Governing nature-based tourism mobility in National Park Torres del Paine, Chilean Southern Patagonia
Barrena Ruiz, J.A. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Bush, S.R. ; Blanco-Wells, Gustavo - \ 2019
Mobilities 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1745-0101 - p. 745 - 761.
spatial claims - tourism mobility - protected areas - governance - Patagonia
Nature-based tourism is a mobile activity shaped by the capacity of tourists for displacement and the socio-material infrastructure allowing flows. However, the literature has scarcely addressed aspects of mobility in governing nature-based tourism. Taking the case of the National Park Torres del Paine we explore three aspects of mobility in nature-based tourism using the concepts of routes, frictions, and rhythms. Our findings show that the movement of tourists challenges spatially bounded forms of governance. Instead, we argue, new mobility-sensitive forms of nature-based tourism governance are needed that can complement the use of fixed-boundary conservation enclosures.
Tropical forest canopies and their relationships with climate and disturbance: results from a global dataset of consistent field-based measurements
Pfeifer, Marion ; Gonsamo, Alemu ; Woodgate, William ; Cayuela, Luis ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Ledo, Alicia ; Paine, Timothy C.E. ; Marchant, Rob ; Burt, Andrew ; Calders, Kim ; Courtney-mustaphi, Colin ; Cuni-sanchez, Aida ; Deere, Nicolas J. ; Denu, Dereje ; Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Hayward, Robin ; Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Macía, Manuel J. ; Olivier, Pieter I. ; Pellikka, Petri ; Seki, Hamidu ; Shirima, Deo ; Trevithick, Rebecca ; Wedeux, Beatrice ; Wheeler, Charlotte ; Munishi, Pantaleo K.T. ; Martin, Thomas ; Mustari, Abdul ; Platts, Philip J. - \ 2018
Forest Ecosystems 5 (2018). - ISSN 2095-6355 - 14 p.
Background: Canopy structure, defined by leaf area index (LAI), fractional vegetation cover (FCover) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), regulates a wide range of forest functions and ecosystem services. Spatially consistent field-measurements of canopy structure are however lacking, particularly for the tropics. Methods: Here, we introduce the Global LAI database: a global dataset of field-based canopy structure measurements spanning tropical forests in four continents (Africa, Asia, Australia and the Americas). We use these measurements to test for climate dependencies within and across continents, and to test for the potential of anthropogenic disturbance and forest protection to modulate those dependences. Results: Using data collected from 887 tropical forest plots, we show that maximum water deficit, defined across the most arid months of the year, is an important predictor of canopy structure, with all three canopy attributes declining significantly with increasing water deficit. Canopy attributes also increase with minimum temperature, and with the protection of forests according to both active (within protected areas) and passive measures (through topography). Once protection and continent effects are accounted for, other anthropogenic measures (e.g. human population) do not improve the model. Conclusions: We conclude that canopy structure in the tropics is primarily a consequence of forest adaptation to the maximum water deficits historically experienced within a given region. Climate change, and in particular changes in drought regimes may thus affect forest structure and function, but forest protection may offer some resilience against this effect.
Empirical methods of identifying and quantifying trophic interactions for constructing soil food-web models
Heijboer, Amber ; Ruess, Liliane ; Traugott, Michael ; Jousset, Alexandre ; Ruiter, Peter C. de - \ 2017
In: Adaptive Food Webs Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107182110 - p. 257 - 286.
Introduction Food-web models, which depict the trophic relationships between organisms within a community, form a powerful and versatile approach to study the relationships between community structure and ecosystem functioning. Although food-web models have recently been applied to a wide range of ecological studies (Memmott, 2009; Sanders et al., 2014), such approaches can be greatly improved by introducing high-resolution trophic information from empirical studies and experiments that realistically describe topological structure and energy flows (de Ruiter et al., 2005). Over the last decades major technological advances have been made in empirically characterizing trophic networks by describing, in detail, the connectedness and flows in food webs. Existing empirical techniques, such as stable isotope probing (SIP) (Layman et al., 2012), have been refined and new approaches have been created by combining methods, e.g., combining Raman spectroscopy or fatty acid analysis with SIP (Ruess et al., 2005a; Li et al., 2013). These empirical methods can provide insight into different aspects of food webs and together form an extensive toolbox to investigate trophic interactions. It is crucial to recognize the potential and limitations of a range of empirical approaches in order to choose the right method in the design of empirically based food-web studies. Empirically based food webs are generally classified according to the type of input information that is required. In the following lines we will provide an overview of four types of food-web model: connectedness webs, semi-quantitative webs, energy-flow webs, and functional webs. Paine (1980) introduced three of those webs, which are widely accepted and applied in food-web studies across ecosystems. We propose to add a fourth type of empirically based food web, the semi-quantitative web. All of these food webs have the same basic structure, but the conceptual webs differ in the type of trophic information they describe and represent (Figure 16.1). Connectedness webs (Figure 16.1a) define the basic structure of a food web by describing the food-web connections per se.
