Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Arsenic in Argentina : Technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater sources, investment costs and waste management practices
Litter, Marta I. ; Ingallinella, Ana M. ; Olmos, Valentina ; Savio, Marianela ; Difeo, Gonzalo ; Botto, Lía ; Torres, Elsa Mónica Farfán ; Taylor, Sergio ; Frangie, Sofía ; Herkovits, Jorge ; Schalamuk, Isidoro ; González, María José ; Berardozzi, Eliana ; García Einschlag, Fernando S. ; Bhattacharya, Prosun ; Ahmad, Arslan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 690 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 778 - 789.
Argentina - Arsenic - Drinking water - Mitigation - Removal technologies

An overview about the presence of arsenic (As) in groundwaters of Argentina, made by a transdisciplinary group of experts is presented. In this second part, the conventional and emerging technologies for As removal, management of wastes, and the initial investment costs of the proposed technologies, with emphasis on developments of local groups are described. Successful examples of real application of conventional and emerging technologies for As removal in waters for human consumption, for medium, small and rural and periurban communities are reported. In the country, the two most applied technologies for arsenic removal at a real scale are reverse osmosis and coagulation-adsorption-filtration processes using iron or aluminum salts or polyelectrolytes as coagulants. A decision tree to evaluate the possible technologies to be applied, based on the population size, the quality of the water and its intended use, is presented, including preliminary and indicative investment costs. Finally, a section discussing the treatment and final disposal of the liquid, semiliquid and solid wastes, generated by the application of the most used technologies, is included. Conclusions and recommendations, especially for isolated rural and periurban regions, have been added.

The Lemon Car Game Across Cultures: Evidence of Relational Rationality
Hofstede, G.J. ; Jonker, Catholijn ; Verwaart, T. ; Yorke-Smith, Neil - \ 2019
Group Decision and Negotiation 28 (2019)5. - ISSN 0926-2644 - p. 849 - 877.
Negotiation - Culture - Experimental studies - Power distance - Long-term orientation - Lemon car
In cross-cultural business negotiation, culture is known to influence negotiation processes. As a lens to study this effect we deployed the Lemon Car Game, an online negotiation game developed for this purpose (Hofstede et al. in: Proceedings of 39th international simulation and gaming association conference (ISAGA). Technologia, Kaunas, pp 39–46, 2009a; Hofstede et al. in: David, Sichman (eds) Multi-agent-based simulation IX, international workshop, MABS 2008, revised selected papers, LNAI 5269. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–16, 2009b). In this article we report the results from the game, obtained from over 800 players from more than 70 countries. We employ several complementary analyses in a mixed-methods approach.Our findings show that to make sense of the players’ actions during negotiation, economic rationality falls short. A pan-cultural individual-level analysis of actions and stated intentions also fails to yield a coherent picture. Within countries, however, actions and intentions do cohere, as shown by an ecological country-level factor analysis, from which three factors emerge for the sellers at country level: trustworthiness, opportunism, and fairness. We conclude from these findings that, in this game, players are driven by what we call relational rationality: they are rational from the perspective of the social world in which they live, with interpersonal relationships weighing heavily. Relational rationality changes players’ perspective of economic rationality, and thus their observed behaviour in negotiation. Based on this evidence, we extrapolate that relational rationality significantly influences negotiation processes in all cultures.
Automated Testing of Simulation Software in the Aviation Industry : An Experience Report
Garousi, Vahid ; Tasli, Seckin ; Sertel, Onur ; Tokgoz, Mustafa ; Herkiloglu, Kadir ; Arkin, Hikmet Ferda Ergunes ; Bilir, Osman - \ 2019
IEEE Software 36 (2019)4. - ISSN 0740-7459 - p. 63 - 75.
automated testing - aviation industry - simulation software - test automation

An industry-academia collaboration developed a test automation framework for aviation simulation software. The technology has been successfully deployed in several test teams.

