Towards a low-carbon economy : A nexus-oriented policy coherence analysis in Greece
Papadopoulou, Chrysaida Aliki ; Papadopoulou, Maria P. ; Laspidou, Chrysi ; Munaretto, Stefania ; Brouwer, Floor - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Nexus governance - Policy analysis - Policy coherence - Policy instruments - Policy objectives - Stakeholder recommendations
The sustainable management of natural resources under climate change conditions is a critical research issue. Among the many approaches emerged in recent times, the so-called 'nexus approach' is gaining traction in academic and policy circles. The nexus approach presupposes the analysis of bio-physical, socio-economic and policy interlinkages among sectors (e.g., water, energy, food) for the identification of integrated solutions and the support of policy decisions. Ultimately, the nexus approach aims to identify synergies and trade-offs among the nexus dimensions. Concerning policy, the nexus approach focuses on policy coherence, i.e., the systematic identification and management of trade-offs and synergies between policies across sectors. This paper investigates the coherence between policies on the water-land-energy-food-climate nexus in Greece. The systematic analysis of policy documents led to the elicitation of nexus-related policy objectives and instruments. Then, the coherence among objectives and between objectives and instruments was assessed using the methodology proposed by Nilsson et al. A stakeholder (trans-disciplinary) orientation was adopted and the need to incorporate stakeholders' recommendations as to policy coherence assessment was highlighted. Overall, the findings revealed that climate and food/agricultural policies represent critical future priorities in Greece by stimulating progress in other nexus-related policies (energy, water, land policies) and being positively influenced by them.
Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy complications: an individual participant data meta-analysis of European, North American and Australian cohorts
Santos, S. ; Voerman, E. ; Amiano, P. ; Barros, H. ; Beilin, L.J. ; Bergström, A. ; Charles, M.A. ; Chatzi, L. ; Chevrier, C. ; Chrousos, G.P. ; Corpeleijn, E. ; Costa, O. ; Costet, N. ; Crozier, S. ; Devereux, G. ; Doyon, M. ; Eggesbø, M. ; Fantini, M.P. ; Farchi, S. ; Forastiere, F. ; Georgiu, V. ; Godfrey, K.M. ; Gori, D. ; Grote, V. ; Hanke, W. ; Hertz-Picciotto, I. ; Heude, B. ; Hivert, M.F. ; Hryhorczuk, D. ; Huang, R.C. ; Inskip, H. ; Karvonen, A.M. ; Kenny, L.C. ; Koletzko, B. ; Küpers, L.K. ; Lagström, H. ; Lehmann, I. ; Magnus, P. ; Majewska, R. ; Mäkelä, J. ; Manios, Y. ; McAuliffe, F.M. ; McDonald, S.W. ; Mehegan, J. ; Melén, E. ; Mommers, M. ; Morgen, C.S. ; Moschonis, G. ; Murray, D. ; Ní Chaoimh, C. ; Nohr, E.A. ; Nybo Andersen, A.M. ; Oken, E. ; Oostvogels, A.J.J.M. ; Pac, A. ; Papadopoulou, E. ; Pekkanen, J. ; Pizzi, C. ; Polanska, K. ; Porta, D. ; Richiardi, L. ; Rifas-Shiman, S.L. ; Roeleveld, N. ; Ronfani, L. ; Santos, A.C. ; Standl, M. ; Stigum, H. ; Stoltenberg, C. ; Thiering, E. ; Thijs, C. ; Torrent, M. ; Tough, S.C. ; Trnovec, T. ; Turner, S. ; Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Rossem, L. van; Berg, A. von; Vrijheid, M. ; Vrijkotte, T.G.M. ; West, J. ; Wijga, A.H. ; Wright, J. ; Zvinchuk, O. ; Sørensen, T.I.A. ; Lawlor, D.A. ; Gaillard, R. ; Jaddoe, V.W.V. - \ 2019
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 126 (2019)8. - ISSN 1470-0328 - p. 984 - 995.