Moore, John C. ; Ruiter, Peter C. de; McCann, Kevin S. ; Wolters, Volkmar - \ 2017
In: Adaptive Food Webs Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107182110 - p. 1 - 6.
Many systems being studied today are dynamic, large and complex: traffic at an airport with 100 planes, slum areas with 10 4 persons or the human brain with 10 10 neuron(e)s. In such systems, stability is of central importance, for instability usually appears as a self-generating catastrophe. Unfortunately, present theoretical knowledge of stability in large systems is meager: the work described here was intended to add to it. Gardner and Ashby (1970) A variety of ecologically interesting interpretations can be, and have been, attached to the term “stability.” May (1973) Climate change, eutrophication, land-use practices, deforestation, intensification of agriculture, and harvesting from fisheries are changing ecosystems across the globe. The study of food webs provides a framework to address these environmental challenges. Food webs are descriptions of the trophic interactions among consumers and resources. The information contained within these descriptions includes aspects of ecosystem structure (i.e., species richness, network architecture), ecosystem function (i.e., primary production, decomposition, biogeochemical cycles), and dynamics (i.e., population and process rates and change, stability and persistence) that all ecosystems share. Understanding how food webs respond to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, be they gradual or abrupt, is important to our basic knowledge of systems, to the formulation of environmental policies, and the implementation of management practices. Ecologists have long understood the observed patterns in distribution of species and their biomass resulted in part from offsetting processes of births and death, immigration and emigration, competition for resources, production and predation, and basic energetic properties, and that they were in some way related to their stability or ability to persist (Elton, 1927; Lotka, 1956; Hutchison, 1959; Hairston et al., 1960; Paine, 1966). In the past 50 years, there have been several attempts to tie structural, functional, and dynamic aspects of ecosystems together in a unifying way. Two contemporary works: one from the community ecology perspective provided by MacArthur and Wilson (1967) – The Theory of Island Biogeography – and one from the ecosystem ecology perspective provided by Odum (1969) – “The strategy of ecosystem development” – summarized the thinking at that time. The Theory of Island Biogeography offered a fresh perspective that blended nearly a century of empirical data on the distribution of species across the globe collected by naturalists with mathematical representations of the processes of colonization and extinction to explain these observations.
Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why
Paine, C.E.T. ; Amissah, Lucy ; Auge, H. ; Baraloto, C. ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2015
University of Stirling
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global consistency would imply that traits could serve as valuable proxies for the complex suite of factors that determine growth rate, and, therefore, could underpin a new generation of robust dynamic vegetation models. Alternatively, growth rates may depend more strongly on the local environment or growth–trait relationships may vary along environmental gradients. 3. We tested these alternative hypotheses using data on 27 352 juvenile trees, representing 278 species from 27 sites on all forested continents, and extensive functional trait data, 38% of which were obtained at the same sites at which growth was assessed. Data on potential evapotranspiration (PET), which summarizes the joint ecological effects of temperature and precipitation, were obtained from a global data base. 4. We estimated size-standardized relative height growth rates (SGR) for all species, then related them to functional traits and PET using mixed-effect models for the fastest growing species and for all species together. 5. Both the mean and 95th percentile SGR were more strongly associated with functional traits than with PET. PET was unrelated to SGR at the global scale. SGR increased with increasing SLA and decreased with increasing wood density and seed mass, but these traits explained only 3.1% of the variation in SGR. SGR–trait relationships were consistently weak across families and biogeographic zones, and over a range of tree statures. Thus, the most widely studied functional traits in plant ecology were poor predictors of tree growth over large scales. 6. Synthesis. We conclude that these functional traits alone may be unsuitable for predicting growth of trees over broad scales. Determining the functional traits that predict vital rates under specific environmental conditions may generate more insight than a monolithic global relationship can offer.
Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why
Paine, C.E.T. ; Amissah, L. ; Auge, H. ; Baraloto, C. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2015
Journal of Ecology 103 (2015)4. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 978 - 989.
1.Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2.If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global consistency would imply that traits could serve as valuable proxies for the complex suite of factors that determine growth rate, and, therefore, could underpin a new generation of robust dynamic vegetation models. Alternatively, growth rates may depend more strongly on the local environment or growth–trait relationships may vary along environmental gradients. 3.We tested these alternative hypotheses using data on 27 352 juvenile trees, representing 278 species from 27 sites on all forested continents, and extensive functional trait data, 38% of which were obtained at the same sites at which growth was assessed. Data on potential evapotranspiration (PET), which summarizes the joint ecological effects of temperature and precipitation, were obtained from a global data base. 4.We estimated size-standardized relative height growth rates (SGR) for all species, then related them to functional traits and PET using mixed-effect models for the fastest growing species and for all species together. 5.Both the mean and 95th percentile SGR were more strongly associated with functional traits than with PET. PET was unrelated to SGR at the global scale. SGR increased with increasing SLA and decreased with increasing wood density and seed mass, but these traits explained only 3.1% of the variation in SGR. SGR–trait relationships were consistently weak across families and biogeographic zones, and over a range of tree statures. Thus, the most widely studied functional traits in plant ecology were poor predictors of tree growth over large scales. 6.Synthesis. We conclude that these functional traits alone may be unsuitable for predicting growth of trees over broad scales. Determining the functional traits that predict vital rates under specific environmental conditions may generate more insight than a monolithic global relationship can offer.
Functional traits predict ontogenetic growth trajectories among neotropical trees
Hérault, B. ; Bachelot, B. ; Poorter, L. ; Bongers, F. ; Chave, J. ; Paine, C.E.T. ; Rossi, V. ; Baraloto, C. - \ 2011
Journal of Ecology 99 (2011)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1431 - 1440.
mixed dipterocarp forest - tropical trees - trade-offs - photosynthetic traits - relative importance - economics spectrum - shade tolerance - good predictors - wood density - life-history
1. Functional traits are posited to explain interspecific differences in performance, but these relationships are difficult to describe for long-lived organisms such as trees, which exhibit strong ontogenetic changes in demographic rates. Here, we use a size-dependent model of tree growth to test the extent to which of 17 functional traits related to leaf and stem economics, adult stature and seed size predict the ontogenetic trajectory of tree growth. 2. We used a Bayesian modelling framework to parameterize and contrast three size-dependent diameter growth models using 16 years of census data from 5524 individuals of 50 rain forest tree species: a size-dependent model, a size-dependent model with species-specific parameters and a size-dependent model based on functional traits. 3. Most species showed clear hump-shaped ontogenetic growth trajectories and, across species, maximum growth rate varied nearly tenfold, from 0.58 to 5.51 mm year-1. Most species attained their maximum growth at 60% of their maximum size, whereas the magnitude of ontogenetic changes in growth rate varied widely among species. 4. The Trait-Model provided the best compromise between explained variance and model parsimony and needed considerably fewer parameters than the model with species terms. 5. Stem economics and adult stature largely explained interspecific differences in growth strategy. Maximum absolute diameter growth rates increased with increasing adult stature and leaf d13C and decreased with increasing wood density. Species with light wood had the greatest potential to modulate their growth, resulting in hump-shaped ontogenetic growth curves. Seed size and leaf economics, generally thought to be of paramount importance for plant performance, had no significant relationships with the growth parameters. 6. Synthesis. Our modelling approach offers a promising way to link demographic parameters to their functional determinants and hence to predict growth trajectories in species-rich communities with little parameter inflation, bridging the gap between functional ecology and population demography.