The economic impact of drying off cows with a dry-off facilitator (cabergoline) compared with 2 methods of gradual cessation of lactation for European dairy farms
Steeneveld, W. ; Prado-Taranilla, A. De; Krogh, K. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7483 - 7493.
cabergoline - dairy cow - drying off - economics - intramammary infection

An abrupt method to dry off cows has disadvantages and is considered inappropriate for current dairy cows due to welfare issues and risks for intramammary infections (IMI). A gradual cessation of lactation (by feeding or milking frequency reduction) has been the generally recommended method for drying off cows to prevent these adverse effects. However, a new alternative to the gradual approach is to abruptly stop milking at the same time as using cabergoline (CAB), a prolactin inhibitor. The aim of the study was to compare the net costs of 3 different methods of drying off cows [gradual reduction in feed (gradual-feeding), gradual reduction in milking frequency (gradual-milking), and abrupt cessation of milking with CAB (abrupt-CAB)]. A stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model, at cow level, was developed to calculate the net costs of applying these methods. All inputs for the model were based on literature information, authors' expertise, and expert knowledge. The net costs were determined by only including costs and benefits, which varied between the 3 methods. The model simulated a cow from 7 d before the day of drying off until the end of the next lactation. The likelihood of whether a cow was leaking milk early in the dry period was determined. Subsequently, it was determined whether or not the cow will get an IMI during the dry period, where the probability of getting an IMI was higher for cows leaking milk than for cows not leaking milk. If the IMI was not cured during the dry period, the cow had an IMI at calving. Also, milk production and feed requirements were modeled, and labor for applying the drying off method was included. For all methods, the net costs were calculated as the sum of costs for feed during the gradual feed reduction period, costs for applying the gradual-milking method, and the IMI costs during the dry period and lactation, minus the milk revenues during the transition from lactation to the dry period. Under default conditions, the average net cost of abrupt-CAB was €49.6/cow. The data showed that 90% of the net costs ranged from −€13.7 to €307.8/cow. The average net costs for gradual-feed and gradual-milking were €99.1 and €71.5/cow, respectively. In conclusion, abrupt-CAB saved €49.5 and €21.9/cow on average compared with gradual-feeding and gradual-milking, respectively. This difference was mainly due to more milk returns and lower labor and IMI costs during lactation.

Paying the price for the meat we eat
Allen, Andrew M. ; Hof, Anouschka R. - \ 2019
Environmental Science & Policy 97 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 90 - 94.
Biodiversity offsetting - Climate change - Ecological compensation - Intensive agriculture - Meat consumption

An increasingly gloomy picture is painted by research focusing on the environmental challenges faced by our planet. Biodiversity loss is ongoing, landscapes continue to transform, and predictions on the effects of climate change worsen. Calls have been made for urgent action to avoid pushing our planet into a new system state. One of the principal threats to biodiversity is intensive agriculture, and in particular the livestock industry, which is an important driver of greenhouse gas emissions, habitat degradation and habitat loss. Ongoing intensification of agricultural practices mean that farmland no longer provides a habitat for many species. We suggest the use of a growing policy tool, biodiversity offsetting, to tackle these challenges. Biodiversity offsetting, or ecological compensation, assesses the impacts of new development projects and seeks to avoid, minimise and otherwise compensate for the ecological impacts of these development projects. By applying biodiversity offsetting to agriculture, the impacts of progressively intensifying farming practices can be compensated to achieve conservation outcomes by using tools like environmental taxes or agri-environment schemes. Low intensity, traditional, farming systems provide a number of benefits to biodiversity and society, and we suggest that the consumer and the agriculture industry compensate for the devastating ecological impacts of intensive farming so that we can once again preserve biodiversity in our landscapes and attempt to limit global temperature rise below 2°c.

Local temperature and ecological similarity drive distributional dynamics of tropical mammals worldwide
Beaudrot, Lydia ; Acevedo, Miguel A. ; Lessard, Jean Philippe ; Zvoleff, Alex ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Sheil, Douglas ; Rovero, Francesco ; O’Brien, Timothy ; Larney, Eileen ; Fletcher, Christine ; Andelman, Sandy ; Ahumada, Jorge - \ 2019
Global Ecology and Biogeography 28 (2019)7. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 976 - 991.
coexistence - dynamic occupancy modelling - imperfect detection - occupancy–environment association - range shift - species distribution - species interactions