Birthweight - body mass index - pregnancy complications - preterm birth - weight gain
Objective: To assess the separate and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with the risks of pregnancy complications and their population impact. Design: Individual participant data meta-analysis of 39 cohorts. Setting: Europe, North America, and Oceania. Population: 265 270 births. Methods: Information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and pregnancy complications was obtained. Multilevel binary logistic regression models were used. Main outcome measures: Gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, small and large for gestational age at birth. Results: Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were, across their full ranges, associated with higher risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, and large for gestational age at birth. Preterm birth risk was higher at lower and higher BMI and weight gain. Compared with normal weight mothers with medium gestational weight gain, obese mothers with high gestational weight gain had the highest risk of any pregnancy complication (odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI 2.31– 2.74). We estimated that 23.9% of any pregnancy complication was attributable to maternal overweight/obesity and 31.6% of large for gestational age infants was attributable to excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions: Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are, across their full ranges, associated with risks of pregnancy complications. Obese mothers with high gestational weight gain are at the highest risk of pregnancy complications. Promoting a healthy pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain may reduce the burden of pregnancy complications and ultimately the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Tweetable abstract: Promoting a healthy body mass index and gestational weight gain might reduce the population burden of pregnancy complications.
Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Adverse Maternal and Infant Outcomes
Voerman, Ellis ; Santos, Susana ; Inskip, Hazel ; Amiano, Pilar ; Barros, Henrique ; Charles, Marie Aline ; Chatzi, Leda ; Chrousos, George P. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Crozier, Sarah ; Doyon, Myriam ; Eggesbø, Merete ; Fantini, Maria Pia ; Farchi, Sara ; Forastiere, Francesco ; Georgiu, Vagelis ; Gori, Davide ; Hanke, Wojciech ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Heude, Barbara ; Hivert, Marie France ; Hryhorczuk, Daniel ; Iñiguez, Carmen ; Karvonen, Anne M. ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Lagström, Hanna ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Lehmann, Irina ; Magnus, Per ; Majewska, Renata ; Mäkelä, Johanna ; Manios, Yannis ; Mommers, Monique ; Morgen, Camilla S. ; Moschonis, George ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Nybo Andersen, Anne Marie ; Oken, Emily ; Pac, Agnieszka ; Papadopoulou, Eleni ; Pekkanen, Juha ; Pizzi, Costanza ; Polanska, Kinga ; Porta, Daniela ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L. ; Roeleveld, Nel ; Ronfani, Luca ; Santos, Ana C. ; Standl, Marie - \ 2019
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 321 (2019)17. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 1702 - 1715.
Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.
Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood : An individual participant data meta-analysis
Voerman, Ellis ; Santos, Susana ; Patro Golab, Bernadeta ; Amiano, Pilar ; Ballester, Ferran ; Barros, Henrique ; Bergström, Anna ; Charles, Marie Aline ; Chatzi, Leda ; Chevrier, Cécile ; Chrousos, George P. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Costet, Nathalie ; Crozier, Sarah ; Devereux, Graham ; Eggesbø, Merete ; Ekström, Sandra ; Fantini, Maria Pia ; Farchi, Sara ; Forastiere, Francesco ; Georgiu, Vagelis ; Godfrey, Keith M. ; Gori, Davide ; Grote, Veit ; Hanke, Wojciech ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Heude, Barbara ; Hryhorczuk, Daniel ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Inskip, Hazel ; Iszatt, Nina ; Karvonen, Anne M. ; Kenny, Louise C. ; Koletzko, Berthold ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Lagström, Hanna ; Lehmann, Irina ; Magnus, Per ; Majewska, Renata ; Mäkelä, Johanna ; Manios, Yannis ; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M. ; McDonald, Sheila W. ; Mehegan, John ; Mommers, Monique ; Morgen, Camilla S. ; Mori, Trevor A. ; Moschonis, George ; Murray, Deirdre ; Chaoimh, Carol Ní ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Nybo Andersen, Anne Marie ; Oken, Emily ; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J.J.M. ; Pac, Agnieszka ; Papadopoulou, Eleni ; Pekkanen, Juha ; Pizzi, Costanza ; Polanska, Kinga ; Porta, Daniela ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L. ; Ronfani, Luca ; Santos, Ana C. ; Standl, Marie ; Stoltenberg, Camilla ; Thiering, Elisabeth ; Thijs, Carel ; Torrent, Maties ; Tough, Suzanne C. ; Trnovec, Tomas ; Turner, Steve ; Rossem, Lenie van; Berg, Andrea von; Vrijheid, Martine ; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M. ; West, Jane ; Wijga, Alet ; Wright, John ; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Gaillard, Romy ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. - \ 2019
PLOS Medicine 16 (2019)2. - ISSN 1549-1676 - p. e1002744 - e1002744.
