Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Determining the relation between groundwater flow velocities and measured temperature differences using active heating-distributed temperature sensing
    Bakx, Wiecher ; Doornenbal, Pieter J. ; Weesep, Rebecca J. van; Bense, Victor F. ; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P. ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. - \ 2019
    Water 11 (2019)8. - ISSN 2073-4441
    Distributed temperature sensing - Groundwater monitoring - Groundwater velocities

    Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using this setup, we empirically determined the relationship between ΔT, the temperature difference by constant and uniform heating of the DTS cable and the background temperature of the groundwater system, and horizontal groundwater flow velocity. Second, we simulated the observed temperature response of the system using a plan-view heat transfer flow model to calibrate for the thermal properties of the sediment and to optimize cable setup for sensitivity to variation in groundwater flow velocities. Additionally, we derived an analytical solution based on the heat flow equation that can be used to explicitly calculate flow velocity from measured ΔT for this specific AH-DTS cable setup. We expect that this equation, after calibration for cable constitution, is valid for estimating groundwater flow velocity based on absolute temperature differences measured in field applications using this cable setup.

    Het langetermijngeheugen van de zoet-zoutverdeling
    Louw, Perry de; Oude Essink, Gualbert ; Delsman, Joost ; Baaren, Esther S. van; America, Ilja ; Engelen, van, Joeri - \ 2019
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 43 - 60.
    Dit artikel beschrijft de ontwikkeling van de zoetzoutverdeling in het Nederlandse grondwater. Deze verdeling is sterk bepaald door de paleogeografische ontwikkeling gedurende het Holoceen en kent een groot langetermijngeheugen. Er worden twee typen grondwatersystemen beschreven: het West-Nederland systeem, waar autonome verzilting en wellen sleutelbegrippen zijn, en het Zeeuwse systeem, waar drie typen zoetwaterlenzen worden besproken. We laten aan de hand van de FRESHEM-Zeeland-resultaten zien dat airborne-elektromagnetische meettechnieken zeer geschikt zijn voor het in beeld brengen van de zoet-zoutverdeling. Vervolgens wordt ingegaan op het modelleren van de initiële zoet-zoutverdeling, waarbij de combinatie van paleomodellering en gebruik van metingen een geschikte methode lijkt. De initiële zoet-zoutverdeling is een belangrijke modelparameter bij het voorspellen van toekomstige veranderingen van zoete grondwatervoorraden als gevolg van ingrepen, klimaatverandering en zeespiegelstijging.
    GO-FRESH: Valorisatie kansrijke oplossingen voor een robuuste zoetwatervoorziening : Rendabel en duurzaam watergebruik in een zilte omgeving
    Veraart, J.A. ; Oude Essink, G. ; Pauw, P. ; Baaren, E. van; Zuurbier, K. ; Louw, P. de; MacAteer, E. ; Schoot, M. van der; Groot, N. ; Cappon, H. ; Waterloo, M. ; Hu-a-ng, K. ; Groen, M. - \ 2018
    Deltares - 187 p.
    Groundwater salinity mapping of the Belgian coastal zone to improve local freshwater storage availability
    Vandevelde, Dieter ; Baaren, Esther Van; Delsman, Joost ; Karaoulis, Marios ; Oude Essink, Gualbert ; Louw, Perry de; Vermaas, Tommer ; Pauw, Pieter ; Kleine, Marco De; Thofte, Sara ; Teilmann, Rasmus ; Walraevens, Kristine ; Camp, Marc Van; Dominique, Huits ; Dabekaussen, Willem ; Gunnink, Jan ; Vandenbohede, Alexander - \ 2018
    In: 25th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting (SWIM 2018). - EDP Sciences (E3S Web of Conferences ) - 6 p.

