Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Extended indirect calorimetry with isotopic CO2 sensors allows real time quantification of substrate oxidation in mice: f1at oxidation levels depend on body fat mass
Schothorst, E.M. van; Fernández Calleja, J.M.S. ; Bouwman, L.M.S. ; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, J. - \ 2019
- 1 p.
Extended indirect calorimetry as a physiological phenotyping tool in mouse nutritional intervention studies, with a focus on metabolic programming by starches
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Keijer, co-promotor(en): E.M. van Schothorst; A. Oosting. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951111 - 191
Partial replacement of glucose by galactose in the post-weaning diet improves parameters of hepatic health
Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Stelt, Inge van der; Schols, Henk ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 73 (2019). - ISSN 0955-2863
Galactose - Inflammation - Liver health - Post-weaning diet - SAA3 - Transcriptomics

Replacing part of glucose with galactose in the post-weaning diet beneficially affects later life metabolic health in female mice. The liver is the main site of galactose metabolism, but the direct effects of this dietary intervention on the liver in the post-weaning period are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate this. Weanling female mice (C57BL/6JRccHsd) were fed a starch containing diet with glucose (32 en%) monosaccharide (GLU), or a diet with glucose and galactose (1:1 both 16 en%) (GLU+GAL). Body weight, body composition, and food intake were determined weekly. After 3 weeks, mice were sacrificed, and serum and liver tissues were collected. Global hepatic mRNA expression was analyzed and hepatic triglyceride (TG) and glycogen contents were determined by enzymatic assays. Body weight and body composition were similar in both groups, despite higher food intake in mice on GLU+GAL diet. Hepatic TG content was lower in GLU+GAL-fed than GLU-fed females, while glycogen levels were unaffected. Analysis of global expression patterns of hepatic mRNA showed that mainly inflammation-related pathways were affected by the diet, which were predominantly downregulated in GLU+GAL-fed females compared to GLU-fed females. This reduction in inflammation in GLU+GAL-fed females was also reflected by decreased serum concentrations of acute phase protein Serum amyloid A 3. In conclusion, replacing part of glucose with galactose in the post-weaning diet reduces hepatic TG content and hepatic inflammation.

Non-invasive continuous real-time in vivo analysis of microbial hydrogen production shows adaptation to fermentable carbohydrates in mice
Schothorst, E.M. van; Fernández Calleja, J.M.S. ; Konstanti, Prokopis ; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Bouwman, L.M.S. ; Garcia-Campayo, Vicenta ; Billecke, Nils ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Smidt, H. - \ 2019
Post-weaning metabolic programming by dietary monosaccharides
Bouwman, Lianne M.S. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Keijer, co-promotor(en): E.M. van Schothorst; A. Oosting. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950251 - 169
The Role of the Integrated Maize-Soybean-Chicken Value Chains in Sustaining Diverse Diets in Tanzania
Wilson, Wilson ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Baijukya, Frederick ; Oosting, S.J. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2019
In: Book of abstracts Tropentag 2019: Tropentag 2019International Research on Food Security, NaturalResource Management and Rural Development. - Göttingen : Cuvillier Verlag - ISBN 9783736970830 - p. 459 - 459.
A Lowly Digestible-Starch Diet after Weaning Enhances Exogenous Glucose Oxidation Rate in Female, but Not in Male, Mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Billecke, Nils ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
13C-starch - amylase - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - glucose oxidation - glycaemic index - indirect calorimetry

Starches of low digestibility are associated with improved glucose metabolism. We hypothesise that a lowly digestible-starch diet (LDD) versus a highly digestible-starch diet (HDD) improves the capacity to oxidise starch, and that this is sex-dependent. Mice were fed a LDD or a HDD for 3 weeks directly after weaning. Body weight (BW), body composition (BC), and digestible energy intake (dEI) were determined weekly. At the end of the intervention period, whole-body energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), hydrogen production, and the oxidation of an oral 13C-labelled starch bolus were measured by extended indirect calorimetry. Pancreatic amylase activity and total 13C hepatic enrichment were determined in females immediately before and 4 h after administration of the starch bolus. For both sexes, BW, BC, and basal EE and RER were not affected by the type of starch, but dEI and hydrogen production were increased by the LDD. Only in females, total carbohydrate oxidation and starch-derived glucose oxidation in response to the starch bolus were higher in LDD versus HDD mice; this was not accompanied by differences in amylase activity or hepatic partitioning of the 13C label. These results show that starch digestibility impacts glucose metabolism differently in females versus males.

