increasingly provides institutional space at the landscape level, for public and private actors to explore common concerns, and craft public–private arrangements specific to the landscape.
    Participatory Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation of Multi-Stakeholder Platforms in Integrated Landscape Initiatives
    Kusters, Koen ; Buck, Louise ; Graaf, Maartje de; Minang, Peter ; Oosten, Cora van; Zagt, Roderick - \ 2018
    Environmental Management 62 (2018)1. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 170 - 181.
    Evaluation - Landscape approach - Monitoring - Multi-stakeholder platform - Planning

    Integrated landscape initiatives typically aim to strengthen landscape governance by developing and facilitating multi-stakeholder platforms. These are institutional coordination mechanisms that enable discussions, negotiations, and joint planning between stak4eholders from various sectors in a given landscape. Multi-stakeholder platforms tend to involve complex processes with diverse actors, whose objectives and focus may be subjected to periodic re-evaluation, revision or reform. In this article we propose a participatory method to aid planning, monitoring, and evaluation of such platforms, and we report on experiences from piloting the method in Ghana and Indonesia. The method is comprised of three components. The first can be used to look ahead, identifying priorities for future multi-stakeholder collaboration in the landscape. It is based on the identification of four aspirations that are common across multi-stakeholder platforms in integrated landscape initiatives. The second can be used to look inward. It focuses on the processes within an existing multi-stakeholder platform in order to identify areas for possible improvement. The third can be used to look back, identifying the main outcomes of an existing platform and comparing them to the original objectives. The three components can be implemented together or separately. They can be used to inform planning and adaptive management of the platform, as well as to demonstrate performance and inform the design of new interventions.

    Landscape governance - Integrating policies at the landscape level
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2017
    Landscape governance assessment in Rulindo District, Rwanda : Report of a workshop, Government of Rwanda
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2017
    Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations
    Philippine Landscape Governance learning event Palawan, October 2017 – Report
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2017
    Tropenbos International, Forest Foundation Philippines, Palawan Council for Sustainable Development
    Implementing multiple objectives in restoration practice : Inauguration of Jaboury Ghazoul, Prince Bernhard Chair
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2017
    Landscape governance – a framework for assessing and developing landscape governance capabilities
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2017
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