    In the European TOPSOIL project, countries around the North Sea are searching for solutions for climate related threats. They explore the possibilities of using the topsoil layer to solve current and future water challenges. The main objective is to improve the climate resilience of the water management of the topsoil and shallow aquifers in the North Sea region. TOPSOIL is supported by the Interreg VB North Sea Region program in line with priority 3 of the program: 'Sustainable North Sea Region, protecting against climate change and preserving the environment'. The Belgian part of this project, called FRESHEM for GO-FRESH Vlaanderen ('FREsh Salt groundwater distribution by Helicopter ElectroMagnetic survey for Geohydrological Opportunities FRESH water supply'), focuses on mapping the salinity distribution of groundwater using airborne electromagnetics and aims to look into a number of measures that could increase the availability of freshwater for agriculture in the polder area. Two pilot projects will evaluate the possibilities for freshwater storage and aims to specify what measures can be taken to achieve this. Together with the other water users and water managers, The Flanders Environment Agency wants to prepare a plan for the realization of one or more pilot projects that can improve the availability of freshwater.

    Fresh Water Lens Persistence and Root Zone Salinization Hazard Under Temperate Climate
    Stofberg, Sija F. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Pauw, Pieter S. ; Louw, Perry G.B. de; Leijnse, Anton ; Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2017
    Water Resources Management 31 (2017)2. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 689 - 702.
    Fresh water lens - Root zone salinization - Salinity - Simple model - salinization - fresh water - models - water supply - coastal areas - zoutgehalte - verzilting - zoet water - modellen - watervoorziening - kustgebieden

    In low lying deltaic areas in temperate climates, groundwater can be brackish to saline at shallow depth, even with a yearly rainfall excess. For primary production in horticulture, agriculture, and terrestrial nature areas, the fresh water availability may be restricted to so-called fresh water lenses: relatively thin pockets of fresh groundwater floating on top of saline groundwater. The persistence of such fresh water lenses, as well as the quantity and quality of surface water is expected to be under pressure due to climate change, as summer droughts may intensify in North-West Europe. Better understanding through modelling of these fresh water resources may help anticipate the impact of salinity on primary production. We use a simple model to determine in which circumstances fresh water lenses may disappear during summer droughts, as that could give rise to enhanced root zone salinity. With a more involved combination of expert judgement and numerical simulations, it is possible to give an appraisal of the hazard that fresh water lenses disappear for the Dutch coastal regions. For such situations, we derive an analytical tool for anticipating the resulting salinization of the root zone, which agrees well with numerical simulations. The provided tools give a basis to quantify which lenses are in hazard of disappearing periodically, as well as an impression in which coastal areas this hazard is largest. Accordingly, these results and the followed procedure may assist water management decisions and prioritization strategies leading to a secure/robust fresh water supply on a national to regional scale.

    Saltwater upconing due to cyclic pumping by horizontal wells in freshwater lenses
    Pauw, P.S. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Leijnse, A. ; Essink, Gualbert Oude H.P. - \ 2016
    Groundwater 54 (2016)4. - ISSN 0017-467X - p. 521 - 531.
    This article deals with the quantification of saltwater upconing below horizontal wells in freshwater lenses using analytical solutions as a computationally fast alternative to numerical simulations. Comparisons between analytical calculations and numerical simulations are presented regarding three aspects: (1) cyclic pumping; (2) dispersion; and (3) finite horizontal wells in a finite domain (a freshwater lens). Various hydrogeological conditions and pumping regimes within a dry half year are considered. The results show that the influence of elastic and phreatic storage (which are not taken into account in the analytical solutions) on the upconing of the interface is minimal. Furthermore, the analytical calculations based on the interface approach compare well with numerical simulations as long as the dimensionless interface upconing is below 1/3, which is in line with previous studies on steady pumping. Superimposing an analytical solution for mixing by dispersion below the well over an analytical solution based on the interface approach is appropriate in case the vertical flow velocity around the interface is nearly constant but should not be used for estimating the salinity of the pumped groundwater. The analytical calculations of interface upconing below a finite horizontal well compare well with the numerical simulations in case the distance between the horizontal well and the initial interface does not vary significantly along the well and in case the natural fluctuation of the freshwater lens is small. In order to maintain a low level of salinity in the well during a dry half year, the dimensionless analytically calculated interface upconing should stay below 0.25.
