Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    What caused the extreme CO concentrations during the 2017 high-pollution episode in India?
    Dekker, Iris N. ; Houweling, Sander ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Krol, Maarten ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Borsdorff, Tobias ; Landgraf, Jochen ; Aben, Ilse - \ 2019
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19 (2019)6. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 3433 - 3445.

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), launched 13 October 2017, has been measuring carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere since early November 2017. In the first measurements, TROPOMI was able to measure CO concentrations of the high-pollution event in India of November 2017. In this paper, we studied the extent of the pollution in India, comparing the TROPOMI CO with modeled data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to identify the most important sources contributing to the high pollution, both at ground level and in the total column. We investigated the period 11-19 November 2017. We found that residential and commercial combustion was a much more important source of CO pollution than the post-monsoon crop burning during this period, which is in contrast to what media suggested and some studies on aerosol emissions found. Also, the high pollution was not limited to Delhi and its direct neighborhood but the accumulation of pollution extended over the whole Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) due to the unfavorable weather conditions in combination with extensive emissions. From the TROPOMI data and WRF simulations, we observed a buildup of CO during 11-14 November and a decline in CO after 15 November. The meteorological conditions, characterized by low wind speeds and shallow atmospheric boundary layers, were most likely the primary explanation for the temporal accumulation and subsequent dispersion of regionally emitted CO in the atmosphere. This emphasizes the important role of atmospheric dynamics in determining the air quality conditions at ground level and in the total column. Due to its rapidly growing population and economy, India is expected to encounter similar pollution events more often in future post-monsoon and winter seasons unless significant policy measures are taken to reduce residential and commercial emissions.

    Influence of Atmospheric Transport on Estimates of Variability in the Global Methane Burden
    Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Thoning, Kirk ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Yin, Yi ; Segers, Arjo ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. - \ 2019
    Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)4. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 2302 - 2311.
    atmospheric burden - atmospheric transport - CH emissions - interhemispheric difference - methane - TM5

    We quantify the impact of atmospheric transport and limited marine boundary layer sampling on changes in global and regional methane burdens estimate using tracer transport model simulations with annually repeating methane emissions and sinks but varying atmospheric transport patterns. We find the 1σ error due to this transport and sampling effect on annual global methane increases to be 1.11 ppb/year and on zonal growth rates to be 3.8 ppb/year, indicating that it becomes more critical at smaller spatiotemporal scales. We also find that the trends in inter-hemispheric and inter-polar difference of methane are significantly influenced by the effect. Contrary to a negligible trend in the inter-hemispheric difference of measurements, we find, after adjusting for the transport and sampling, a trend of 0.37 ± 0.06 ppb/year. This is consistent with the emission trend from a 3-D inversion of the measurements, suggesting a faster increase in emissions in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Constraints and biases in a tropospheric two-box model of OH
    Naus, Stijn ; Montzka, Stephen A. ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Basu, Sourish ; Dlugokencky, Ed J. ; Krol, Maarten - \ 2019
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 407 - 424.

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main atmospheric oxidant and the primary sink of the greenhouse gas CH4. In an attempt to constrain atmospheric levels of OH, two recent studies combined a tropospheric two-box model with hemispheric-mean observations of methyl chloroform (MCF) and CH4. These studies reached different conclusions concerning the most likely explanation of the renewed CH4 growth rate, which reflects the uncertain and underdetermined nature of the problem. Here, we investigated how the use of a tropospheric two-box model can affect the derived constraints on OH due to simplifying assumptions inherent to a two-box model. To this end, we derived species- A nd timedependent quantities from a full 3-D transport model to drive two-box model simulations. Furthermore, we quantified differences between the 3-D simulated tropospheric burden and the burden seen by the surface measurement network of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Compared to commonly used parameters in two-box models, we found significant deviations in the magnitude and timedependence of the interhemispheric exchange rate, exposure to OH, and stratospheric loss rate. For MCF these deviations can be large due to changes in the balance of its sources and sinks over time. We also found that changes in the yearly averaged tropospheric burden of CH4 and MCF can be obtained within 0.96 ppb yr-1 and 0.14%yr-1 by the NOAA surface network, but that substantial systematic biases exist in the interhemispheric mixing ratio gradients that are input to two-box model inversions. To investigate the impact of the identified biases on constraints on OH, we accounted for these biases in a two-box model inversion of MCF and CH4. We found that the sensitivity of interannual OH anomalies to the biases is modest (1 %-2 %), relative to the uncertainties on derived OH (3 %-4 %). However, in an inversion where we implemented all four bias corrections simultaneously, we found a shift to a positive trend in OH concentrations over the 1994-2015 period, compared to the standard inversion. Moreover, the absolute magnitude of derived global mean OH, and by extent, that of global CH4 emissions, was affected much more strongly by the bias corrections than their anomalies (∼ 10 %). Through our analysis, we identified and quantified limitations in the two-box model approach as well as an opportunity for full 3-D simulations to address these limitations. However, we also found that this derivation is an extensive and species-dependent exercise and that the biases were not always entirely resolvable. In future attempts to improve constraints on the atmospheric oxidative capacity through the use of simple models, a crucial first step is to consider and account for biases similar to those we have identified for the two-box model.

