- Rob E. Schouten (1)
- Leo F.M. Marcelis (1)
- Richard G.F. Visser (1)
- Habtamu Giday (2)
- Katrine H. Kjaer (1)
- Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer (1)
- E. Heuvelink (2)
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- Benita Hyldgaard (1)
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- Theoharis Ouzounis (8)
- T. Ouzounis (1)
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Far-red light during cultivation induces postharvest cold tolerance in tomato fruit
Affandi, Fahrizal Y. ; Verdonk, Julian C. ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Ji, Yongran ; Woltering, Ernst J. ; Schouten, Rob E. - \ 2020
Postharvest Biology and Technology 159 (2020). - ISSN 0925-5214
We investigated the role of far-red LED light during cultivation on postharvest cold tolerance in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv Moneymaker). Red and blue top LED light, providing 150 μmol m−2 s-1 photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR) at plant height for 16 h daily, was combined with 0, 30 or 50 μmol m−2 s-1 (non-PAR) far-red LED light. Tomatoes were harvested at the mature green or red stage and subjected to cold storage for 0, 5, 10, and 15 d at 4 °C, followed by 20 d shelf-life at 20 °C.
Mature green harvested tomatoes, cultivated with additional far-red light, showed reduced weight loss, less pitting, faster red colour development during shelf-life (when prior long cold stored), and less softening (when prior short or non-cold stored). FR lighting during cultivation likely protects the membrane integrity of MG tomatoes and thus allows uninterrupted lycopene synthesis. Red harvested tomatoes cultivated with additional far-red light were firmer at harvest, showed reduced weight loss and less decay during shelf-life. Less red colouration was observed for red harvested fruits at the start of shelf-life when fruits were prior cold stored, indicative of lycopene breakdown during cold storage. The improved cold tolerance of red harvested fruits grown under additional far-red light is likely due to higher firmness at the start of the shelf-life period with lycopene acting as antioxidant during cold storage. In conclusion, additional far-red light during cultivation improved postharvest cold tolerance for tomatoes harvested at both the green and red maturity stage, and might therefore be suitable to prolong the storage potential of tomato at sub-optimal temperatures.
Far-red radiation increases dry mass partitioning to fruits but reduces Botrytis cinerea resistance in tomato
Ji, Yongran ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Courbier, Sarah ; Kaiser, Elias ; Nguyen, Phuong T. ; Schouten, Henk J. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Pierik, Ronald ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. ; Heuvelink, Ep - \ 2019
Environmental and Experimental Botany 168 (2019). - ISSN 0098-8472
Botrytis cinerea - Dry mass partitioning - Far red - Growth component analysis - LED lighting - Solanum lycopersicum
The addition of far-red (FR, 700–800 nm) radiation to standard growth light triggers a set of photomorphogenic responses collectively termed shade avoidance syndrome. Recent research showed that additional FR increased fruit yield in greenhouse tomato production. However, the mechanism behind this increase is not clear; nor is it known whether there is a trade-off between growth and defense against plant diseases in tomato under additional FR. The aims of this study were 1) to quantify the effect of additional FR on tomato fruit growth, 2) to explain this effect based on underlying growth components and 3) to examine the FR effect on resistance against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’) plants were grown for four months with 30 or 50 μmol m−2 s−1 of FR added to 150 μmol m−2 s−1 red + blue or white background LED lighting. Growth and development parameters were recorded, and a growth component analysis was conducted. Bioassays for resistance against B. cinerea were conducted on leaf samples collected from each light treatment. Additional FR increased total fruit dry mass per plant by 26–45%. FR affected multiple growth components, among which the fraction of dry mass partitioned to fruits was the most prominent with a 15–35% increase. Truss appearance rate was increased 11–14% by FR while instantaneous net photosynthesis rate was not affected. FR also resulted in more severe disease symptoms upon infection with B. cinerea. In conclusion, additional FR increases tomato fruit production mainly by increasing dry mass partitioning to fruits, rather than improving photosynthesis or increasing total plant biomass. However, FR also reduces resistance of tomato leaves against B. cinerea.
Adding Blue to Red Supplemental Light Increases Biomass and Yield of Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes, but Only to an Optimum
Kaiser, M.E. ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Giday, Habtamu ; Schipper, R. ; Heuvelink, E. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X - 11 p.