    Increasing a freshwater lens below a creek ridge using a controlled artificial recharge and drainage system: a case study in the Netherlands
    Pauw, P.S. ; Baaren, Esther S. van; Visser, Martijn ; Louw, Perry G.B. de; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P. - \ 2015
    Hydrogeology Journal 23 (2015)7. - ISSN 1431-2174 - p. 1415 - 1430.
    Artificial recharge - Coastal aquifers - Creek ridge - Salt-water/fresh-water relations - The Netherlands

    A controlled artificial recharge and drainage (CARD) system was used to increase freshwater lenses below creek ridges to increase freshwater supply. Creek ridges are typical geomorphological features that lie up to 2 m higher than the surroundings in the reclaimed tidal flat landscape of the southwestern Netherlands. The 5–30-m thick freshwater lenses below the creek ridges are a vital source for irrigation, as the groundwater and surface waters are predominantly saline. However, freshwater supply from these lenses is commonly not sufficient to meet the irrigation demand, which leads to crop damage. The CARD system was tested in the field and the development of the freshwater lens was monitored during the period May 2013 to May 2014. Numerical models, which were used to investigate a long-term effect of the CARD system, predicted that below the center of the creek ridge, the 13–15-m thick freshwater lens increased 6–8 m within 10 years. The total volumetric increase of the freshwater lens was about 190,000 m3 after 10 years, which was about 40 % of the total recharge (natural and artificial recharge). From this increased freshwater lens, up to three times more water can be extracted using horizontal wells, compared to the initial size of the freshwater lens. A higher water table in the CARD system leads to a thicker freshwater lens but a lower storage efficiency. A lower water table has the opposite effect.

    Integrated assessment of variable density-viscosity groundwater flow for a high temperature mono-well aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system in a geothermal reservoir
    Zeghici, Răzvan Mihai ; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P. ; Hartog, Niels ; Sommer, Wijb - \ 2015
    Geothermics 55 (2015). - ISSN 0375-6505 - p. 58 - 68.
    Case-study in bucharest - Dispersivity analyses - Groundwater - High temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) - Porous media - Variable density and viscosity

    The use of groundwater systems for heat storage increasingly gains interest among water managers, policy makers and researchers as a way to increase the efficiency of energy production and to allow the re-use of waste heat. Typically, mono-well storage systems are thought to require the use of separate aquifers. This study assessed the suitability of using heat and cold storage in a single deep geothermal aquifer for district heating and cooling. An integrated modelling approach was used for evaluating the controls on the energy efficiency of high temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES). The temperature difference (δ. T) of 40 °C between the injection temperatures for the cold and warm storages 20 °C and 60 °C was significant, which required accounting for transient variation of density and viscosity due to temperature and pressure within the modelling code SEAWAT. The developed model was applied for a geothermal reservoir from the Moesian platform, in the Bucharest area, Romania. The sensitivity of the system efficiency was analyzed with respect to the main physical (density, viscosity, longitudinal dispersivity) and operational design parameters (distance between warm and cold storage volumes, flow rates). Uncertainties in geological heterogeneity and the associated range in longitudinal dispersivity values (5-50. m) resulted in significant efficiency differences (80-55%). While reducing the lateral distance between multiple mono-well systems increased their overall efficiency due to positive thermal interference, a minimum vertical distance of (160. m) was required between the injection/extraction filters to prevent interaction between the cold and warm storage volumes. Overall, this study highlights the potential of using a cost-effective mono-well system for HT-ATES in single deep geothermal groundwater systems.

    Synbiotics-supplemented amino acid-based formula supports adequate growth in cow's milk allergic infants
    Burks, A.W. ; Harthoorn, L.F. ; Ampting, M.T.J. Van; Oude Nijhuis, M.M. ; Langford, J.E. ; Wopereis, Harm ; Goldberg, S.B. ; Ong, P.Y. ; Essink, B.J. ; Scott, R.B. ; Harvey, B.M. - \ 2015
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 26 (2015)4. - ISSN 0905-6157 - p. 316 - 322.