Extended indirect calorimetry with isotopic CO2 sensors for prolonged and continuous quantification of exogenous vs. total substrate oxidation in mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

Indirect calorimetry (InCa) estimates whole-body energy expenditure and total substrate oxidation based on O2 consumption and CO2 production, but does not allow for the quantification of oxidation of exogenous substrates with time. To achieve this, we incorporated 13CO2 and 12CO2 gas sensors into a commercial InCa system and aimed to demonstrate their performance and added value. As a performance indicator, we showed the discriminative oscillations in 13CO2 enrichment associated with food intake in mice fed diets containing naturally low (wheat) vs high (maize) 13C enrichment. To demonstrate the physiological value, we quantified exogenous vs total carbohydrate and fat oxidation continuously, in real time in mice varying in fat mass. Diet-induced obese mice were fed a single liquid mixed meal containing 13C-isotopic tracers of glucose or palmitate. Over 13 h, ~70% glucose and ~48% palmitate ingested were oxidised. Exogenous palmitate oxidation depended on body fat mass, which was not the case for exogenous glucose oxidation. We conclude that extending an InCa system with 13CO2 and 12CO2 sensors provides an accessible and powerful technique for real-time continuous quantification of exogenous and whole-body substrate oxidation in mouse models of human metabolic physiology.

Replacing Part of Glucose with Galactose in the Postweaning Diet Protects Female But Not Male Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity in Later Life
Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Stelt, Inge van der; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
The Journal of Nutrition 149 (2019)7. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1140 - 1148.
adipose tissue - galactose - insulin signaling - lactose - postweaning - programming

BACKGROUND: Duration of breastfeeding is positively associated with decreased adiposity and increased metabolic health in later life, which might be related to galactose. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate if partial replacement of glucose with galactose in the postweaning diet had a metabolic programming effect. METHODS: Male and female mice (C57BL/6JRccHsd) received an isocaloric diet (16 energy% fat; 64 energy% carbohydrates; 20 energy% protein) with either glucose (32 energy%) (GLU) or glucose + galactose (GLU + GAL, 16 energy% each) for 3 wk postweaning. Afterwards, all mice were switched to the same 40 energy% high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 wk to evaluate potential programming effects in an obesogenic environment. Data were analyzed within sex. RESULTS: Female body weight (-14%) and fat mass (-47%) were significantly lower at the end of the HFD period (both P < 0.001) among those fed GLU + GAL than among those fed GLU; effects in males were in line with these findings but nonsignificant. Food intake was affected in GLU + GAL-fed females (+8% on postweaning diet, -9% on HFD) compared with GLU-fed females, but not for hypothalamic transcript levels at endpoint. Also, in GLU + GAL-fed females, serum insulin concentrations (-48%, P < 0.05) and the associated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) at endpoint, but there were no changes in pancreas morphology. In GLU + GAL-fed females, expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) (-27%, P < 0.01 ; -44%, P < 0.001) and the adipocyte size markers leptin (Lep) (-40%, P < 0.05; -63% , P < 0.05) and mesoderm-specific transcript homolog protein (Mest) (-80%, P < 0.05; -72%, P < 0.05) was lower in gonadal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), respectively. Expression of insulin receptor substrate1 (Irs1) (-24%, P < 0.05) was only lower in subcutaneous WAT in GLU + GAL-fed females. CONCLUSIONS: Partial replacement of glucose with galactose, resulting in a 1:1 ratio mimicking lactose, in a 3-wk postweaning diet lowered body weight, adiposity, HOMA-IR, and expression of WAT insulin signaling in HFD-challenged female mice in later life. This suggests that prolonged galactose intake may improve metabolic and overall health in later life.

Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa : a household level assessment of crop-livestock systems
Fraval, Simon - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): I.J.M. de Boer, co-promotor(en): S.J. Oosting; M.T. van Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435734 - 179
A positive deviant approach to understanding key factors of smallholder dairy development in Kenya
Migose, S.A. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Bebe, B.O. ; Oosting, S.J. - \ 2019
In: Trade-offs in Science - Keeping the Balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 23 - 23.
Dairy development in Kenya is hampered by many constraints and farmers who succeed to overcome such constraints, when compared to their peers who cannot overcome the constraints, are the so-called positive deviants (PD). The objective of the present study was to identify strategies of PD farmers and factors underlying such strategies to overcome constraints to smallholder dairy development. We identified perceived PD and non-PD farmers in urban and rural locations and classified these farmers according to the economic performance of the dairy activity at their farms as being positive, average, and negative economic deviant. The main factors distinguishing perceived and economic positive deviants from their peers were scale (large herd size), intensity (high milk yield per cow) and cost control (achieving optimal production cost for maximal gross margin of dairy activities). The good performance of PD farms required good dairy husbandry regarding feeding, breeding and veterinary care which was facilitated by use of inputs (optimal quantity and high quality), milk marketing (channels with high price of milk), knowledge and skills (advanced education and experience), resource endowment (assets, livestock, and non-dairy income). Not all perceived PD were economic PD (two out of seven in UL and nine out of 13 in RL). Such perceived, but
not economic PDs were having large herds, but with low productivity since non-dairy production functions were important in these herds, e.g. the financial and insurance function or they had a good productivity but at a too high cost level to be economically PD. The results imply that interventions aimed at dairy development among smallholders should offer training of farmers and extension to farmers to enhance level of knowledge and skills for good dairy husbandry, cost control, and should target availability and quality of inputs, and milk marketing. Poor households, besides, require access to credit facilities.
Correlating farmers' perception and sheep preference with the nutritional quality of grain legume fodders stored under different conditions
Akakpo, Daniel ; Oosting, S.J. ; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel ; Duncan, A. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Giller, K.E. - \ 2019
In: Trade-Offs in Science - Keeping the balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 20 - 20.
The objective of the present study was to correlate farmers’ perception (FP), sheep preference (SP) and laboratory analysis (LA) of nutritional quality of stored grain legume fodders (GLFs). The GLFs of cowpea, groundnut and soybean were stored at 3-locations (rooftop, room and treefork) in -packaging types (polythene sacks or tied with ropes) for 120 days. FP was assessed by scoring the perceived quality of GLFs on a scale of 1 to 10 (1=bad and 0=good) based on physical appraisal by a group of farmers. SP was assessed by cafeteria feeding trial based on dry matter intake (DMI) of GLFs by a flock of 12 sheep during a 14 hr period. For LA, Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) and Crude Protein (CP) content were assessed by Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Cowpea scored higher FP (6.3) and SP (66 g DMI/14hr/sheep) than
groundnut (FP 5.5 and SP 59 g DMI/14hr/sheep) and soybean had lowest FP (2.3) and SP (39 g DMI/14hr/sheep). However, LA indicated that groundnut had higher CP content (140 g kg DM) than cowpea (115 g kg DM) and soybean (98 g kg DM). OMD, on the other hand, was higher in cowpea (686 g kg DM) than groundnut (659 g kg DM) and soybean (574 g kg DM). CP was positively orrelated with FP (r=0.35) and with SP (r=0.48). Similarly, OMD was positively correlated with FP (r=0.50) and with SP (r=0.70). Room storage had higher FP and SP than rooftop and treefork. Sack storage scored higher than tied on FP, SP and LA. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to used FP and SP to predict the nutritional quality of GLFs.
Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa: a household level assessment
Fraval, S. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Lannerstad, Mats ; Wijk, M.T. van - \ 2019
In: Trade-offs in Science - Keeping the Balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 14 - 14.
Rural households in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are both vulnerable to the health burdens that stem from food insecurity and central to improving the availability and affordability of food. In order to understand the occurrence of food insecurity in rural landholding households, this study draws on 6,353 Household interviews, conducted in eight SSA countries. Multiple indicators of food security were enumerated alongside farm and socio-economic variables. As many as 38% of households were classified as chronically hungry in the months of food scarcity. Prevalence of micronutrient dietary gaps were high, ranging from 40% of households lacking daily sources of vitamin B6, to 73% lacking daily sources of calcium. Chronic and hidden hunger were associated with market participation, livestock product diversity, crop product diversity and gross income, where the direction of association differed by agro-ecological zone (AEZ). These livelihood characteristics – in isolation – had limited impact on food security indicators. Rather, it is the combination of these livelihood characteristics and AEZ that drive food security status throughout the year.The high prevalence of food insecurity and the complexity of associations have implications for developing effective nutrition specific and nutrition sensitive interventions. Interventions need to be tailored to agroecological zone, household composition, scale of operation and production mix. Increasing income will not necessarily result in improved diet diversity or healthy dietary choices. Interventions focused on income generation can maximise nutritional impact by promoting crop and livestock production diversity and by providing nutrition education.
Making the most of imperfect data: a critical evaluation of standard information collected in farm household surveys
Fraval, Simon ; Hammond, James ; Wichern, Jannike ; Oosting, Simon J. ; Boer, Imke J.M. De; Teufel, Nils ; Lannerstad, Mats ; Waha, Katharina ; Pagella, Tim ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Giller, Ken E. ; Herrero, Mario ; Harris, David ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 230 - 250.
Household surveys are one of the most commonly used tools for generating insight into rural communities. Despite their prevalence, few studies comprehensively evaluate the quality of data derived from farm household surveys. We critically evaluated a series of standard reported values and indicators that are captured in multiple farm household surveys, and then quantified their credibility, consistency and, thus, their reliability. Surprisingly, even variables which might be considered ‘easy to estimate’ had instances of non-credible observations. In addition, measurements of maize yields and land owned were found to be less reliable than other stationary variables. This lack of reliability has implications for monitoring food security status, poverty status and the land productivity of households. Despite this rather bleak picture, our analysis also shows that if the same farm households are followed over time, the sample sizes needed to detect substantial changes are in the order of hundreds of surveys, and not in the thousands. Our research highlights the value of targeted and systematised household surveys and the importance of ongoing efforts to improve data quality. Improvements must be based on the foundations of robust survey design, transparency of experimental design and effective training. The quality and usability of such data can be further enhanced by improving coordination between agencies, incorporating mixed modes of data collection and continuing systematic validation programmes.
LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 3: model evaluation
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2019
Animal 13 (2019)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 868 - 878.
LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle) is a generic, mechanistic model designed to quantify potential and feed-limited growth, which provides insight in the biophysical scope to increase beef production (i.e. yield gap). Furthermore, it enables identification of the bio-physical factors that define and limit growth, which provides insight in management strategies to mitigate yield gaps. The aim of this paper, third in a series of three, is to evaluate the performance of LiGAPS-Beef with independent experimental data. After model calibration, independent data were used from six experiments in Australia, one in Uruguay and one in the Netherlands. Experiments represented three cattle breeds, and a wide range of climates, feeding strategies and cattle growth rates. The mean difference between simulated and measured average daily gains (ADGs) was 137 g/day across all experiments, which equals 20.1% of the measured ADGs. The root mean square error was 170 g/day, which equals 25.0% of the measured ADGs. LiGAPS-Beef successfully simulated the factors that defined and limited growth during the experiments on a daily basis (genotype, heat stress, digestion capacity, energy deficiency and protein deficiency). The simulated factors complied well to the reported occurrence of heat stress, energy deficiency and protein deficiency at specific periods during the experiments. We conclude that the level of accuracy of LiGAPS-Beef is acceptable, and provides a good basis for acquiring insight in the potential and feed-limited production of cattle in different beef production systems across the world. Furthermore, its capacity to identify factors that define or limit growth and production provides scope to use the model for yield gap analysis.
LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 2 : sensitivity analysis and evaluation of sub-models
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2019
Animal 13 (2019)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 856 - 867.
beef cattle - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - sensitivity analysis - yield gap