    Monitoring emissions from the 2015 Indonesian fires using CO satellite data
    Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Krol, Maarten ; Werf, Guido R. Van Der; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Huijnen, Vincent ; Clerbaux, Cathy ; Coheur, Pierre ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2018
    Wageningen University and Research
    inverse modelling - biomass burning - emissions - atmosphere - data - peat
    Inverse modelling results for carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the atmosphere from the 2015 Indonesian fires (1 August - 15 December 2015). The TM5-4DVAR model was used (http://tm5.sourceforge.net), together with satellite observations from either IASI or MOPITT instruments.
    Resource Recovery From Wastes and Wastewaters Using Bioelectrochemical Systems.
    Seelam, Jai Sankar ; Maesara, Sausan A. ; Mohanakrishna, Gunda ; Patil, S.A. ; Heijne, A. ter; Pant, Deepak - \ 2018
    In: Waste Biorefinery / Bhaskar, Thallada, Pandey, Ashok, Venkata Mohan, S., Duu-Jong Lee, Kumar Khanal, Samir, Elsevier B.V. - ISBN 9780444639929 - p. 535 - 570.
    Resource recovery - Bioelectrochemical systems - Waste valorization - Wastewater feedstocks - Metals - Bioenergy - Nutrients
    Recent scientific and technological advancements in bioelectrochemical system (BES) research have opened up several avenues for realizing the concept of bio-based economy. Current research within this area has been directed toward exploring their applicability to generate a wastewater biorefinery. Valorization of resources in the form of energy, nutrients, metals, and chemicals has been actively exhibited using this technology. This chapter highlights the fundamentals and technological aspects of bioelectrochemical resource recovery from wastes and wastewaters with detailed emphasis on the latest trends of bioelectrorecovery systems (BERSs). Several wastes and wastewater feedstocks are enlisted and classified based on their prospects for resource and energy recovery. Two representative case studies, existing challenges, and a brief overview of the relative advantages and disadvantages of BERSs over alternative resource recovery options are also included. Further, an outlook is given for realizing resource recovery using BESs as a sustainable technology in the domain of energy and resource management.
    Monitoring emissions from the 2015 Indonesian fires using CO satellite data
    Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Krol, Maarten ; Werf, Guido R. van der; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Huijnen, Vincent ; Clerbaux, Cathy ; Coheur, Pierre ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2018
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 9 p.
    atmosphere - biomass burning - emissions - peat - satellite data

    Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, has periodically struggled with intense fire events. These events convert substantial amounts of carbon stored as peat to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and significantly affect atmospheric composition on a regional to global scale. During the recent 2015 El Niño event, peat fires led to strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO), an air pollutant and well-known tracer for biomass burning. These enhancements were clearly observed from space by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instruments. We use these satellite observations to estimate CO fire emissions within an inverse modelling framework. We find that the derived CO emissions for each sub-region of Indonesia and Papua are substantially different from emission inventories, highlighting uncertainties in bottom-up estimates. CO fire emissions based on either MOPITT or IASI have a similar spatial pattern and evolution in time, and a 10% uncertainty based on a set of sensitivity tests we performed. Thus, CO satellite data have a high potential to complement existing operational fire emission estimates based on satellite observations of fire counts, fire radiative power and burned area, in better constraining fire occurrence and the associated conversion of peat carbon to atmospheric CO2 A total carbon release to the atmosphere of 0.35-0.60 Pg C can be estimated based on our results.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