LED, biomass, blue light, red light, photosynthesis, tomato, greenhouse, yield
Greenhouse crop production in northern countries often relies heavily on supplemental lighting for year-round yield and product quality. Among the different spectra used in supplemental lighting, red is often considered the most efficient, but plants do not develop normally when grown solely under monochromatic red light (“red light syndrome”). Addition of blue light has been shown to aid normal development, and typical lighting spectra in greenhouse production include a mixture of red and blue light. However, it is unclear whether sunlight, as part of the light available to plants in the greenhouse, may be sufficient as a source of blue light. In a greenhouse high-wire tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we varied the percentage of blue supplemental light (in a red background) as 0, 6, 12, and 24%, while keeping total photosynthetically active radiation constant. Light was supplied as a mixture of overhead (99 μmol m-2 s-1) and intracanopy (48 μmol m-2 s-1) LEDs, together with sunlight. Averaged over the whole experiment (111 days), sunlight comprised 58% of total light incident onto the crop. Total biomass, yield and number of fruits increased with the addition of blue light to an optimum, suggesting that both low (0%) and high (24%) blue light intensities were suboptimal for growth. Stem and internode lengths, as well as leaf area, decreased with increases in blue light percentage. While photosynthetic capacity increased linearly with increases in blue light percentage, photosynthesis in the low blue light treatment (0%) was not low enough to suggest the occurrence of the red light syndrome. Decreased biomass at low (0%) blue light was likely caused by decreased photosynthetic light use efficiency. Conversely, decreased biomass at high (24%) blue light was likely caused by reductions in canopy light interception. We conclude that while it is not strictly necessary to add blue light to greenhouse supplemental red light to obtain a functional crop, adding some (6–12%) blue light is advantageous for growth and yield while adding 24% blue light is suboptimal for growth.
LED or HPS in ornamentals? A case study in roses and campanulas
Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Giday, Habtamu ; Kjaer, Katrine H. ; Ottosen, Carl-Otto - \ 2018
European Journal of Horticultural Science 83 (2018)3. - ISSN 1611-4434 - p. 166 - 172.
Energy saving - Greenhouses - Light sources - Ornamentals
The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of novel top-installed high-output light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on ornamental plant production both in terms of productivity and energy use in comparison with conventional HPS lamps in two standard greenhouse compartments. The experiments were performed in late winter period using three varieties of potted miniature roses (Rosa hybrida) and two cultivars of Campanula grown in identical installed supplemental light levels (75–85 µmol m-2 s-1 of PPFD) with temperature set points 18°C at night, 24°C during the day, while 800 ppm of CO2 was supplied. Due to the winter being relatively cold, the set points were equal to the realized temperature as ventilation rarely occurred. The leaf temperature was maintained at the same level by adjusting the top pipe temperature. Two harvests were performed in February and in March to show the potential effect of winter-or early spring-grown plants. The results showed relatively small differences with respect to plant performance between the HPS and LED treatments, and most significant differences were found only in the 1st batch of roses harvested in February regarding plant height and stem fresh and dry weight, indicating that growth was favored under HPS lamps for three out of four cultivars. Both the 2nd batches for roses and campanulas harvested in March showed very limited or no differences between treatments. The energy saving on the electricity side was 60% in LEDs compared to HPS, but due to the increased heat use from top pipes the energy used for heating increased by around 50% over the whole experimental period.
Current status and recent achievements in the field of horticulture with the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
Bantis, Filippos ; Smirnakou, Sonia ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Koukounaras, Athanasios ; Ntagkas, Nikolaos ; Radoglou, Kalliopi - \ 2018
Scientia Horticulturae 235 (2018). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 437 - 451.
Greenhouse - Growth chamber - Light quality - Photomorphogenesis - Plant metabolism - Vertical farming
Light-emitting diode (LED) technology has rapidly advanced the past years and it is nowadays irrevocably linked with controlled-environment agriculture (CEA). We provide here an amalgamation of the recent research achievements in the horticulture and floriculture industry, ranging from greenhouse applications to climate rooms and vertical farming. We hope this overview bestows ample examples for researchers and growers in the selection of the appropriate LED light solution for amending crop yield, phytochemical content, nutritional value, flowering control, transplant success, pre-harvest and postharvest product quality, and production of regeneration material. We leave the reader with some future prospects and directions that need to be taken into account in this ever-growing field.