    Amino acid-based formula - Cow's milk allergy - Growth - Infant - Prebiotics - Probiotics - Randomized double-blind controlled trial - Safety

    Background: Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) are at risk for inadequate nutritional intake and growth. Dietary management of CMA, therefore, requires diets that are not only hypoallergenic but also support adequate growth in this population. This study assessed growth of CMA infants when using a new amino acid-based formula (AAF) with prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) and evaluated its safety in the intended population. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study, full-term infants with diagnosed CMA received either an AAF (control; n = 56) or AAF with synbiotics (oligofructose, long-chain inulin, acidic oligosaccharides, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) (test; n = 54) for 16 wk. Primary outcome was growth, measured as weight, length and head circumference. Secondary outcomes included allergic symptoms and stool characteristics. Results: Average age (±SD) of infants at inclusion was 4.5 ± 2.4 months. Both formulas equally supported growth according to WHO 2006 growth charts and resulted in similar increases of weight, length and head circumference. At week 16, differences (90% CI) in Z-scores (test-control) were as follows: weight 0.147 (-0.10; 0.39, p = 0.32), length -0.299 (-0.69; 0.09, p = 0.21) and head circumference 0.152 (-0.15; 0.45, p = 0.40). Weight-for-age and length-for-age Z-scores were not significantly different between the test and control groups. Both formulas were well tolerated and reduced allergic symptoms; the number of adverse events was not different between the groups. Conclusions: This is the first study that shows that an AAF with a specific synbiotic blend, suitable for CMA infants, supports normal growth and growth similar to the AAF without synbiotics. This clinical trial is registered as NCT00664768.

    Low-resolution modeling of dense drainage networks in confining layers
    Pauw, P.S. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Leijnse, A. ; Delsman, J.R. ; Louw, P.G.B. de; Lange, W.J. de; Oude Essink, G.H.P. - \ 2015
    Groundwater 53 (2015)5. - ISSN 0017-467X - p. 771 - 781.
    grondwaterstroming - watervoerende lagen - modellen - klimaatverandering - groundwater flow - aquifers - models - climatic change - aquifer - simulation - intrusion - seepage - florida - system - field - flow
    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction in numerical groundwater flow models is generally simulated using a Cauchy boundary condition, which relates the flow between the surface water and the groundwater to the product of the head difference between the node and the surface water level, and a coefficient, often referred to as the “conductance.” Previous studies have shown that in models with a low grid resolution, the resistance to GW-SW interaction below the surface water bed should often be accounted for in the parameterization of the conductance, in addition to the resistance across the surface water bed. Three conductance expressions that take this resistance into account were investigated: two that were presented by Mehl and Hill (2010) and the one that was presented by De Lange (1999). Their accuracy in low-resolution models regarding salt and water fluxes to a dense drainage network in a confined aquifer system was determined. For a wide range of hydrogeological conditions, the influence of (1) variable groundwater density; (2) vertical grid discretization; and (3) simulation of both ditches and tile drains in a single model cell was investigated. The results indicate that the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) should be used in similar hydrogeological conditions as considered in this paper, as it is better taking into account the resistance to flow below the surface water bed. For the cases that were considered, the influence of variable groundwater density and vertical grid discretization on the accuracy of the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) is small.
    Field and model investigations of freshwater lenses in coastal aquifers
    Pauw, P.S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Sjoerd van der Zee, co-promotor(en): G.H.P. Oude Essink; Toon Leijnse. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572928 - 158
    kustgebieden - watervoorziening - zoet water - wateropslag - geohydrologie - modellen - zuidwest-nederland - zeeland - coastal areas - water supply - fresh water - water storage - geohydrology - models - south-west netherlands - zeeland
    A major problem of sustaining freshwater supply from freshwater lens is the invasion of saline groundwater into a fresh groundwater body. In many coastal areas saltwater intrusion has led to well closure and reduced freshwater supply. Furthermore, in the future saltwater intrusion is expected to increase due to sea level rise, climate change, land subsidence, and increasing population density in coastal areas. In the Netherlands, these stresses will also have a severe impact on the fresh coastal groundwater reserves. In view of this, a research project within the Dutch research program ’Knowledge for Climate’ was defined in 2010, aimed at: 1. Improving the insight into the modeling of freshwater lenses. 2. Defining measures to increase freshwater supply from freshwater lenses. In this thesis the results of four studies related to these objectives are presented.