    Environmental impact of mineral fertilizers: possible improvements through the adoption of eco-innovations
    Hasler, Kathrin - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta; S. Bröring, co-promotor(en): H.W. Olfs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436922 - 156
    environmental impact - business management - fertilizers - agricultural production - germany - milieueffect - bedrijfsmanagement - kunstmeststoffen - landbouwproductie - duitsland

    Agricultural production has kept pace with the population growth (FAO, 2012). One major input for a productive agriculture are fertilizers. Despite their effect on yield and quality, they also have considerable effects on the environment leading to emission of greenhouse gases, acidification, eutrophication and use of scare resources (Ruttan, 2002; Kitzes et al., 2007). However, unlike other agricultural inputs, fertilizers cannot be substituted and a reduction in the fertilizer use can lead to major yield decreases or a production shifting to less suitable areas. By considering the above mentioned statements this thesis aims to expand the knowledge of the environmental impact of fertilizers in general and innovation supply chain thinking, knowledge exchange and innovation adoption within the fertilizer supply chain in particular with the main research question:

    To what extended can the environmental impact of fertilizers be improved by accelerate the adoption and diffusion of (eco)-innovations within the fertilizer supply chain?

    To answer this question, the thesis was divided into two main theoretical perspectives. The first part focuses on the environmental impact of mineral fertilizers and relevant alternatives. The second part focuses on innovation adoption and diffusion.

    In these thesis LCA calculations of different fertilizer types (e.g. urea, ammonium nitrate) and production types (single nutrient fertilizers, bulk blends or complex fertilizers) try to examine the amount of emissions during fertilizer production, transportation and application. With literature data of emissions during the fertilizer production, completed with data from expert interviews along the fertilizer supply chain a holistic LCA calculation was conducted. The results showed that especially urea should be used with special care in temperate climate zone and produced with best production technologies. Additionally, the production and application of phosphorus should always be part of agricultural LCA studies, because this plant nutrient also can have effects on the results in the impact categories use of scare resources and salt water eutrophication. With an optimized fertilization strategy, the environmental burden can be reduced by up to 15%.

    Chapter 3 focuses on greenhouse gas emissions. The carbon footprint, used with special care and an accurate developed framework, can be a good tool to estimate these greenhouse gas emissions (Finkbeiner, 2009; Hillier et al., 2009; Pandey et al., 2011). By calculating the carbon footprint with a basic LCA approach a scientific accepted method was used. The carbon footprint of different mineral fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate and urea ammonium nitrate), stabilized nitrogen fertilizers (using different inhibitors), secondary raw materials (feather meals, blood-and-bone-meals and leguminous crops meals) and a combined irrigation and fertilization were compared in order to find a more sustainable solution. Here especially the uses of a double inhibitor to delay the nitrogen transformation in the soils can have an effect on the carbon footprint results.

    The second part of this thesis concentrates on the fertilizer supply chain and the adoption of eco-innovations. Eco-innovations are one option to reduce the environmental impact of fertilizers without compromising on fertilizer productivity. Although numerous eco-innovations in the domain of fertilizers are available, they have no sufficient adoption rate. Here a systematic literature review combined with the types of eco-innovations within an expanded technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to estimate the main drivers. The study distinguishes between disruptive and continuous as well as process, product and other types of innovations to get a better understanding for specific situations. The distinction between the types of innovations was made, because it was assumed that the nature of the specific innovation influences the adoption. The results lead to the assumption that disruptive innovations are mostly pushed by a high quality support and a well-functioning information flow; continuous innovations are more pushed by a good access to credits and an informative environment.

    Chapter 5 tries to explaining the low adoption of eco-innovation in the German fertilizer supply chain in particular. Expert interviews along the fertilizer supply chain (researcher, producer, traders) and a detailed questionnaire with closed and open questions were used to estimate the necessity to change. Furthermore, the knowledge of different eco-innovations was used to evaluate the knowledge sharing of the fertilizer supply chain. Findings suggest that drivers for eco-innovations are perceived differently by the various actors in the fertilizer supply chain. The overall knowledge on eco-innovations decreases downstream the chain.

    Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness
    Willems, Sara M. ; Wright, D.J. ; Day, Felix R. ; Trajanoska, Katerina ; Joshi, P.K. ; Morris, John A. ; Matteini, Amy M. ; Garton, Fleur C. ; Grarup, Niels ; Oskolkov, Nikolay ; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam ; Mangino, Massimo ; Liu, Jun ; Demirkan, Ayse ; Lek, Monkol ; Xu, Liwen ; Wang, Guan ; Oldmeadow, Christopher ; Gaulton, Kyle J. ; Lotta, Luca A. ; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri ; Rivas, Manuel A. ; White, Tom ; Loh, Po Ru ; Aadahl, Mette ; Amin, Najaf ; Attia, John R. ; Austin, Krista ; Benyamin, Beben ; Brage, Søren ; Cheng, Yu Ching ; Ciȩszczyk, Paweł ; Derave, Wim ; Eriksson, Karl Fredrik ; Eynon, Nir ; Linneberg, Allan ; Lucia, Alejandro ; Massidda, Myosotis ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Miyachi, Motohiko ; Murakami, Haruka ; Padmanabhan, Sandosh ; Pandey, Ashutosh ; Papadimitriou, Ioannis ; Rajpal, Deepak K. ; Sale, Craig ; Schnurr, Theresia M. ; Sessa, Francesco ; Shrine, Nick ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De - \ 2017
    Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723
    Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 195,180 individuals and identify 16 loci associated with grip strength (P<5 × 10-8) in combined analyses. A number of these loci contain genes implicated in structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres (ACTG1), neuronal maintenance and signal transduction (PEX14, TGFA, SYT1), or monogenic syndromes with involvement of psychomotor impairment (PEX14, LRPPRC and KANSL1). Mendelian randomization analyses are consistent with a causal effect of higher genetically predicted grip strength on lower fracture risk. In conclusion, our findings provide new biological insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of grip strength and the causal role of muscular strength in age-related morbidities and mortality.
    Enhanced methane emissions from tropical wetlands during the 2011 la Niña
    Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Monteil, Guillaume ; Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. ; Detmers, Rob ; Hasekamp, Otto ; Xu, Xiyan ; Riley, William J. ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Zhang, Zhen ; McDonald, Kyle C. ; White, James W.C. ; Bousquet, Philippe ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2017
    Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322
    Year-to-year variations in the atmospheric methane (CH4) growth rate show significant correlation with climatic drivers. The second half of 2010 and the first half of 2011 experienced the strongest La Niña since the early 1980s, when global surface networks started monitoring atmospheric CH4 mole fractions. We use these surface measurements, retrievals of column-averaged CH4 mole fractions from GOSAT, new wetland inundation estimates, and atmospheric δ13C-CH4 measurements to estimate the impact of this strong La Niña on the global atmospheric CH4 budget. By performing atmospheric inversions, we find evidence of an increase in tropical CH4 emissions of ∼6-9 TgCH4 yr-1 during this event. Stable isotope data suggest that biogenic sources are the cause of this emission increase. We find a simultaneous expansion of wetland area, driven by the excess precipitation over the Tropical continents during the La Niña. Two process-based wetland models predict increases in wetland area consistent with observationally-constrained values, but substantially smaller per-area CH4 emissions, highlighting the need for improvements in such models. Overall, tropical wetland emissions during the strong La Niña were at least by 5% larger than the long-term mean.
    Inverse modeling of GOSAT-retrieved ratios of total column CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010
    Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. ; Gatti, Luciana V. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Miller, John B. ; Detmers, Rob ; Machida, Toshinobu ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2016
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 (2016)8. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 5043 - 5062.