Allopolyploidization in Cucumis contributes to delayed leaf maturation with repression of redundant homoeologous genes
Yu, Xiaqing ; Wang, Xixi ; Hyldgaard, Benita ; Zhu, Zaobing ; Zhou, Rong ; Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Lou, Qunfeng ; Li, Ji ; Cai, Qingsheng ; Rosenqvist, Eva ; Ottosen, Carl-Otto ; Chen, Jinfeng - \ 2018
The Plant Journal 94 (2018)2. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 393 - 404.
The important role of polyploidy in plant evolution is widely recognized. However, many questions remain to be explored to address how polyploidy affects the phenotype of the plant. To shed light on the phenotypic and molecular impacts of allopolyploidy, we investigated the leaf development of a synthesized allotetraploid (Cucumis × hytivus), with an emphasis on chlorophyll development. Delayed leaf maturation was identified in C. × hytivus, based on delayed leaf expansion, initial chlorophyll deficiency in the leaves and disordered sink‐source transition. Anatomical observations also revealed disturbed chloroplast development in C. ×hytivus. The determination of chlorophyll biosynthesis intermediates suggested that the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway of C. × hytivus is blocked at the site at which uroporphyrinogen III is catalysed to coproporphyrinogen III. Three chlorophyll biosynthesis‐related genes, HEMA1, HEME2 and POR, were significantly repressed in C. × hytivus. Sequence alignment showed both synonymous and non‐synonymous substitutions in the HEMA1, HEME2 and POR genes of the parents. Cloning of the chlorophyll biosynthetic genes suggested the retention of homoeologs. In addition, a chimeric clone of the HEMA1 gene that consisted of homologous genes from the parents was identified in C. × hytivus. Overall, our results showed that allopolyploidization in Cucumis has resulted in disturbed chloroplast development and reduced chlorophyll biosynthesis caused by the repressed expression of duplicated homologous genes, which further led to delayed leaf maturation in the allotetraploid, C. × hytivus. The preferential retention/loss of certain types of genes and non‐reciprocal homoeologous recombination were also supported in the present study, which provides new insights into the impact of allopolyploidy.
Continuous Spectrum LEDs Promote Seedling Quality Traits and Performance of Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis
Smirnakou, Sonia ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Radoglou, Kalliopi M. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X - 16 p.
Regulation of the growth, development, and quality of plants by the control of light quality has attracted extensive attention worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of continuous LED spectrum for indoor plant pre-cultivation and to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of a common broadleaved tree species in Mediterranean environment, Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis at seedling developmental stage. Thus, the seedlings were pre-cultivated for 28 days, under five different LED light qualities: (1) Fluorescent (FL) as control light (2) L20AP67 (high in green and moderate in far-red), (3) AP673L (high in green and red), (4) G2 (highest in red and far-red), AP67 (high in blue, red, and far-red), and (5) NS1 (highest in blue and green and lowest in far-red) LEDs. Further examination was held at the nursery for 1 year, on several seedling quality traits. Indeed, AP67 and AP673L triggered higher leaf formation, while L20AP67 positively affected seedling shoot development. NS1 and AP67 LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed significantly higher root fibrosity than those of FL light. Furthermore, NS1 and AP673L LEDs induced fourfold increase on seedling root dry weight than FL light. Hence, evaluating the seedling nursery performance attributes, most of those photomorphogenetic responses previously obtained were still detectable. Even more so, LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed higher survival and faster growth indicating better adaptation even under natural light conditions, a fact further reinforced by the significantly higher Dickson’s quality index acquired. In conclusion, the goal of each nursery management program is the production of high quality seedlings with those desirable traits, which in turn satisfy the specific needs for a particular reforestation site. Thus, the enhanced oak seedling quality traits formed under continuous LEDs spectrum especially of NS1 and AP673L pre-cultivation may potentially fulfill this goal.
Effects of continuous spectrum LEDs used in indoor cultivation of two coniferous species Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies borisii-regis Mattf
Smirnakou, Sonia ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Radoglou, Kalliopi - \ 2017
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 32 (2017)2. - ISSN 0282-7581 - p. 115 - 122.