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.
Low-dose addition of silver nanoparticles stresses marine plankton communities
Tsiola, Anastasia ; Toncelli, Claudio ; Fodelianakis, Stilianos ; Michoud, Grégoire ; Bucheli, Thomas D. ; Gavriilidou, Asimenia ; Kagiorgi, Margarita ; Kalantzi, Ioanna ; Knauer, Katja ; Kotoulas, Georgios ; Mylona, Kyriaki ; Papadopoulou, Eleftheria ; Psarra, Stella ; Santi, Ioulia ; Tsapakis, Manolis ; Daffonchio, Daniele ; Pergantis, Spiros A. ; Pitta, Paraskevi - \ 2018
Environmental Science: Nano covers the benefits... 5 (2018)8. - ISSN 2051-8153 - p. 1965 - 1980.
The release of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is expected to rise in the near future, with possible negative effects on aquatic life and enhancement of microbial resistance against AgNPs. However, a realistic evaluation of the toxicity of AgNPs to the marine ecosystem is currently missing. Therefore, we designed a mesocosm experiment to assess the impact of AgNP exposure on natural microbial plankton community dynamics in a coastal marine site at environmentally relevant concentrations. We monitored changes in the composition of the planktonic community, from viruses to protists. Further, we analyzed the concentration and properties of AgNPs for the total time of exposure. We found that the addition of AgNPs even at a low dose affected the plankton communities. Specifically, the growth of Synechococcus was inhibited and bacterial community composition significantly changed. Additionally, the amount of a lysogeny-related gene increased and viral auxiliary metabolic genes that are involved in cyanobacterial photosynthesis decreased, revealing a damaged photosynthetic potential after AgNP exposure. Microbial plankton was significantly affected due to both increased dissolved silver ions and decreased AgNP size. Our results highlight that the release of AgNPs alters the functioning of the marine food web by hampering important viral and bacterial processes.
Bottom trawl fishing footprints on the world’s continental shelves
Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Althaus, Franziska ; Baird, Susan Jane ; Black, Jenny ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Campbell, Alexander B. ; Catarino, Rui ; Collie, Jeremy ; Cowan, James H. ; Durholtz, Deon ; Engstrom, Nadia ; Fairweather, Tracey P. ; Fock, Heino O. ; Ford, Richard ; Gálvez, Patricio A. ; Gerritsen, Hans ; Góngora, María Eva ; González, Jessica A. ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Intelmann, Steven S. ; Jenkins, Chris ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kainge, Paulus ; Kangas, Mervi ; Kathena, Johannes N. ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Leslie, Rob W. ; Lewis, Steve G. ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Makin, David ; Martin, Julie ; Mazor, Tessa ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Rochester, Wayne ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Semmens, Jayson M. ; Silva, Cristina - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)43. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E10275 - E10282.