    This study investigates the constraint provided by greenhouse gas measurements from space on surface fluxes. Imperfect knowledge of the light path through the atmosphere, arising from scattering by clouds and aerosols, can create biases in column measurements retrieved from space. To minimize the impact of such biases, ratios of total column retrieved CH4 and CO2 (Xratio) have been used. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The ratio inversion method uses the measured Xratio as a weak constraint on CO2 fluxes. In contrast, the more common approach of inverting proxy CH4 retrievals (Frankenberg et al., 2005) prescribes atmospheric CO2 fields and optimizes only CH4 fluxes. The TM5-4DVAR (Tracer Transport Model version 5-variational data assimilation system) inverse modeling system is used to simultaneously optimize the fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy inversions using model-derived CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2model) from CarbonTracker and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis CO2 product. The performance of the inverse models is evaluated using measurements from three aircraft measurement projects. Xratio and XCO2model are compared with TCCON retrievals to quantify the relative importance of errors in these components of the proxy XCH4 retrieval (XCH4proxy). We find that the retrieval errors in Xratio (mean Combining double low line 0.61%) are generally larger than the errors in XCO2model (mean Combining double low line 0.24 and 0.01% for CarbonTracker and MACC, respectively). On the annual timescale, the CH4 fluxes from the different satellite inversions are generally in agreement with each other, suggesting that errors in XCO2model do not limit the overall accuracy of the CH4 flux estimates. On the seasonal timescale, however, larger differences are found due to uncertainties in XCO2model, particularly over Australia and in the tropics. The ratio method stays closer to the a priori CH4 flux in these regions, because it is capable of simultaneously adjusting the CO2 fluxes. Over tropical South America, comparison to independent measurements shows that CO2 fields derived from the ratio method are less realistic than those used in the proxy method. However, the CH4 fluxes are more realistic, because the impact of unaccounted systematic uncertainties is more evenly distributed between CO2 and CH4. The ratio inversion estimates an enhanced CO2 release from tropical South America during the dry season of 2010, which is in accordance with the findings of Gatti et al. (2014) and Van der Laan et al. (2015). The performance of the ratio method is encouraging, because despite the added nonlinearity due to the assimilation of Xratio and the significant increase in the degree of freedom by optimizing CO2 fluxes, still consistent results are obtained with respect to other CH4 inversions.

    On the use of satellite-derived CH4 : CO2 columns in a joint inversion of CH4 and CO2 fluxes
    Pandey, S. ; Houweling, S. ; Krol, M. ; Aben, I. ; Röckmann, T. - \ 2015
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15 (2015)15. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 8615 - 8629.