The model LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle) has been developed to assess potential and feed-limited growth and production of beef cattle in different areas of the world and to identify the processes responsible for the yield gap. Sensitivity analysis and evaluation of model results with experimental data are important steps after model development. The first aim of this paper, therefore, is to identify which parameters affect the output of LiGAPS-Beef most by conducting sensitivity analyses. The second aim is to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoregulation sub-model and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using a one-at-a-time approach. The upper critical temperature (UCT) simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model was most affected by the body core temperature and parameters affecting latent heat release from the skin. The lower critical temperature (LCT) and UCT were considerably affected by weather variables, especially ambient temperature and wind speed. Sensitivity analysis for the feed intake and digestion sub-model showed that the digested protein per kg feed intake was affected to a larger extent than the metabolisable energy (ME) content. Sensitivity analysis for LiGAPS-Beef was conducted for ¾ Brahman×¼ Shorthorn cattle in Australia and Hereford cattle in Uruguay. Body core temperature, conversion of digestible energy to ME, net energy requirements for maintenance, and several parameters associated with heat release affected feed efficiency at the herd level most. Sensitivity analyses have contributed, therefore, to insight which parameters are to be investigated in more detail when applying LiGAPS-Beef. Model evaluation was conducted by comparing model simulations with independent data from experiments. Measured heat production in experiments corresponded fairly well to the heat production simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model. Measured ME contents from two data sets corresponded well to the ME contents simulated with the feed intake and digestion sub-model. The relative mean absolute errors were 9.3% and 6.4% of the measured ME contents for the two data sets. In conclusion, model evaluation indicates the thermoregulation sub-model can deal with a wide range of weather conditions, and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with a variety of feeds, which corresponds to the aim of LiGAPS-Beef to simulate cattle in different beef production systems across the world.

LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 1 : model description and illustration
Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2019
Animal 13 (2019)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 845 - 855.
beef cattle - growth - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - yield gap

The expected increase in the global demand for livestock products calls for insight in the scope to increase actual production levels across the world. This insight can be obtained by using theoretical concepts of production ecology. These concepts distinguish three production levels for livestock: potential (i.e. theoretical maximum) production, which is defined by genotype and climate only; feed-limited production, which is limited by feed quantity and quality; and actual production. The difference between the potential or limited production and the actual production is the yield gap. The objective of this paper, the first in a series of three, is to present a mechanistic, dynamic model simulating potential and feed-limited production for beef cattle, which can be used to assess yield gaps. A novelty of this model, named LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle), is the identification of the defining factors (genotype and climate) and limiting factors (feed quality and available feed quantity) for cattle growth by integrating sub-models on thermoregulation, feed intake and digestion, and energy and protein utilisation. Growth of beef cattle is simulated at the animal and herd level. The model is designed to be applicable to different beef production systems across the world. Main model inputs are breed-specific parameters, daily weather data, information about housing, and data on feed quality and quantity. Main model outputs are live weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (FE) at the animal and herd level. Here, the model is presented, and its use is illustrated for Charolais and Brahman × Shorthorn cattle in France and Australia. Potential and feed-limited production were assessed successfully, and we show that FE of herds is highest for breeds most adapted to the local climate conditions. LiGAPS-Beef also identified the factors that define and limit growth and production of cattle. Hence, we argue the model has scope to be used as a tool for the assessment and analysis of yield gaps in beef production systems.

Modernising the Kenyan Dairy Sector?
Rademaker, C.J. ; Jochemsen, H. ; Oosting, S.J. - \ 2018
In: Professionals in Food Chains. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863211 - p. 78 - 83.
The track record of livestock development interventions in promoting sustained poverty reduction is believed to be meagre. Could it be that the track record of livestock development interventions is so meagre because of the influence of a reductionistic worldview? The Cartesian worldview has been extremely influential in Western culture and broader. Central in this worldview is a thinking in terms of traditional versus modern and subject(ive) versus object(ive). It has been argued that in development cooperation this has given rise to projectivistic thinking and acting where reality, including the realities of farmers and others, is only meaningless material, to be freely given shape based on a rational design. This is accompanied by an attitude in which our by and large individualistic Western society with its (presumed) institutional mechanicism – such as the market mechanism – is seen to be the model for other societies as well. Finally, we can note a marginalisation of religion and worldview in the public debate. The aim of this contribution is thereforeto analyse in a qualitative way whether such traces of the Cartesian worldview can be linked to development programmes’ successes or failures in achieving impact. To this end, a set of eight impact evaluations of dairy development interventions in Kenya are considered, spanning the period 2007-2014. We (1) analyse what positive and negative effects – as emerging from the evaluation documents – have resulted from these interventions; (2) normatively reflect on what the evaluation documents posit as positive and negative effects; (3) analyse whether we can speak of a significant influence of the Cartesian worldview in such interventions; and (3) establish whether there is a relationship between the degree to which projects and programs embody a Cartesian worldview and their respective success or failure. Even though results are not available yet, and the relationship between the influence of a Cartesian worldview and a project or program’s success is hypothetical, we at least expect to provide a typology of positive and negative effects of Kenyan dairy development interventions, and be able to show to which degree projects and programs are influenced by the Cartesian worldview.
Evaluating the Traditional Feed Storage Systems of Grain Legume Fodders in Northern Ghana
Akakpo, Daniel ; Oosting, S.J. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Duncan, Alan ; Giller, K.E. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
In: Book of abstracts Tropentag 2018. - Weikersheim : Margraf Publishers - ISBN 9783823617600 - p. 118 - 118.

Non-invasive continuous real-time in vivo analysis of microbial hydrogen production shows adaptation to fermentable carbohydrates in mice
Fernández Calleja, J.M.S. ; Konstanti, Prokopis ; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Bouwman, L.M.S. ; Garcia-Campayo, Vicenta ; Billecke, Nils ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Smidt, H. ; Keijer, J. ; Schothorst, E.M. van - \ 2018
PRJEB23475 - ERP105229
The gut microbiome interacts continuously with the host and its diet. Studying these interactions and their evolution in vivo as soon as they happen have been impossible. Here we develop a method to study microbiota-host-diet interactions continuously, non-invasively, and in real time, by measuring hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) production in mice housed in indirect calorimetry chambers.
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