Bottom trawlers land around 19 million tons of fish and invertebrates annually, almost one-quarter of wild marine landings. The extent of bottom trawling footprint (seabed area trawled at least once in a specified region and time period) is often contested but poorly described. We quantify footprints using high-resolution satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS) and logbook data on 24 continental shelves and slopes to 1,000-m depth over at least 2 years. Trawling footprint varied markedly among regions: from <10% of seabed area in Australian and New Zealand waters, the Aleutian Islands, East Bering Sea, South Overall, 14% of the 7.8 million-km2 study area was trawled, and 86% was not trawled. Trawling activity was aggregated; the most intensively trawled areas accounting for 90% of activity comprised 77% of footprint on average. Regional swept area ratio (SAR; ratio of total swept area trawled annually to total area of region, a metric of trawling intensity) and footprint area were related, providing an approach to estimate regional trawling footprints when highresolution spatial data are unavailable. If SAR was ≤0.1, as in 8 of 24 regions, therewas >95% probability that >90%of seabed was not trawled. If SAR was 7.9, equal to the highest SAR recorded, there was >95% probability that >70% of seabed was trawled. Footprints were smaller and SAR was ≤0.25 in regions where fishing rates consistently met international sustainability benchmarks for fish stocks, implying collateral environmental benefits from sustainable fishing.
Governing marine ecosystem restoration : the role of discourses and uncertainties
Ounanian, Kristen ; Carballo-Cárdenas, Eira ; Tatenhove, Jan P.M. van; Delaney, Alyne ; Papadopoulou, K.N. ; Smith, Christopher J. - \ 2018
Marine Policy 96 (2018). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 136 - 144.
Governance challenges - Human intervention - Motivations - Restoration approaches - Uncertainty
Governing marine environments has evolved from dominant interests in exploitation, allocation, conservation, and protection to restoration. Compared to terrestrial and freshwater environments, restoration of and in marine ecosystems presents a new mode of intervention with both technical and governance challenges. This paper aims to enhance understanding of the important factors at play in governing marine ecosystem restoration. Discourses of marine ecosystem restoration are an important factor which shape how the restoration activity is governed, as discourses structure how actors and coalitions define problems and their approaches to solutions. The article produces a conceptual model of the discourses of marine ecosystem restoration, built on two dimensions: (1) the degree of human intervention and (2) motivations for restoration. Together, these dimensions create four broad restoration discourses: “Putting Nature First,” “Bringing Nature Back,” “Helping Nature support Humans,” and “Building with Nature.” Moreover, marine ecosystem restoration is confronted with different forms of uncertainty, such as incomplete knowledge, unpredictability, and ambiguity, which must be managed by actors participating in restoration initiatives. The article's overall contribution is the synthesis of these components, which illuminates the specific governance challenges under various circumstances.
Stakeholder perceptions in fisheries management - Sectors with benthic impacts
Soma, K. ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Papadopoulou, N. ; Polet, H. ; Zengin, M. ; Smith, C.J. ; Eigaard, O.R. ; Sala, A. ; Bonanomi, S. ; Burg, S.W.K. Van Den; Piet, G.J. ; Buisman, E. ; Gümüş, A. - \ 2018
Marine Policy 92 (2018). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 73 - 85.
The capture fishing sector causes direct and indirect impacts on benthic habitats and associated fauna and flora. Effectiveness of new mitigation measures depends on fishermen's perceptions; their acceptance of, and compliance to, those measures. Accordingly, by means of Advisory Councils (ACs), fisheries stakeholders are encouraged by the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform to contribute to policy formulations. Still, the CFP reform remains unclear about how to possibly incorporate perceptions of specific conservation measures and objectives in practice. Against this background, this article aims at exploring a systematic multi-criteria approach that provides information about stakeholder preferences for objectives reflecting on what is more important to aim for (‘what’), mitigation measures as strategies for reaching their objectives (‘how’), and accountability options that can enhance trust in the people who carry out management (‘who'). The approach applies a pairwise comparison approach to elucidate the stakeholder preferences, and to estimate the relative importance of the different options. It is conducted in the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea. The outcomes of the questionnaire survey succeed in transparently reflecting a diversity of preferences. It is advised that in order to inform the CFP, the ACs develop a user-friendly attractive online version of this approach that can reach multiple stakeholders across Europe and facilitate updates on a continuous basis. In this way the ACs could better facilitate bottom-up participation in fisheries management by representing a wide range of stakeholder perceptions.