    GO-FRESH: Valorisatie kansrijke oplossingen voor een robuuste zoetwatervoorziening
    Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Baaren, E.S. ; Zuurbier, K.G. ; Velstra, J. ; Veraart, J.A. - \ 2014
    Utrecht : Kennis voor Klimaat - ISBN 9789492100122 - 84
    klimaatverandering - watervoorziening - zoet water - geohydrologie - wateropslag - ondergrond - zeeland - climatic change - water supply - fresh water - geohydrology - water storage - subsoil - zeeland
    Een consortium onderzoekt in hoeverre lokale maatregelen de zoetwaterbeschikbaarheid voor de landbouw kunnen vergroten in gebieden die onafhankelijk zijn van het hoofdwatersysteem. Hierbij wordt de ondergrond gebruikt voor opslag van zoet water in periodes van wateroverschot, om het water vervolgens te gebruiken in droge tijden. Het betreft een Kennis voor Klimaat project in de Zuidwestelijke Delta.
    Mogelijke effecten van actualisatie van zoutschadefuncties van grondgebonden, beregende landbouwgewassen
    Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Schuiling, C. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Massop, H.T.L. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Faneca Sanchez, M. ; Velstra, J. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Vos, A.C. de - \ 2014
    Utrecht : Programmabureau Kennis voor Klimaat - 23
    zouttolerantie - beregening - waterkwaliteit - veldgewassen - gewasopbrengst - veldproeven - salt tolerance - overhead irrigation - water quality - field crops - crop yield - field tests
    De derving van de fysieke opbrengst van grondgebonden teelten die kunnen worden beregend wordt deels bepaald door het zoutgehalte van het beregeningswater. De kennis op grond waarvan deze opbrengstderving wordt berekend is gebaseerd op veelal buitenlands onderzoek uit de jaren vijftig van de vorige eeuw in andere klimaatzones. Deze methodiek blijkt op basis van recente resultaten van veldproeven en praktijkervaringen niet toepasbaar op de Nederlandse situatie, maar dat gebeurt desondanks nog wel. Recente resultaten van Nederlandse veldproeven en praktijkervaringen tonen aan dat de zouttolerantie van gewassen als aardappelen, suikerbieten en gras aanzienlijk groter is dan gedacht op basis van buitenlands onderzoek. Dit zou moeten leiden tot bijgestelde zouttolerantiefuncties voor deze - en wellicht ook andere - gewassen. Om een indruk te geven wat de effecten van een bijstelling van de zouttolerantie-functies op de berekende opbrengst zouden kunnen zijn heeft een consortium, bestaande uit Alterra, De Bakelse Stroom, Deltares, Acacia Water, LEI en het Zilt Proefbedrijf Texel hiernaar een ruimtelijke verkenning uitgevoerd. Gewasopbrengten zijn per waterschap/regio in laag Nederland berekend met de anno 2013 gehanteerde, en met bijgestelde (lees: ‘tolerantere’) zouttolerantiefuncties. In de analyse is de berekende derving van de gewasopbrengst alleen bepaald door zout in beregeningswater. Voor laag Nederland werd het 10% droge jaar 1989 doorgetrokken naar ‘warm’ 2050 (W+). Op basis hiervan is een eerste schatting gemaakt van de verandering van de modelmatige opbrengst (i.c. een toename) van €60 miljoen/jaar. Dit resultaat geeft aan dat er sprake is van handelingsruimte in het (toekomstige) zoetwaterbeheer. Geadviseerd wordt om de zouttolerantiefuncties van landbouwgewassen te actualiseren, en om te kijken naar mogelijke consequenties voor de inrichting en het beheer van onze zoetwateraanvoersystemen.