Bioavailability of Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment
Katayama, A. ; Bhula, R. ; Burns, G.R. ; Carazo, E. ; Felsot, A. ; Hamilton, D. ; Harris, C. ; Kim, Y.H. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Koedel, W. ; Linders, J. ; Peijnenburg, J.G.M.W. ; Sabljic, A. ; Stephenson, R.G. ; Racke, D.K. ; Rubin, B. ; Tanaka, K. ; Unsworth, J. ; Wauchope, R.D. - \ 2010
In: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 203 / Whitacre, D.M., New York : Springer - ISBN 9781441913517 - p. 1 - 86.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - supercritical-fluid extraction - bound pesticide-residues - field-moist soils - artificially contaminated soils - persistent organic pollutants - earthworms eisenia-foetida - carbon-dioxide extraction - bacterial outer-membrane
When synthetic, xenobiotic compounds such as agrochemicals and industrial chemicals are utilized, they eventually reach the soil environment where they are subject to degradation, leaching, volatilization, sorption, and uptake by organisms. The simplest assumption is that such chemicals in soil are totally available to microorganisms, plant roots, and soil fauna via direct, contact exposure; subsequently these organisms are consumed as part of food web processes and bioaccumulation may occur, increasing exposures to higher organisms up the food chain. However, studies in the last two decades have revealed that chemical residues in the environment are not completely bioavailable, so that their uptake by biota is less than the total amount present in soil (Alexander 1995; Gevao et al. 2003; Paine et al. 1996). Therefore, the toxicity, biodegradability, and efficacy of xenobiotics are dependent on their soil bioavailability, rendering this concept profoundly important to chemical risk assessment and pesticide registration.
Decoupled leaf and stem economics in rain forest trees
Baraloto, C. ; Paine, C.E.T. ; Poorter, L. ; Beauchene, J. ; Bonal, D. ; Domenach, A.M. ; Herault, B. ; Patiño, S. ; Roggy, J.C. ; Chave, J. - \ 2010
Ecology Letters 13 (2010)11. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1338 - 1347.
functional traits - neotropical forests - wood density - strategies - diversity - spectrum - size - phylogenetics - conductivity - architecture
Cross-species analyses of plant functional traits have shed light on factors contributing to differences in performance and distribution, but to date most studies have focused on either leaves or stems. We extend these tissue-specific analyses of functional strategy towards a whole-plant approach by integrating data on functional traits for 13 448 leaves and wood tissues from 4672 trees representing 668 species of Neotropical trees. Strong correlations amongst traits previously defined as the leaf economics spectrum reflect a tradeoff between investments in productive leaves with rapid turnover vs. costly physical leaf structure with a long revenue stream. A second axis of variation, the ‘stem economics spectrum’, defines a similar tradeoff at the stem level: dense wood vs. high wood water content and thick bark. Most importantly, these two axes are orthogonal, suggesting that tradeoffs operate independently at the leaf and at the stem levels. By simplifying the multivariate ecological strategies of tropical trees into positions along these two spectra, our results provide a basis to improve global vegetation models predicting responses of tropical forests to global chan
Special issue: Innovations in farming systems approaches: Introduction
Dedieu, B. ; Darnhofer, I. ; Bellon, S. ; Greef, K.H. de; Casabianca, F. ; Madureira, L. ; Milestad, R. ; Paine, M. ; Steyaert, P. ; Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Zasser-Bedoya, S. - \ 2009
Outlook on Agriculture 38 (2009)2. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 108 - 110.
|Project setup and learning processes in participative systems oriented research initiatives
Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Crawford, A. ; Paine, M. ; Pinheiro, S. ; Boef, W.S. de; Kristensen, I.S. ; Hermansen, J.E. ; Dedieu, B. ; Hildebrand, P. ; Cabrera, V. ; Jansen, D.M. ; Dixon, J. - \ 2006
In: Changing European farming systems for a better future. New visions for rural areas, 7th European IFSA symposium, Wageningen, 7-9 July 2006. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860029 - p. 89 - 89.
|Desperate to Get Off the Treadmill : Renegotiating Arable Farming in a Densely Populated Industrial Country
Proost, J. ; Röling, N. - \ 2000
In: Cow up a Tree: Knowing and Learning for Change in Agriculture. Case Studies from Industrialised Countries / Cerf, M., Gibbon, D., Hubert, B., Ison, R., Jiggins, J., Paine, M., Proost, J., Röling, N., Paris : Editions INRA - p. 337 - 351.
|Towards Capacity Building for Complex Systems Management : Imagining Three Dimensions
Jiggins, J. ; Röling, N. - \ 2000
In: Cow up a Tree: Knowing and Learning for Change in Agriculture. Case Studies from Industrialised Countries / Cerf, M., Gibbon, D., Hubert, B., Ison, R., Jiggins, J., Paine, M., Proost, J., Röling, N., Paris : Editions INRA - p. 429 - 443.
|The 'Probematique' with Respect to Industrialised-Country Experiences
Hubert, B. ; Ison, R. ; Röling, N. - \ 2000
In: Cow up a Tree: Knowing and Learning for Change in Agriculture. Case Studies from Industrialised Countries / Cerf, M., Gibbon, D., Hubert, B., Ison, R., Jiggins, J., Paine, M., Proost, J., Röling, N., - p. 13 - 31.