The water-land-food-energy-climate Nexus for a resource efficient Europe
Laspidou, C. ; Witmer, M. ; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, L.S. ; Domingo, X. ; Brouwer, F.M. ; Howells, M. ; Sušnik, J. ; Blanco, M. ; Bonazountas, M. ; Fournier, M. ; Papadopoulou, M.P. - \ 2017
- 5 p.
Α novel methodology for addressing policy
inconsistencies and knowledge gaps that hinder the
transition to a greater resource efficiency Europe is
proposed. We focus on the integration of all different
sectors that interact and influence each other, namely the
“water- energy- food- land use- climate nexus” and we
develop tools for identifying and quantifying their complex
interlinkages under the influence of climate change. In
order to achieve this, we employ a series of sophisticated
models (referred to as “thematic models”), each of which
addresses a different nexus dimension, or a combination of
a few, while none addresses all nexus dimensions in an
integrative manner. We use dynamic systems modeling
and other complexity science techniques in order to
“merge” different thematic model outputs in a single
coherent result, which is presented to the user in an easy to
comprehend Serious Game environment. This way, the
effect of policies that are designed to affect one field
(nexus dimension) on others can be quantified and
simulated, thus informing policy-makers for the
unintended consequences of their policies, reducing
uncertainties, covering knowledge gaps and leading to a
resource efficient Europe faster.
The footprint of bottom trawling in European waters : Distribution, intensity, and seabed integrity
Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål ; Catarino, Rui ; Dinesen, Grete E. ; Egekvist, Josefine ; Fock, Heino O. ; Geitner, Kerstin ; Gerritsen, Hans D. ; González, Manuel Marín ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Laffargue, Pascal ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Pulcinella, Jacopo ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Silva, Cristina ; Smith, Christopher J. ; Vanelslander, Bart ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 847 - 865.
benthic impact - bottom trawl - fishing pressure - indicators - Mediterranean Sea - Northeast Atlantic - seabed habitat - seabed integrity - trawling footprint - trawling intensity
Mapping trawling pressure on the benthic habitats is needed as background to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. The extent and intensity of bottom trawling on the European continental shelf (0-1000 m) was analysed from logbook statistics and vessel monitoring system data for 2010-2012 at a grid cell resolution of 1 1 min longitude and latitude. Trawling intensity profiles with seabed impact at the surface and subsurface level are presented for 14 management areas in the North-east Atlantic, Baltic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. The footprint of the management areas ranged between 53-99% and 6-94% for the depth zone from 0 to 200 m (Shallow) and from 201 to 1000 m (Deep), respectively. The footprint was estimated as the total area of all grid cells that were trawled fully or partially. Excluding the untrawled proportions reduced the footprint estimates to 28-85% and 2-77%. Largest footprints per unit landings were observed off Portugal and in the Mediterranean Sea. Mean trawling intensity ranged between 0.5 and 8.5 times per year, but was less in the Deep zone with a maximum intensity of 6.4. Highest intensities were recorded in the Skagerrak-Kattegat, Iberian Portuguese area, Tyrrhenian Sea and Adriatic Sea. Bottom trawling was highly aggregated. For the Shallow zone the seabed area where 90% of the effort occurred comprised between 17% and 63% (median 36%) of the management area. Footprints were high over a broad range of soft sediment habitats. Using the longevity distribution of the untrawled infaunal community, the seabed integrity was estimated as the proportion of the biomass of benthic taxa where the trawling interval at the subsurface level exceeds their life span. Seabed integrity was low (>0.1) in large parts of the European continental shelfs, although smaller pockets of seabed with higher integrity values occur. The methods developed here integrate official fishing effort statistics and industry-based gear information to provide high-resolution pressure maps and indicators, which greatly improve the basis for assessing and managing benthic pressure from bottom trawling. Further they provide quantitative estimates of trawling impact on a continuous scale by which managers can steer.
