Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Assessing bottom trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Cambiè, Giulia ; McConnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Ecology 56 (2019)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1075 - 1084.
benthic invertebrates - bottom trawl - fisheries management - impact assessment - life-history meta-analysis - seabed disturbance - systematic review

Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase in populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. We examine the relationship between the longevity of benthic invertebrates and their response to bottom trawling; both in terms of the immediate mortality following a trawl pass and their subsequent rates of recovery. We collate all available data from experimental and comparative trawling studies, and test how longevity influences these aspects of sensitivity. The shortest lived organisms (<1 year) increased in abundance shortly after experimental trawling but showed no response to trawling in long-term comparative studies. Conversely, the abundance of biota with a life span >1 year decreased by ~9% immediately following a trawl pass. The effect of bottom trawling in comparative studies increased with longevity, with a 2–3× larger effect on biota living >10 years than on biota living 1–3 years. We attribute this difference to the slower recovery rates of the long-lived biota. The observed relationship between the intrinsic rate of population increase (r, our metric of recovery rate) and the reciprocal of longevity matches theoretical expectation and predicts that the sensitivity of habitats to bottom trawling is higher in habitats with higher proportions of long-lived organisms. Synthesis and applications. Where the longevity of a species or the longevity distribution of a community is known or can be inferred, our estimates of depletion and intrinsic rate of increase can be combined with high-resolution maps of trawling intensity to assess trawling impacts at the scale of the fishery or other defined unit of assessment. Our estimates of r may also be used to estimate recovery times following other forms of seabed disturbance.

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Cambiè, Giulia ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2018
fisheries management - bottom trawl - benthic invertebrates - impact assessment - meta-analysis - systematic review - life history - seabed disturbance
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity of benthic invertebrates and their response to bottom trawling; both in terms of the immediate mortality following a trawl pass and their subsequent rates of recovery. We collate all available data from experimental and comparative trawling studies, and test how longevity influences these aspects of sensitivity. 3. The shortest-lived organisms (<1yr) increased in abundance shortly after experimental trawling, but showed no response to trawling in longer-term comparative studies. Conversely, the abundance of biota with a life-span >1yr decreased by ~9% immediately following a trawl pass. The effect of bottom trawling in comparative studies increased with longevity, with a 2-3× larger effect on biota living >10yr than on biota living 1-3yr. We attribute this difference to the slower recovery rates of the longer-lived biota. 4. The observed relationship between the intrinsic rate of population increase (r, our metric of recovery rate) and the reciprocal of longevity matches theoretical expectation and predicts that the sensitivity of habitats to bottom trawling is higher in habitats with higher proportions of long-lived organisms. 5. Synthesis and Applications. Where the longevity of a species or the longevity distribution of a community is known or can be inferred, our estimates of depletion and intrinsic rate of increase can be combined with high-resolution maps of trawling intensity to assess trawling impacts at the scale of the fishery or other defined unit of assessment. Our estimates of r may also be used to estimate recovery times following other forms of seabed disturbance.
Bottom trawl fishing footprints on the world’s continental shelves
Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Althaus, Franziska ; Baird, Susan Jane ; Black, Jenny ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Campbell, Alexander B. ; Catarino, Rui ; Collie, Jeremy ; Cowan, James H. ; Durholtz, Deon ; Engstrom, Nadia ; Fairweather, Tracey P. ; Fock, Heino O. ; Ford, Richard ; Gálvez, Patricio A. ; Gerritsen, Hans ; Góngora, María Eva ; González, Jessica A. ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Intelmann, Steven S. ; Jenkins, Chris ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kainge, Paulus ; Kangas, Mervi ; Kathena, Johannes N. ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Leslie, Rob W. ; Lewis, Steve G. ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Makin, David ; Martin, Julie ; Mazor, Tessa ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Rochester, Wayne ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Semmens, Jayson M. ; Silva, Cristina - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)43. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E10275 - E10282.
Bottom trawlers land around 19 million tons of fish and invertebrates annually, almost one-quarter of wild marine landings. The extent of bottom trawling footprint (seabed area trawled at least once in a specified region and time period) is often contested but poorly described. We quantify footprints using high-resolution satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS) and logbook data on 24 continental shelves and slopes to 1,000-m depth over at least 2 years. Trawling footprint varied markedly among regions: from <10% of seabed area in Australian and New Zealand waters, the Aleutian Islands, East Bering Sea, South Overall, 14% of the 7.8 million-km2 study area was trawled, and 86% was not trawled. Trawling activity was aggregated; the most intensively trawled areas accounting for 90% of activity comprised 77% of footprint on average. Regional swept area ratio (SAR; ratio of total swept area trawled annually to total area of region, a metric of trawling intensity) and footprint area were related, providing an approach to estimate regional trawling footprints when highresolution spatial data are unavailable. If SAR was ≤0.1, as in 8 of 24 regions, therewas >95% probability that >90%of seabed was not trawled. If SAR was 7.9, equal to the highest SAR recorded, there was >95% probability that >70% of seabed was trawled. Footprints were smaller and SAR was ≤0.25 in regions where fishing rates consistently met international sustainability benchmarks for fish stocks, implying collateral environmental benefits from sustainable fishing.
Response of benthic fauna to experimental bottom fishing : A global meta-analysis
Sciberras, Marija ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Kneafsey, Brian ; Clarke, Leo J. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2018
Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)4. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 698 - 715.