|Cow up a Tree : Knowing and Learning for Change in Agriculture. Case Studies from Industrialised Countries
Cerf, M. ; Gibbon, D. ; Hubert, B. ; Ison, R. ; Jiggins, J. ; Paine, M. ; Proost, J. ; Röling, N. - \ 2000
Paris : INRA - ISBN 9782738009296 - 492
landbouw - verandering - leren - communicatie - kennis - landbouwkundig onderzoek - voorlichting - agriculture - change - learning - communication - knowledge - agricultural research - extension
|Fostering Emergence : New Research and Development Traditions for Knowing and Learning
Cerf, M. ; Gibbon, D. ; Hubert, B. ; Ison, R. ; Jiggins, J. ; Paine, M. ; Proost, J. ; Röling, N. - \ 2000
In: Cow up a Tree: Knowing and Learning for Change in Agriculture. Case Studies from Industrialised Countries / Cerf, M., Gibbon, D., Hubert, B., Ison, R., Jiggins, J., Paine, M., Proost, J., Röling, N., Paris : Editions INRA - p. 443 - 461.
Doing it together : technology as practice in the New Zealand dairy sector
Paine, M.S. - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling. - S.l. : Paine - ISBN 9789054857327 - 222
melkproducten - zuivelindustrie - technologie - aangepaste technologie - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - expertsystemen - landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nieuw-zeeland - kunstmatige intelligentie - milk products - dairy industry - technology - appropriate technology - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - expert systems - agriculture - farm management - new zealand - artificial intelligence
The economic reforms in New Zealand (NZ) that introduced free market policies following the election of the 1984 Labour Government led to a rapid and extensive reduction in subsidies to agriculture. Over a period of ten years fertiliser subsidies and price support schemes were removed, the government extension service was privatised, and research organisations were restructured to function on a contestable funding basis. The NZ government pursued a policy of joint investment in technology development with the productive sectors benefitting by the development outcomes. These changes provoked debate among science policy-makers and science managers about the way research companies and commercial organisations could collaborate in research and development programmes. The research reported in this thesis responded to a need to progress understanding of the linkage activities currently operating in the NZ dairy sector and thereby assist science policy and science managers operating in the sector to improve linkages with commercial organisations. Specifically, how do organisations and actors link their activities to evolve technology for use in the NZ dairy sector, and how can an understanding of these linkage activities inform technology managers in the NZ dairy sector? The dairy sector was selected as a context with a reasonable likelihood of observing collaboration in technology management.
A case study research design was used to investigate three programmes that involved some form of collaboration between government research and commercial organisations in joint development work. These programmes included: development and marketing of a device (CIDR); developing a sector-wide quality management system (SAMM); developing resource management methods for farming (SSGP). The Grounded Theory methodology was used to study each programme. In particular, this research followed the Glasarian school of Grounded Theory that emphasises the emergence of theoretical perspectives using the constant comparative method of data gathering and analysis. A procedure for questioning and comparison of field data guides the analyst to build and compare theory with other perspectives offered in the literature.
The organisation theory literature has dealt extensively with issues of collaboration and technology management. This literature was reviewed with a view to an agricultural context. Two particularly informative perspectives were identified: Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS); and the Interplay Model. The AKS perspective sensitised the analyst to a constructivist view - theatres of innovation where actors and organisations negotiate and socially construct their knowledge with respect to their problem context. The Interplay Model emphasised that the emergent properties of collaborative relations among research and commercial entities were primarily a function of activities performed in practices. A specialised notion of practice is used in the model, whereby practice is a way of doing, that if asked, actors would explain their activities in terms of, 'the way things are done around here.' Practices, operating in theatres of innovation, are performed intentionally by actors. The above perspectives were combined by the analyst to investigate case study data in terms of activities performed in what was viewed as theatres of innovation.