Differences in biological traits composition of benthic assemblages between unimpacted habitats
Bolam, S.G. ; Garcia, C. ; Eggleton, J. ; Kenny, A.J. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, G. ; Kooten, T. van; Dinesen, G. ; Hansen, J. ; Hiddink, J.G. ; Sciberras, M. ; Smith, C. ; Papadopoulou, N. ; Gumus, A. ; Hoey, G. Van; Eigaard, O.R. ; Bastardie, F. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2017
Marine Environmental Research 126 (2017). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 1 - 13.
Biological traits - European shelf - Infauna - Unimpacted assemblages
There is an implicit requirement under contemporary policy drivers to understand the characteristics of benthic communities under anthropogenically-unimpacted scenarios. We used a trait-based approach on a large dataset from across the European shelf to determine how functional characteristics of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats. Deep, coarser sediments are numerically more dominated by sessile, upward conveyors and suspension feeders. In contrast, unimpacted assemblages of coarse sediments in shallower regions are proportionally dominated by the diffusive mixers, burrowers, scavengers and predators. Finally, assemblages of gravelly sediments exhibit a relatively greater numerical dominance of non-bioturbators and asexual reproducers. These findings may be used to form the basis of ranking habitats along a functional sensitivity gradient.
A step-wise process of decision-making under uncertainty when implementing environmental policy
Knights, A.M. ; Culhane, F. ; Hussain, S.S. ; Papadopoulou, K.N. ; Piet, G.J. ; Raakaer, J. ; Rogers, S.I. ; Robinson, L.A. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 56 - 64.
climate-change - north-atlantic - change impacts - management - systems - biodiversity - ecosystems - pressure - diversity - support
An ecosystem approach forms the basis of many recent environmental policies. The underlying concept states that decision-makers must consider the environmental, social and economic costs and benefits in the course of deciding whether to implement a management action. Decision-making can be undermined by uncertainty. Here, we discuss potential sources of uncertainty and their effect on an ecosystem approach-driven environmental policy, the factors affecting the choice and potential for management actions to achieve their objectives, the challenges associated with setting realistic and achievable targets, and how we can prioritise management of detrimental activities. We also consider how human challenges such as the availability of infrastructure and political will and ways of measuring costs and benefits and Member State interactions could also undermine environmental management. Potential limitations along with areas where further effort may be required to support ecosystem-based management objectives are highlighted and the advantages of a structured step-wise interdisciplinary approach to ecosystem management is shown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Do European Union Farmers Reject Genetically Modified Maize? Farmer preferences for Genetically Modified Maize in Greece
Skevas, T. ; Kikulwe, E.M. ; Papadopoulou, E. ; Skevas, I. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2012
AgBioForum 15 (2012)3. - ISSN 1522-936X - p. 242 - 256.
The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of stakeholders’ attitudes in GM crops’ release decisions. This article analyzes farmers’ attitudes and perceptions toward GM maize based on a survey of large-area Greek farmers in Northeastern Greece. A considerable number of respondents (61%) would adopt GM maize if Greece lifts the ban on GM maize cultivation. This result opposes recent findings from countries strongly opposing GM crops (such as France and Hungary), where bans are in line with the majority view of farmers. The ban is against what the majority of large-area farmers in Greece would choose if allowed.
Characterization of the soybean gene GmENOD40-2.
Roussis, A. ; Sande, K. van de; Papadopoulou, K. ; Drenth, J. ; Bisseling, T. ; Franssen, H. ; Katinakis, P. - \ 1995
Journal of Experimental Botany 46 (1995). - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 719 - 724.
|Expression pattern of uricase II gene during root nodule development in Phaseolus vulgaris.
Papadopoulou, K. ; Roussis, A. ; Kuin, H. ; Katinakis, P. - \ 1995
Experientia 51 (1995). - ISSN 0014-4754 - p. 90 - 94.