Aim: Identifying the underlying drivers of species’ distributional dynamics is critical for predicting change and managing biological diversity. While anthropogenic factors such as climate change can affect species distributions through time, other naturally occurring ecological processes can also have an influence. Theory predicts that interactions between species can influence distributional dynamics, yet empirical evidence remains sparse. A powerful approach is to monitor and model local colonization and extinction—the processes that generate change in distributions over time—and to identify their abiotic and biotic associations. Intensive camera-trap monitoring provides an opportunity to assess the role of temperature and species interactions in the colonization and extinction dynamics of tropical mammals, many of which are species of conservation concern. Using data from a pan-tropical monitoring network, we examined how short-term local temperature change and ecological similarity between species (a proxy for the strength of species interactions) influenced the processes that drive distributional shifts. Location: Tropical forests worldwide. Time period: 2007–2016. Major taxa studied: Terrestrial mammals. Methods: We used dynamic occupancy models to assess the influence of the abiotic and biotic environment on the distributional dynamics of 42 mammal populations from 36 species on 7 tropical elevation gradients around the world. Results: Overall, temperature, ecological similarity, or both, were linked to colonization or extinction dynamics in 29 populations. For six species, the effect of temperature depended upon the local mammal community similarity. This result suggests that the way in which temperature influences local colonization and extinction dynamics depends on local mammal community composition. Main conclusions: These results indicate that varying temperatures influence tropical mammal distributions in surprising ways and suggest that interactions between species mediate distributional dynamics.

Response of sediment bacterial community to triclosan in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Diepens, Noël J. ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Salvito, Daniel ; Selck, Henriette ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 248 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 676 - 683.
Benthic macroinvertebrates - Microcosm - Sediment bacterial community - Toxicity - Triclosan

The response of sediment bacterial communities in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms to sediment-associated triclosan (TCS; 28 d exposure) was analysed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. This study highlights the interactive effects of TCS and the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Viviparidae bellamya) on sediment bacterial communities. Our results show that TCS alone significantly altered the taxonomic composition and decreased alpha diversity of sediment bacterial communities at concentrations ≥80 μg TCS/g dry weight (dw) sediment (sed). Regarding dominant phyla, TCS significantly reduced the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes at these concentrations, whereas the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria increased. In the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates, the sediment bacterial community was affected by 8 μg TCS/g dw sed as well. However, the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates did not cause measurable changes to bacterial community in unspiked (i.e., control) sediment. These results indicate that TCS alone would not alter the sediment bacterial community at environmentally relevant concentrations (up till 8 μg/g dw sed), but may have an effect in combination with the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, we recommend to include benthic macroinvertebrates when assessing the response of sediment bacterial communities during exposure to environmental stress such as organic contaminants.

Transcriptome Analysis of CHO Cell Size Increase During a Fed-Batch Process
Pan, Xiao ; Alsayyari, Abdulaziz A. ; Dalm, Ciska ; Hageman, Jos A. ; Wijffels, René H. ; Martens, Dirk E. - \ 2019
Biotechnology Journal 14 (2019)3. - ISSN 1860-6768
cell cycle - cell size increase - CHO cell culture - mAb production - mTOR - transcriptome analysis
In a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell fed-batch process, arrest of cell proliferation and an almost threefold increase in cell size occurred, which is associated with an increase in cell-specific productivity. In this study, transcriptome analysis is performed to identify the molecular mechanisms associated with this. Cell cycle analysis reveals that the cells are arrested mainly in the G0/G1 phase. The cell cycle arrest is associated with significant up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKNs) and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. During the cell size increase phase, the gene expression of the upstream pathways of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is related to the extracellular growth factor, cytokine, and amino acid conditions, shows a strongly synchronized pattern to promote the mTOR activity. The downstream genes of mTOR also show a synchronized pattern to stimulate protein translation and lipid synthesis. The results demonstrate that cell cycle inhibition and stimulated mTOR activity at the transcriptome level are related to CHO cell size increase. The cell size increase is related to the extracellular nutrient conditions through a number of cascade pathways, indicating that by rational design of media and feeds, CHO cell size can be manipulated during culture processes, which may further improve cell growth and specific productivity.
A mechanistic model for studying the initiation of anguillid vitellogenesis by comparing the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the shortfinned eel (A. australis)
Jéhannet, P. ; Kruijt, L. ; Damsteegt, E.L. ; Swinkels, W. ; Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Lokman, P.M. ; Palstra, A.P. - \ 2019
General and Comparative Endocrinology 279 (2019). - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 129 - 138.
Brain-pituitary-gonad axis - Dopaminergic inhibition - Eel reproduction - Growth hormone - Sex steroids - Silvering