Controlled environment - light response - light-emitting diode - plant morphology - root growth potential
The effects of four different continuous spectrum LED light qualities on the growth characteristics of Pinus sylvestris L. (PS) and Abies borisii-regis Mattf. (AB) seedlings were studied. The seedlings were exposed for 35 days inside growth chambers to G2 (high in red and far-red), AP67 (high in blue and far-red), AP67-ARCH (high in green), and NS2 (high in blue including a small percentage in the UV area) LEDs, as well as fluorescent light (FL) as Control. Each species showed a unique light-adapted response. G2 treatment stimulated needle formation of PS seedlings, while AB seedlings were unaffected. Hypocotyl elongation was promoted by FL; however, LEDs resulted in compact plants with greater root development, especially under the AP67-ARCH and AP67 spectra for PS and AB, respectively. In PS, AP67-ARCH and G2 significantly increased dry weight, while AB was affected significantly by AP67 and NS2. Furthermore, root growth potential of both species was better after LED pre-cultivation than the FL. Therefore, the use of continuous spectrum LEDs can enhance desirable quality characteristics of seedlings, which may be advantageous in large scale seedling production for reforestation.
Blue and red LED lighting effects on plant biomass, stomatal conductance, and metabolite content in nine tomato genotypes
Ouzounis, T. ; Heuvelink, E. ; Ji, Y. ; Schouten, H.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2016
Acta Horticulturae 1134 (2016). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 251 - 258.
Chlorophyll - Flavonol - Greenhouse horticulture - Light emitting diodes - Photomorphogenesis
A collection of nine tomato genotypes was chosen based on their diversity, phylogeny, availability of genome information, and agronomic traits. The objective of the study was to characterize the effect of red and blue LED (light-emitting diode) lighting on physiological, morphological, developmental, and chemical parameters. Two LED light treatments were imposed: (1): 100% red and (2): 88% red/12% blue (peak emission at 662 and 456 nm for red and blue light, respectively). The combination of blue and red LED lighting increased total dry matter in seven of the nine genotypes compared to red. Upward or downward leaf curling was observed in all genotypes in the 100% red treatment. Stomatal conductance was not affected much by additional blue light, but blue light increased chlorophyll and flavonol contents in three genotypes. The exposure of tomato plants to a combination of red and blue LEDs alleviated leaf morphological abnormalities and enhanced plant biomass, and variably affected stomatal conductance and secondary metabolism compared to red light alone.
Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success
Bantis, Filippos ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Radoglou, Kalliopi - \ 2016
Scientia Horticulturae 198 (2016). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 277 - 283.
Basil - LEDs - Nursery production - Phenolic compounds - Seedling growth
The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of two Ocimum basilicum cultivars (Lettuce Leaf, and Red Rubin-mountain Athos hybrid) under artificial lighting were investigated. Four LED light treatments [AP673L (high red and high red:far-red), G2 (high red and low red:far-red), AP67 (moderate blue and red and low red:far-red), and NS1 (high blue and green, high red:far-red and 1% ultraviolet)] with different colors mixing UV, blue, green, red and far-red, and fluorescent tubes (FL, high blue, green and red:far-red) as Control were used in the growth chambers for 28 days under PPFD of 200±20μmolm-2s-1 for all treatments at plant height. G2, Control and AP67 treatments for Lettuce Leaf, and G2 for Red Rubin hybrid had higher growth rate. Roots of Lettuce Leaf were significantly longer under AP673L compared to NS1, while Red Rubin hybrid showed no significant differences. Total biomass was significantly greater under NS1, AP67 and G2 compared to the Control, for both cultivars. For both Lettuce Leaf and Red Rubin hybrid, root:shoot ratio (R/S) was favored under NS1, whereas the Control had the lowest impact. Leaf area of both cultivars was greater under the Control. Root growth capacity evaluation was also assessed. Seedlings of Lettuce Leaf cultivated under the effect of the Control and AP673L, and seedlings of Red Rubin hybrid grown under AP673L (mainly) quickly developed new root system. This could offer the advantage of fast exploitation of larger soil volume after transplanting. Total phenolic content of Lettuce Leaf was significantly higher under NS1 compared to the rest of the treatments, while in Red Rubin hybrid, NS1 had significantly higher total phenolic content compared to the Control and G2. Our study demonstrates that LEDs variably affected growth characteristics and increased total phenolic content compared to conventional fluorescent light for these two O. basilicum cultivars.