    Regional scale impact of tidal forcing on groundwater flow in unconfined coastal aquifers
    Pauw, P.S. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Leijnse, A. ; Vandenbohede, A. ; Groen, J. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2014
    Journal of Hydrology 517 (2014). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 269 - 283.
    grondwaterstroming - kustgebieden - watervoerende lagen - groundwater flow - coastal areas - aquifers - sea-water intrusion - saline groundwater - fresh - beaches - discharge - dynamics - lenses - table - zone
    This paper considers the impact of tidal forcing on regional groundwater flow in an unconfined coastal aquifer. Numerical models are used to quantify this impact for a wide range of hydrogeological conditions. Both a shallow and a deep aquifer are investigated with regard to three dimensionless parameter groups that determine the groundwater flow to a large extent. Analytical expressions are presented that allow for a quick estimate of the regional scale effect of tidal forcing under the same conditions as used in the numerical models. Quantitatively, the results in this paper are complementary to previous studies by taking into account variable density groundwater flow, dispersive salt transport and a seepage face in the intertidal area. Qualitatively, the results are in line with previous investigations. The time-averaged hydraulic head at the high tide mark increases upon a decrease of each of the three considered dimensionless parameter groups: R (including the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity and the precipitation excess), a (the slope of the intertidal area) and AL (the ratio of the width of the fresh water lens and the tidal amplitude). The relative change of the location and the hydraulic head of the groundwater divide, which together characterize regional groundwater flow, increase as a and AL decrease, but decrease as R decreases. The difference between the analytical solutions and numerical results is small. Therefore, the presented analytical solutions can be used to estimate the bias that is introduced in a numerical model if tidal forcing is neglected. The results should be used with caution in case of significant wave forcing, as this was not considered.
    €ureyeopener 2.1: zoetwatervoorziening Zuidwestelijke Delta en Rijnmond-Drechtsteden
    Schipper, P.N.M. ; Janssen, G.M.C.M. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Massop, H.T.L. ; Kselik, R.A.L. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Stuyt, L.C.P.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2510) - 25
    watervoorziening - zoet water - verzilting - waterbeleid - waterbeheer - waterbalans - maatregelen - modellen - watergebruik - akkerbouw - veehouderij - kustgebieden - zeeland - zuid-holland - water supply - fresh water - salinization - water policy - water management - water balance - measures - models - water use - arable farming - livestock farming - coastal areas - zeeland - zuid-holland
    Het veiligstellen van de toekomstige zoetwatervoorziening in de Zuidwestelijke Delta en Rijnmond-Drechtsteden (ZWD-RD) kan op verschillende manieren worden geëffectueerd. Elke maatregel, die hiertoe wordt overwogen, beïnvloedt het chloridegehalte van het polderwater en daarmee de kwaliteit van het beregeningswater voor de landbouw en de ecologische kwaliteit. De huidige zoetwatervoorziening en een reeks maatregelen zijn voor de ZWD-RD gekwantificeerd met behulp van €ureyeopener 2.1, een beleidsondersteunend model dat is ontwikkeld voor beantwoording van vragen over de zoetwatervoorziening door Alterra, Deltares, het LEI en De Bakelse Stroom. €ureyeopener 2.1 is toegespitst op de situatie in de ZWD-RD. Gebruikers kunnen tijdens overleggen met stakeholders (interactief) beoogde maatregelen invoeren; het model berekent dan per omgaande de effecten (waterbehoeften, zoutgehalten regionale wateren, fysieke opbrengstveranderingen landbouw) en ook de directe kosten van de maatregelen. In deze rapportage wordt het model beschreven, en de manier waarop, aan de hand van werksessies met actoren in de regio, de uitkomsten van het model zijn getoetst en het model op onderdelen is verbeterd.