Dredging - Effects of trawling - Fishing impacts - Invertebrate communities - Systematic review - Taxonomic analysis
Bottom-contact fishing gears are globally the most widespread anthropogenic sources of direct disturbance to the seabed and associated biota. Managing these fishing disturbances requires quantification of gear impacts on biota and the rate of recovery following disturbance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of 122 experiments on the effects-of-bottom fishing to quantify the removal of benthos in the path of the fishing gear and to estimate rates of recovery following disturbance. A gear pass reduced benthic invertebrate abundance by 26% and species richness by 19%. The effect was strongly gear-specific, with gears that penetrate deeper into the sediment having a significantly larger impact than those that penetrate less. Sediment composition (% mud and presence of biogenic habitat) and the history of fishing disturbance prior to an experimental fishing event were also important predictors of depletion, with communities in areas that were not previously fished, predominantly muddy or biogenic habitats being more strongly affected by fishing. Sessile and low mobility biota with longer life-spans such as sponges, soft corals and bivalves took much longer to recover after fishing (>3 year) than mobile biota with shorter life-spans such as polychaetes and malacostracans (<1 year). This meta-analysis provides insights into the dynamics of recovery. Our estimates of depletion along with estimates of recovery rates and large-scale, high-resolution maps of fishing frequency and habitat will support more rigorous assessment of the environmental impacts of bottom-contact gears, thus supporting better informed choices in trade-offs between environmental impacts and fish production.
Perspective on the Agricultural Task Force Report by the European Commission
Pennings, J.M.E. ; Trujillo Barrera, Andres ; Garcia, P. - \ 2017
Measurements and Diagnostics of Resilience in the Agri-Food Sector Against Market Risk
Tamirat, A. ; Trujillo Barrera, A.A. ; Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2017
Measurements and Diagnostics of Resilience in the Agri-Food Sector Against Market Risk
Pennings, Joost - \ 2017
Perspective on the Agricultural Task Force Report by the European Commission
Pennings, Joost - \ 2017
Assessing the Economic and Environamental Impacts of Utilizing Existing and New Co-Products in Brazilian Pig Diets
Beshir, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Berentsen, P.B.M. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Bikker, P. - \ 2017
Organizers special session “Measurements and Diagnostics of Resilience in the Agri-Food Sector Against Market Risk”
Trujillo Barrera, Andres - \ 2017
Organizers special session entitled “Perspective on the Agricultural Task Force Report by the European Commission”
Pennings, Joost - \ 2017
The Role of Income Growth in Emerging Economies on Grain Prices: A Mixed-Frequency Approach
Trujillo Barrera, A.A. ; Pennings, J.M.E. ; Garcia, Philip - \ 2017
Dynamic Capital Structure: Dynamics, Determinants and Speed of Adjustment
Tamirat, A.S. ; Trujillo Barrera, A.A. ; Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2017
- 36 p.
Farm business, - Dynamic partial adjustment model - Target capital structure - Adjustment speed
The corporate finance literature has focused on explaining the determinants of firms target capital structure and speed of adjustment using the well-established theories such as pecking order, signaling and trade-off theories. However, less attention has been paid to understanding the financing behavior of farm businesses using these theories. Unlike corporate firms with professional management, farm businesses are different in a way that family members participate in management, the owner is often the manager, the decision-making unit is small, and farms heavily depend on government subsidies to stabilize income. These distinctive setting in farm business may result in different patterns of capital structure decision-making. Hence, we evaluate the application of corporate finance theories in the context of understanding the relationship between target capital structure and profit in the farm business.
We use a dynamic partial adjustment model to examine the determinants of capital structure and speed of adjustment, and detect capital structure theories with which the leverage ratio of farm business would comply. Our sample comprises a panel of 1500 Dutch farms over the years 2001 to 2015.
We find strong evidence that farms prefer internal funds to external funds. Profit is negatively related to leverage, supporting the pecking order theory, which has often been rejected for large firms. Consistent with the signaling theory, we find that size is positively related to leverage. Farm asset structure, growth, investment, and earnings volatility significantly determine the target capital structure. An interesting finding is that farm leverage is highly persistent and that lagged leverage is the best predictor of subsequent leverage ratios. Also, farms appear to have target leverage ratio and are reported to adjust their leverage towards the optimal level. The speed of adjustment to the target capital ranges from 8.6% to 63%, and varies by farm size and farm. This evidence further confirms the existence of dynamics in the farm capital structure decision. This article provides insights to understanding the dynamic nature of farm capital structure and the applicability of capital structure theories in the farm business.
Market Approaches Towards Valorisation of ESBOs From a Social-Ecological Systems Perspective
Brouwer, Floor - \ 2017
The role of access to finance from different finance providers in production risks of horticulture in Indonesia
Wulandari, E. ; Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Karmana, Maman H. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2017
Welfare Impact Of Contracting In Value Chains: The Case Of Malt Barley Producers In Ethiopia : The Case Of Malt Barley Producers In Ethiopia
Tefera, Delelegne ; Bijman, J. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; VanderVelde, Gerben ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2017
Food chains in Africa are undergoing major changes because of rapid urbanization and rising income. Contract farming arrangement (CFA) has been central in the modernization of food supply chains and receives increased attention in the development strategies of many African countries. Several studies investigated the welfare impacts of CFA; however, most of these focused on export supply chains of horticultural products. We examined the welfare impacts of CFA within a domestic grain supply chain using propensity score-matching. The study utilized cross-sectional survey data from Ethiopia. Consistent with literature, we found CFA has robust positive impacts on farmers’ income and livelihood.
An overview and analysis of the implementation of risk management instruments across the EU
Meuwissen, M.P.M. - \ 2017
The value of information for the adoption of precision dairy technologies
Voort, Mariska van der - \ 2017
Welfare Impact Of Contracting In Value Chains: The Case Of Malt Barley Producers In Ethiopia
Bijman, Jos - \ 2017
A transaction cost analysis of Malaysian dairy farmers’ marketing channels selection
Mey, Yann de - \ 2017
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