The CIDR (Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release) case study documents in four chronological stages the emergence of synchronising technology for managing dairy cow reproduction. Early development efforts were concerned with developing a device, whereas later activities focused on building protocols for treatment. The alignment of activities performed by those actors working on the programme was achieved in several ways. As actors worked together they acquired windows of insight into the practices performed by other actors. When these practices were interwoven with the delivery of professional services, trust and respect were required for the programme workers to collaborate. The Intellectual Property Rights emerging from the programme developments were periodically reviewed and renegotiated by appealing to the notion of a family or club that had a membership of actors from several organisations. The identity of the club provided opportunity to build innovative strategies for performing new development and marketing activities. The CIDR is depicted as contributing towards an emerging practice in the case study, in as much as the device formed part of an expanding scope of development that encompassed several dairy cow synchronising devices, protocols and concepts. Developers used these devices and protocols to embody the rules of synchronising practice. The practice of synchronising enabled developers to cross boundaries that might otherwise be imposed by organisations seeking to lay an independent claim to intellectual property rights. The continuity of emergence in the case of CIDR was worked out by the actors in a process of muddling through. By reflecting on their activities actors learned from past errors and redirecting their intentions accordingly.
The SAMM (Seasonal Approach to Managing Mastitis) case study investigated how a sector wide intervention, operating under free market policies, worked towards mastitis management in the national herd. A series of interventions had been operating in the sector prior to the introduction of SAMM. Indeed, these earlier interventions assisted to 'prepare the way' for the SAMM, in that actors that performed different tasks in relation to managing mastitis in the sector were attuned to problems of mastitis and had developed tools and routines to cope with these problems. However, no specific organisation or profession claimed mastitis management as their domain of work, allowing the formation of a committee (NMAC) that fostered interactive activity to overcome problems of mastitis. The NMAC provided an interface for practices involved in developing interventions. Furthermore, the NMAC used the SAMM to embody the rules of mastitis management, that enabled farmers and others to act on mastitis in a way specific to their farm enterprise. The activities of the NMAC itself constituted a type of practice, referred to as mediating practice. The mediating practice of the NMAC constructed strategies to foster collaboration among organisations and actors. These organisations and actors learnt by reflecting on past errors and combining their experiences in the committee, that itself received institutional support. The dairy companies, who process milk into diverse milk products for export, were members of the NMAC and came to play an increasingly important role in the working out of mastitis management. The dairy companies used pricing policies for raw milk and the provision of information to support their farmer suppliers reduce the level of mastitis in their herds. In the case of SAMM problems were an emergent property of practice. Again the activities of actors were depicted as a muddling towards improved mastitis management, with changes in intervention programmes being wrought out of reflection on past errors. The mediating practice worked towards the facilitation of improved conditions for working on mastitis management, and for actors to learn and improve management strategies.
The final case study investigated a Sustainability Study Group Programme (SSGP) that was following a participatory approach among farmers, environmentalists and researchers to work out an alignment of resource management and farm production goals. A pair of actors from farming and research backgrounds developed the SSGP and were referred to as programme leaders. These programme leaders encouraged other participants, who worked in farming, resource management and research activities, to join SSGP. Over an 18 month period the activities of the programme evolved methods for farming that helped align production and resource management goals, albeit, with considerable uncertainty about the programme purpose, or prerequisites for collective activity. A crisis of conflict between environmental and farm production aims catalysed a comprehensive effort to redefine the programme purposes. These efforts involved the building of shared needs, working from the needs of farmers, but encompassing the needs of environmentalists and researchers. The activities that redefined the programme purpose and workplans introduced a new. style of interactive work, whereby farmers, environmentalists and researchers were advocating one anothers'work to those outside the programme. The way actors represented the programme to others fostered an emerging integrity that evolved from the work performed in the programme. This emerging integrity enabled the use of more sophisticated forms of reflection on action, whereby actors were judging and positioning the work of one another in the overall programme.
Part of the aspirations of policy-makers who advocated the reforms in NZ was to enhance the linkage between science and commercial institutions. This thesis did not set out to evaluate the reforms, so much as to identify new opportunities for collaboration in free market settings. Recommendations to actors and organisations, operating in free market contexts for innovation, are restricted to situations similar to the NZ dairy sector where a vertically integrated market channel is accompanied by sector programmes for young entrants to farming and coordinated information support services to farmers. Notwithstanding this qualification, it appears an appreciation of the way actors work together may assist programme managers in theatres of innovation and the management of technology. In particular, how these activities are coordinated and emerge as refined strategies for acting on problems and issues that are themselves emerging out of collective work. This thesis concludes that there is a need for further development of methodologies that can enhance analysts' abilities to observe activities in participatory working contexts. These methodologies ought to equip field analysts and programme managers who are grappling with contemporary issues of technology management in their conventional work.