    Rainwater lens dynamics and mixing between infiltrating rainwater and upward saline groundwater seepage beneath a tile-drained agricultural field
    Louw, P.G.B. de; Eeman, S. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Vermue, E. ; Post, V.E.A. - \ 2013
    Journal of Hydrology 501 (2013). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 133 - 145.
    coastal aquifer - fresh - water - flow - netherlands - intrusion - island - management - brackish - plain
    Thin rainwater lenses (RW-lenses) near the land surface are often the only source of freshwater in agricultural areas with regionally-extensive brackish to saline groundwater. The seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of these lenses are poorly known. Here this knowledge gap is addressed by investigating the transient flow and mixing processes in RW-lenses beneath two tile-drained agricultural fields in the Netherlands. Evidence of RW-lens dynamics was systematically collected by monthly ground- and soil water sampling, in combination with daily observations of water table elevation, drain tile discharge and drain water salinity. Based on these data, and numerical modeling of the key lens characteristics, a conceptual model of seasonal lens dynamics is presented. It is found that variations in the position of the mixing zone and mixing zone salinities are small and vary on a seasonal timescale, which is attributed to the slow transient oscillatory flow regime in the deepest part of the lens. The flow and mixing processes are faster near the water table, which responds to recharge and evapotranspiration at a timescale less than a day. Variations of drain tile discharge and drain water salinity are also very dynamic as they respond to individual rain events. Salinities of soil water can become significantly higher than in the groundwater. This is attributed to the combined effect of capillary rise of saline groundwater during dry periods and incomplete flushing by infiltrating freshwater due to preferential flow through cracks in the soil. The results of this study are the key to understanding the potential impact of future climate change and to designing effective mitigating measures such as adapting tile-drainage systems to ensure the future availability of freshwater for agriculture.
    Zoetwatervoorziening in het Hoogheemraadschap van Rijnland : onderzoek met hulp van €ureyopener 1.0
    Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Delsman, J. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Kselik, R.A.L. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Hoogvliet, M. ; Schipper, P.N.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2439) - 90
    zoet water - waterbeheer - verzilting - zout water - natuurbeheer - zoutwaterindringing - nadelige gevolgen - opbrengst - west-nederland - zuid-holland - fresh water - water management - salinization - saline water - nature management - salt water intrusion - adverse effects - outturn - west netherlands - zuid-holland
    Het veiligstellen van de toekomstige zoetwatervoorziening in het Hoogheemraadschap van Rijnland kan in beginsel op verschillende manieren worden geeffectueerd. Elke maatregel die hiertoe wordt overwogen beïnvloedt het chloridegehalte van het polderwater en daarmee de kwaliteit van beregeningswater voor de landbouw en de ecologische kwaliteit. Een aanzienlijke reeks maatregelen is geëvalueerd met behulp van €ureyopener 1.0, een in MS Excel ontwikkeld analyse-instrument, bedoeld voor interactief gebruik. De handelingsruimte die beschikbaar is om anders om te gaan met zoet water zijn geanalyseerd en in beeld gebracht, uitgedrukt in effect op de watervraag, zoutschade aan landbouwgewassen en effecten op de natuur.
    Integraal waterbeheer : kritische zone en onzekerheden : integraal hoofdrapport
    Schipper, P.N.M. ; Bogaart, P.W. ; Groot, A.T. ; Kroes, J.G. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Mulder, H.M. ; Supit, I. ; Verweij, P.J.F.M. ; Walsum, P.E.V. van; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Baaren, E. van; Ek, R. van; Oude Essink, G. ; Faneca Sanchez, ; Bakker, A. ; Bessembinder, J. ; Janssen, P. ; Geer, M.F. van; Simmelink, E. ; Sluijs, J. van der - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2443) - 58
    integraal waterbeheer - bodemwater - ecohydrologie - landbouw - natuur - klimaatverandering - onzekerheid - modelleren - achterhoek - zeeuwse eilanden - integrated water management - soil water - ecohydrology - agriculture - nature - climatic change - uncertainty - modeling - achterhoek - zeeuwse eilanden
    In het kader van het Nationaal Modellen- en Datacentrum (NMDC) is in 2011 het NMDC innovatieproject 'Integraal waterbeheer - van kritische zone tot kritische onzekerheden' gestart (www.nmdc.eu). Dit project heeft tot doel om de modellen voor bodem, water, vegetatie en klimaat(verandering) door samenwerking beter op elkaar aan te laten sluiten, daarbij beter geschikt te maken om effecten van klimaatverandering te berekenen en om de verschillende typen onzekerheden bij dit soort studies in beeld te brengen. Het project is uitgevoerd door Alterra, Deltares, KNMI, PBL en TNO. In twee cases (Baakse Beek en Walcheren) hebben zij hun state-of-the-art modellen voor meteo, gewasgroei, vegetatie-ontwikkeling, hydrologie en geologie ingezet en aan elkaar gekoppeld. Dit rapport behandelt integraal de resultaten van het innovatieproject. De resultaten van de case voor de Baakse Beek zijn specifiek opgenomen in een NMDC deelrapport (Van Ek et al., 2012). Voor de case Walcheren wordt verwezen naar een artikel in voorbereiding (Kroes, J. et al., 2013). De resultaten bieden nieuwe inzichten in de vocht- en zouthuishouding van de bodem, potenties voor grondwaterafhankelijke natuur en groei van landbouwgewassen in het huidige klimaat en projecties voor klimaatverandering rond 2050. In het project zijn verschillende methoden toegepast om inzicht te krijgen in verschillende onzekerheden, hetgeen voor dergelijke integrale (model)studies praktische aanknopingspunten biedt voor de analyse van onzekerheden en effectieve samenwerking tussen de instituten.