An inverse relation exists between the maturation stage at the start of the oceanic reproductive migration and the migration distance to the spawning grounds for the various eel species. The European eel Anguilla anguilla migrates up to 5–6000 km and leaves in a previtellogenic state. The shortfinned eel A. australis migrates 2–4000 km and leaves in an early vitellogenic state. In this study, we compared the early pubertal events in European silver eels with those in silver shortfinned eels to gain insights into the initiation of vitellogenesis. Immediately after being caught, yellow and silver eels of both species were measured and sampled for blood and tissues. Eye index (EI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were calculated. Plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Pituitary, liver and ovaries were dissected for quantitative real-time PCR analyses (pituitary dopamine 2b receptor d2br, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors 1 and 2 gnrhr1 and gnrhr2, growth hormone gh and follicle-stimulating hormone-β fshb; liver estrogen receptor 1 esr1; gonad follicle-stimulating hormone receptor fshr, androgen receptors α and β ara and arb, vitellogenin receptor vtgr and P450 aromatase cyp19). Silver eels of both species showed a drop in pituitary gh expression, progressing gonadal development (GSI of ∼1.5 in European eels and ∼3.0 in shortfinned eels) and steroid level increases. In shortfinned eels, but not European eels, expression of fshb, gnrhr1 and gnrhr2, and d2br in the pituitary was up-regulated in the silver-stage as compared to yellow-stage females, as was expression of fshr, ara and arb in the ovaries. Expression of esr1 in European eels remained low while esr1 expression was up-regulated over 100-fold in silver shortfinned eels. The mechanistic model for anguillid vitellogenesis that we present suggests a first step that involves a drop in Gh and a second step that involves Fsh increase when switching in the life history trade-off from growth to reproduction. The drop in Gh is associated with gonadal development and plasma steroid increase but precedes brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) activation. The Fsh increase marks BPG activation and increased sensitivity of the liver to estrogenic stimulation, but also an increase in D2br-mediated dopaminergic signaling to the pituitary.

A picture says it all? The validity of photograph coding to assess household food waste
Herpen, Erica van; Lans, Ivo van der - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 75 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 71 - 77.
Food waste - Household - Measurement - Photographs

Valid measurements are essential in studies into levels of household food waste and differences therein over time, cultures, or consumer groups. They are also key to identifying factors that affect waste levels and to testing the effects of potential interventions. Yet, there is a lack of valid measurement methods for household food waste. The current study assesses the validity of coding of photographs of food waste as a measurement method. In this study, nine coders each estimated 104 food waste instances from photographs, which structurally varied in food amount, food density, size of the container (plate, glass, bowl, pan, etc.) and food category. Comparisons of estimated weights with actual weights show that coders can accurately estimate the weight of food waste from photographs, without general over- or underestimation and with satisfactory correlations with actual weights. Food waste incidences that are more or less difficult to estimate are discussed, as well as differences between coders. Overall, the method appears promising for application in studies examining household food waste levels.

Insights into the sediment toxicity of personal care products to freshwater oligochaete worms using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Hu, Li Xin ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Brink, Paul J. van den - \ 2019
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 172 (2019). - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 296 - 302.
Biochemical fingerprint - Deposit-feeder - FTIR spectroscopy - Microcosm - Musk - Triclosan

Personal care products (PCPs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to their wide use in daily life. However, there are insufficient sediment toxicity data of PCPs under ecologically relevant conditions. Here we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the sediment toxicity of triclosan (TCS) and galaxolide (HHCB) to two freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Branchiura sowerbyi, in microcosms containing a diverse biological community. Exposure to 8 µg TCS/g and 100 µg HHCB/g dry weight (dw) sediment induced significant biochemical alterations in the L. hoffmeisteri tissue. 8 µg TCS/g primarily affected proteins and nucleic acid while 100 µg HHCB/g mainly affected proteins and lipids of L. hoffmeisteri. However, 0.8 µg TCS/g and 30 µg HHCB/g did not cause significant subcellular toxicity to L. hoffmeisteri. In contrast, exposure of B. sowerbyi to 30 µg HHCB/g led to significant biochemical changes, including proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Therefore, B. sowerbyi was more sensitive to sediment-associated HHCB than L. hoffmeisteri. Such effects were significantly enhanced when the HHCB concentration increased to 100 µg/g dw where death of B. sowerbyi occurred. These results demonstrate the application of FTIR spectroscopy to sediment toxicity testing of chemicals to benthic invertebrates with biochemical alterations as endpoints that are more sensitive than standard toxic endpoints (e.g., survival and growth).

Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in fisheries : Implementation in EU fishing regions
Malvarosa, Loretta ; Murillas, Arantza ; Lehuta, Sigrid ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Macher, Claire ; Goti, Leyre ; Motova, Arina ; Doering, Ralf ; Haraldson, Gunnar ; Accadia, Paolo ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Maravelias, Christos D. ; Mardle, Simon ; Thøgersen, Thomas - \ 2019
Marine Policy 101 (2019). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 63 - 79.
Acceptability - Coherence - Effectiveness - Fishery management - Impact assessment - Sustainability

An Impact Assessment (IA) is a process aimed at structuring and supporting the development of policies. Besides the fact that IA assumes different features when applied to different sectors, really it should help policy makers in evaluating the contribution to the fisheries sustainability of new regulations. The recent improvements and development around the IA methodologies go more and more toward the concept of a Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA). The evolution of IA in the fishery sector has followed the general and increasing need in having a more and more integrated type of analysis, focusing on the three dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic and social). This paper synthesizes the methodology developed under the EU FP7 SOCIOEC project,1 whose main objective was the application of the most recent EU guidelines on IA to the current (and future) EU fishery management. The result is an integrated approach taking into account the main pillars of sustainability and a strong stakeholders’ involvement. A clear step-by-step procedure based on both qualitative and quantitative type of analyses has been defined, the last step being the “rating” phase, an essential step in a SIA, that provides the possibility to assess the results of different policy options (allowing policy makers to select the most appropriate one) in terms of acceptability, effectiveness, coherence and efficiency. The overall methodology has been tested on different EU regions, fisheries and management measures.

CLE9 peptide-induced stomatal closure is mediated by abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide in Arabidopsis thaliana
Zhang, Luosha ; Shi, Xiong ; Zhang, Yutao ; Wang, Jiajing ; Yang, Jingwei ; Ishida, Takashi ; Jiang, Wenqian ; Han, Xiangyu ; Kang, Jingke ; Wang, Xuening ; Pan, Lixia ; Lv, Shuo ; Cao, Bing ; Zhang, Yonghong ; Wu, Jinbin ; Han, Huibin ; Hu, Zhubing ; Cui, Langjun ; Sawa, Shinichiro ; He, Junmin ; Wang, Guodong - \ 2019
Plant, Cell & Environment 42 (2019)3. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1033 - 1044.
ABA - CLE peptide - hydrogen peroxide - nitric oxide - stomatal closure

CLE peptides have been implicated in various developmental processes of plants and mediate their responses to environmental stimuli. However, the biological relevance of most CLE genes remains to be functionally characterized. Here, we report that CLE9, which is expressed in stomata, acts as an essential regulator in the induction of stomatal closure. Exogenous application of CLE9 peptides or overexpression of CLE9 effectively led to stomatal closure and enhanced drought tolerance, whereas CLE9 loss-of-function mutants were sensitivity to drought stress. CLE9-induced stomatal closure was impaired in abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutants, indicating that ABA is required for CLE9-medaited guard cell signalling. We further deciphered that two guard cell ABA-signalling components, OST1 and SLAC1, were responsible for CLE9-induced stomatal closure. MPK3 and MPK6 were activated by the CLE9 peptide, and CLE9 peptides failed to close stomata in mpk3 and mpk6 mutants. In addition, CLE9 peptides stimulated the induction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis associated with stomatal closure, which was abolished in the NADPH oxidase-deficient mutants or nitric reductase mutants, respectively. Collectively, our results reveal a novel ABA-dependent function of CLE9 in the regulation of stomatal apertures, thereby suggesting a potential role of CLE9 in the stress acclimatization of plants.