    We present a method for assimilating total column CH4 : CO2 ratio measurements from satellites for inverse modeling of CH4 and CO2 fluxes using the variational approach. Unlike conventional approaches, in which retrieved CH4 : CO2 are multiplied by model-derived total column CO2 and only the resulting CH4 is assimilated, our method assimilates the ratio of CH4 and CO2 directly and is therefore called the ratio method. It is a dual tracer inversion, in which surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2 are optimized simultaneously. The optimization of CO2 fluxes turns the hard constraint of prescribing model-derived CO2 fields into a weak constraint on CO2, which allows us to account for uncertainties in CO2. The method has been successfully tested in a synthetic inversion setup. We show that the ratio method is able to reproduce assumed true CH4 and CO2 fluxes starting from a prior, which is derived by perturbing the true fluxes randomly. We compare the performance of the ratio method with that of the traditional proxy approach and the use of only surface measurements for estimating CH4 fluxes. Our results confirm that the optimized CH4 fluxes are sensitive to the treatment of CO2, and that hard constraints on CO2 may significantly compromise results that are obtained for CH4. We find that the relative performance of ratio and proxy methods have a regional dependence. The ratio method performs better than the proxy method in regions where the CO2 fluxes are most uncertain. However, both ratio and proxy methods perform better than the surface-measurement-only inversion, confirming the potential of spaceborne measurements for accurately determining fluxes of CH4 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Country report INDIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS
    Lensink, R. ; Bedi, A. ; Gangopadhyay, S. ; Ghosh, N. ; Goderis, B. ; Kumar Yadav, B. ; Meesters, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. ; Rao Sahib, P. ; Sethi, S. ; Sharma, P. ; Srinivasan, S. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Pandey, R. ; Madaan, A. ; Kalra, A. ; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Bhargava, S. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Kishore Das, A. ; Wilson Bhatra, R. ; Sen, P. ; Bulte, E. ; Pradhan, M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Rapporten ) - 1860
    This report on India is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (covering the eight country studies); and - A report with the results of the international lobbying and advocacy programmes. This series of reports assessed the 2011-2015 contribution of the Dutch Co-Financing System (MFS II) towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, strengthening international civil society, setting the international agenda and changing decision-makers’ policy and practice, with the ultimate goal of reducing structural poverty. On July 2nd, 2015, the reports were approved by the independent steering committee (see below), which concluded that they meet the quality standards of validity, reliability and usefulness set by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
    Gram Vikas end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Madaan, A. ; Pandey, R. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. ; Kalra, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-025) - 76
    civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - empowerment - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of Gram Vikas (GV) in India that is a partner of ICCO. It assesses Gram Vikas’ efforts to strengthen Civil Society in India based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Gram Vikas contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Gram Vikas’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Centre for Workers’ Management end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Pandey, R. ; Madaan, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-034) - 78
    civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - empowerment - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Centre for Workers’ Management (CWM) in India, which is a partner of Hivos. It assesses CWM’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in India whilst using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which CWM contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain CWM’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Ninasam end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Madaan, A. ; Pandey, R. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-040) - 72
    poverty - civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - armoede - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - empowerment - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Indian theatre and arts organisation Ninasam that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses Ninasam’s contribution to Civil Society in India and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Ninasam contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Ninasam’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Gene Campaign end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Pandey, R. ; Madaan, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. ; Kalra, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-023) - 72
    civil society - empowerment - society - development projects - india - south asia - asia - maatschappelijk middenveld - empowerment - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of Gene Campaign in India that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses Gene Campaign (GC) efforts in strengthening Civil Society in India based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Gene Campaign contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Gene Campaign’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Pandey, R. ; Madaan, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-021) - 86
    civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - empowerment - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Centre for Sustainable Agriculture (CSA) in India that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses CSA’s efforts in strengthening Civil Society in India based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which CSA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain CSA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    CECOEDECON end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Pandey, R. ; Madaan, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-026) - 77
    civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - empowerment - ontwikkelingsprojecten - india - zuid-azië - azië
    This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Centre for Community Economics and Development Consultants Society (CECOEDECON) in India, partner of ICCO. It assesses CECOEDECON’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in India and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which CECOEDECON contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain CECOEDECON’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation
    Achard, F. ; Boschetti, L. ; Brown, S. ; Brady, M. ; DeFries, R. ; Grassi, G. ; Herold, M. ; Mollicone, D. ; Mora, B. ; Pandey, D. ; Souza, C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD (GOFC-GOLD Report COP20-1) - 255
    A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation
    Water for forests to restore environmental services and alleviate poverty in Vietnam: a farm modeling approach to analyze alternative PES programs
    Damien, J. ; Boere, E.J.M. ; Berg, M.M. van den; Dang, D. ; Cu, T.P. ; Affholder, F. ; Pandey, S. - \ 2014
    Land Use Policy 41 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 423 - 437.
    sustainable land-use - ecosystem services - southeast-asia - agricultural intensification - payments - impact - issues - deforestation - technologies - population
    Most forested areas in South East Asia are located in mountainous areas, where they are reservoirs of biodiversity and have important watershed regulating functions. However, the continuing provision of these environmental services may be jeopardized by land use changes. To re-establish natural or productive forests, programs are being proposed in which participating farmers can set aside some of their cultivated sloping land and receive payment for maintaining the newly forested land. This paper compares two types of payments for ecosystems services (or PES)-type programs designed to favor reforestation by farming households: “Payments for forests” (PFF) and “Terraces for forests” (TFF). Both programs involve setting aside sloping land for reforestation but differ in the type and amount of compensation offered. PFF offers annual payments per area of retired land. TFF offers to cover the cost of converting a certain amount of a farm's sloping land into terraces, combined with annual payments per unit area of retired land. The main objective of the paper is to compare the two types of programs in terms of cost-efficiency – can we get the same amount of forest at lower cost? – and equity – will the poorest farmers participate? Using mathematical programming, we developed a set of farm models corresponding to typical farms in a mountainous district in Northern Vietnam. We simulated participation rates of different types of farms in the two types of PES programs. For each PES, we assessed the amount of land converted into forest, the cost of the program, and its impacts on land use and household revenues, at individual farm and village level. Results of our simulations showed that increasing access to irrigated terraces as a way of compensating for converting land to forest increased the participation of the poorest farmers and was more cost efficient than pure cash payments. This suggests that existing PFF programs are biased against the smallest landholders in the region whereas they could be transformed into win–win programs likely to increase forested areas and reduce inequalities among farm households. Our paper demonstrates that PES schemes, when fine-tuned to the South East Asian context, could not only be used to restore ecosystem services, but also to alleviate poverty.
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