    Zuidwestelijke Delta en Rijnmond-Drechtsteden : Vijf veelbelovende maatregelen rond zoetwaterbeheer. Voorlopige resultaten
    Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Janssen, G.M.C.M. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Kselik, R.A.L. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Greft, J.G.M. van der; Delsman, J. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra - 25
    landgebruik - landbouw - zoet water - verzilting - waterbeheer - waterschappen - inventarisaties - kosten-batenanalyse - zuidwest-nederland - land use - agriculture - fresh water - salinization - water management - polder boards - inventories - cost benefit analysis - south-west netherlands
    Het grondgebruik in Nederlandse kustregio’s wordt in toenemende mate geconfronteerd met verzilting. De urgentie en prognose van dit probleem is niet altijd even duidelijk. Er is een toenemende discussie over zoetwaternormering. Uit recent onderzoek van Alterra onder twaalf waterschappen1 blijkt dat deze vaak verschillende ideeën hebben over de waterkwaliteit die nodig is voor een bepaalde vorm van land-gebruik. Het zoutgehalte van het oppervlaktewater dat waterschappen in verziltingsgevoelige gebieden nog acceptabel vinden blijkt sterk regiogebonden. De verscheidenheid waarmee regionale waterbeheerders en gebruikers omgaan met de watervoorziening in relatie tot verzilting is van invloed op de nationale zoetwatervoorziening waarvoor binnen het Delta-programma strategieën worden uitgewerkt. Er is behoefte aan een nadere precisering van de werkelijke urgentie en het handelingsperspectief. Daartoe is €ureyeopener ontwikkeld. Er is veel actuele kennis samengebracht, die werd ontwikkeld met behulp van modellen als NHI, SWAP, Agricom en dergelijke. Deze informatie is aangevuld met expert-kennis, afkomstig uit vooraanstaande kennisinstituten.
    Balancing supply and demand of fresh water under increasing drought and salinisation in the Netherlands
    Jeuken, A. ; Beek, E. ; Duinen, R. ; Veen, A. van der; Bocalon, A. ; Delsman, J. ; Pauw, P.S. ; Oude Essink, G. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Stofberg, S.F. ; Zuurbier, K. ; Stuyfzand, P. ; Appelman, W. ; Creusen, R. ; Paalman, M. ; Katschnig, D. ; Rozema, J. ; Mens, M. ; Kwakkel, J. ; Thissen, W. ; Veraart, J.A. ; Tolk, L. ; Vries, A. de - \ 2012
    Utrecht : Knowledge for Climate - 42
    watervoorziening - zoet water - klimaatverandering - droogte - verzilting - water supply - fresh water - climatic change - drought - salinization
    The latest climate impact assessments show that climate change will cause an increasing mismatch between demand and supply of fresh water in many densely populated deltas around the world. Recent studies for the Netherlands show that the current water supply strategy is not climate proof in the long-run. Therefore, a future ‘climate proof’ fresh water supply is national priority on the Dutch water policy agenda
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