Balance of Emission and Dynamical Controls on Ozone During the Korea-United States Air Quality Campaign From Multiconstituent Satellite Data Assimilation
Miyazaki, K. ; Sekiya, T. ; Fu, D. ; Bowman, K.W. ; Kulawik, S.S. ; Sudo, K. ; Walker, T. ; Kanaya, Y. ; Takigawa, M. ; Ogochi, K. ; Eskes, H. ; Boersma, K.F. ; Thompson, A.M. ; Gaubert, B. ; Barre, J. ; Emmons, L.K. - \ 2019
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (2019)1. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 387 - 413.
air quality - Asia - data assimilation - emission - ozone - satellite

Global multiconstituent concentration and emission fields obtained from the assimilation of the satellite retrievals of ozone, CO, NO2, HNO3, and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2, Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere, Microwave Limb Sounder, and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/OMI are used to understand the processes controlling air pollution during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign. Estimated emissions in South Korea were 0.42 Tg N for NOx and 1.1 Tg CO for CO, which were 40% and 83% higher, respectively, than the a priori bottom-up inventories, and increased mean ozone concentration by up to 7.5 ± 1.6 ppbv. The observed boundary layer ozone exceeded 90 ppbv over Seoul under stagnant phases, whereas it was approximately 60 ppbv during dynamical conditions given equivalent emissions. Chemical reanalysis showed that mean ozone concentration was persistently higher over Seoul (75.10 ± 7.6 ppbv) than the broader KORUS-AQ domain (70.5 ± 9.2 ppbv) at 700 hPa. Large bias reductions (>75%) in the free tropospheric OH show that multiple-species assimilation is critical for balanced tropospheric chemistry analysis and emissions. The assimilation performance was dependent on the particular phase. While the evaluation of data assimilation fields shows an improved agreement with aircraft measurements in ozone (to less than 5 ppbv biases), CO, NO2, SO2, PAN, and OH profiles, lower tropospheric ozone analysis error was largest at stagnant conditions, whereas the model errors were mostly removed by data assimilation under dynamic weather conditions. Assimilation of new AIRS/OMI ozone profiles allowed for additional error reductions, especially under dynamic weather conditions. Our results show the important balance of dynamics and emissions both on pollution and the chemical assimilation system performance.

Forest biomass retrieval approaches from earth observation in different biomes
Rodríguez-Veiga, Pedro ; Quegan, Shaun ; Carreiras, Joao ; Persson, Henrik J. ; Fransson, Johan E.S. ; Hoscilo, Agata ; Ziółkowski, Dariusz ; Stereńczak, Krzysztof ; Lohberger, Sandra ; Stängel, Matthias ; Berninger, Anna ; Siegert, Florian ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Herold, Martin ; Mermoz, Stéphane ; Bouvet, Alexandre ; Toan, Thuy Le; Carvalhais, Nuno ; Santoro, Maurizio ; Cartus, Oliver ; Rauste, Yrjö ; Mathieu, Renaud ; Asner, Gregory P. ; Thiel, Christian ; Pathe, Carsten ; Schmullius, Chris ; Seifert, Frank Martin ; Tansey, Kevin ; Balzter, Heiko - \ 2019
International Journal of applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 77 (2019). - ISSN 0303-2434 - p. 53 - 68.
The amount and spatial distribution of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) were estimated using a range of regionally developed methods using Earth Observation data for Poland, Sweden and regions in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Mexico (Central Mexico and Yucatan peninsula), and South Africa (Eastern provinces) for the year 2010. These regions are representative of numerous forest biomes and biomass levels globally, from South African woodlands and savannas to the humid tropical forest of Kalimantan. AGB retrieval in each region relied on different sources of reference data, including forest inventory plot data and airborne LiDAR observations, and used a range of retrieval algorithms. This is the widest inter-comparison of regional-to-national AGB maps to date in terms of area, forest types, input datasets, and retrieval methods. The accuracy assessment of all regional maps using independent field data or LiDAR AGB maps resulted in an overall root mean square error (RMSE) ranging from 10 t ha−1 to 55 t ha−1 (37% to 67% relative RMSE), and an overall bias ranging from −1 t ha−1 to +5 t ha−1 at pixel level. The regional maps showed better agreement with field data than previously developed and widely used pan-tropical or northern hemisphere datasets. The comparison of accuracy assessments showed commonalities in error structures despite the variety of methods, input data, and forest biomes. All regional retrievals resulted in overestimation (up to 63 t ha−1) in the lower AGB classes, and underestimation (up to 85 t ha−1) in the higher AGB classes. Parametric model-based algorithms present advantages due to their low demand on in situ data compared to non-parametric algorithms, but there is a need for datasets and retrieval methods that can overcome the biases at both ends of the AGB range. The outcomes of this study should be considered when developing algorithms to estimate forest biomass at continental to global scale level.
Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe : Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project
Pauleit, Stephan ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kronenberg, Jakub ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Rall, Emily ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 4 - 16.
Green governance and planning - Green infrastructure - GREEN SURGE - Sustainable urbanisation - Urban learning labs

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human–nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs
Navarro, D.M.D.L. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Jong, L. de; Stein, H.H. - \ 2019
Animal Feed Science and Technology 248 (2019). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 1 - 9.
Digestibility - Fiber - Pigs

An experiment was conducted to determine if values for the coefficient of ileal apparent digestibility (CIAD), the coefficient of hindgut apparent disappearance (CHAD), and the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter (DM) and nutrients in high-fiber ingredients measured at 150 g/kg inclusion are also accurate if measured at 300 g/kg inclusion in diets fed to pigs. The second objective was to confirm that most of the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) is not fermented by growing pigs. Twenty ileal-cannulated pigs (BW: 30.64 ± 2.09 kg) were allotted to a replicated 10 × 4 incomplete Latin Square design with 10 diets and four 26-d periods. There were 2 pigs per diet in each period for a total of 8 replications per diet. A corn and soybean meal (SBM) basal diet and a corn-SBM diet with 300 g/kg corn starch were formulated. Six diets were formulated by replacing 150 or 300 g/kg corn starch by 150 or 300 g/kg corn germ meal (CGM), sugar beet pulp (SBP), or wheat middlings (WM). Two additional diets were formulated by adding 150 or 300 g/kg canola meal (CM) to the diet containing corn, SBM, and 300 g/kg corn starch at the expense of corn and SBM. Effects of inclusion rate of each fiber source in the diet on CIAD, CHAD, and CTTAD of DM and nutrients were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. Independent t-tests were used to compare inclusion rates within each ingredient. Results indicated that CIAD and CHAD of CP, acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), and most fiber fractions in CM decreased (P<0.05) as inclusion level increased from 150 to 300 g/kg, but that was not the case for CGM, SBP, or WM. The CTTAD of DM, organic matter (OM), AEE, and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in CGM increased (P<0.05) if 300 g/kg rather than 150 g/kg was included in the diet and CTTAD of DM, OM, acid detergent fiber, and SDF in WM increased (P<0.05) as inclusion level increased. No differences in CTTAD of DM and nutrients in CM and SBP were observed between inclusion rates. The CTTAD of IDF ranged from 0.529 in WM included at 150 g/kg to 0.862 in SBP included at 300 g/kg in the diet. In conclusion, CIAD, CHAD, and CTTAD of most nutrients in test ingredients is not different between 150 and 300 g/kg inclusion rate. Under the conditions of this experiment, there was relatively high digestibility of IDF.

Fate and effects of sediment-associated polycyclic musk HHCB in subtropical freshwater microcosms
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Kiggen, Fionne ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Bracewell, Sally A. ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Salvito, Daniel ; Selck, Henriette ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2019
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 169 (2019). - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 902 - 910.
Bacterial community - Benthic macroinvertebrates - Bioaccumulation - Dissipation - HHCB - Toxicity

Galaxolide (HHCB) is used as a fragrance ingredient in household and personal care products, and has been ubiquitously detected in the environment. Here we investigated the fate of HHCB in subtropical freshwater microcosms, and evaluated effects of sediment-associated HHCB on a biological community consisting of algae, Daphnia, benthic macroinvertebrates and bacteria. The concentrations of sediment-associated HHCB did not change significantly during a 28 days exposure period, but HHCB accumulated in worms with biota-sediment accumulation-factor (BSAF) values in the range of 0.29–0.66 for Branchiura sowerbyi and 0.94–2.11 for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. There was no significant effects of HHCB (30 μg/g dry weight (dw) sediment) on chlorophyll-a content, sediment bacterial community composition, and survival and growth of benthic macroinvertebrates. However, the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates altered the sediment bacterial community structure relative to microcosms without introduced organisms. The findings of this study suggest that a single high-dose of HHCB, over 28 days, at environmentally relevant concentrations would not impose direct toxicological risks to aquatic organisms such as benthic macroinvertebrates.

Climate change opens new frontiers for marine species in the Arctic: Current trends and future invasion risks
Chan, Farrah T. ; Stanislawczyk, Keara ; Sneekes, A.C. ; Dvoretsky, Alexander ; Gollasch, Stephan ; Minchin, Dan ; David, Matej ; Jelmert, Anders ; Albretsen, Jon ; Bailey, Sarah A. - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 25 - 38.
alien species - aquaculture - climate warming - fisheries - invasion pathways - invasive species - knowledge gap - nonindigenous species - shipping - vessels
Climate change and increased anthropogenic activities are expected to elevate the potential of introducing nonindigenous species (NIS) into the Arctic. Yet, the knowledge base needed to identify gaps and priorities for NIS research and management is limited. Here, we reviewed primary introduction events to each ecoregion of the marine Arctic realm to identify temporal and spatial patterns, likely source regions of NIS, and the putative introduction pathways. We included 54 introduction events representing 34 unique NIS. The rate of NIS discovery ranged from zero to four species per year between 1960 and 2015. The Iceland Shelf had the greatest number of introduction events (n = 14), followed by the Barents Sea (n = 11), and the Norwegian Sea (n = 11). Sixteen of the 54 introduction records had no known origins. The majority of those with known source regions were attributed to the Northeast Atlantic and the Northwest
Pacific, 19 and 14 records, respectively. Some introduction events were attributed
to multiple possible pathways. For these introductions, vessels transferred the greatest number of aquatic NIS (39%) to the Arctic, followed by natural spread (30%) and aquaculture activities (25%). Similar trends were found for introductions attributed to a single pathway. The phyla Arthropoda and Ochrophyta had the highest number of recorded introduction events, with 19 and 12 records, respectively. Recommendations including vector management, horizon scanning, early detection, rapid response, and a pan‐Arctic biodiversity inventory are considered in this paper. Our study provides a comprehensive record of primary introductions of NIS for marine environments in the
circumpolar Arctic and identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities for NIS research and management. Ecosystems worldwide will face dramatic changes in the coming decades due to global change. Our findings contribute to the knowledge base needed to address two aspects of global change—invasive species and climate change.
Alstroemeria yellow spot virus (AYSV) : a new orthotospovirus species within a growing Eurasian clade
Hassani-Mehraban, A. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Verhoeven, J.Th.J. ; Roenhorst, J.W. ; Peters, D. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Kormelink, R. - \ 2019
Archives of Virology 164 (2019)1. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 117 - 126.

An orthotospovirus distinct from all other orthotospoviruses was isolated from naturally infected alstroemeria plants. Disease symptoms caused by this virus mainly consisted of yellow spots on the leaves based on which the name alstroemeria yellow spot virus (AYSV) was coined. A host range analysis was performed and a polyclonal antiserum was produced against purified AYSV ribonucleoproteins which only reacted with the homologous antigen and not with any other (established or tentative) orthotospovirus from a selection of American and Asian species. Upon thrips transmission assays the virus was successfully transmitted by a population of Thrips tabaci. The entire nucleotide sequence of the M and S RNA segments was elucidated by a conventional cloning and sequencing strategy, and contained 4797 respectively 2734 nucleotides (nt). Simultaneously, a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach (RNAseq) was employed and generated contigs covering the entire viral tripartite RNA genome. In addition to the M and S RNA nucleotide sequences, the L RNA (8865 nt) was obtained. The nucleocapsid (N) gene encoded by the S RNA of this virus consisted of 819 nucleotides with a deduced N protein of 272 amino acids and by comparative sequence alignments to other established orthotospovirus species showed highest homology (69.5% identity) to the N protein of polygonum ringspot virus. The data altogether support the proposal of AYSV as a new orthotospovirus species within a growing clade of orthotospoviruses that seem to share the Middle East basin as a region of origin.

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