Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Cell wall disruption: An effective strategy to improve the nutritive quality of microalgae in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Agboola, Jeleel O. ; Teuling, Emma ; Wierenga, Peter A. ; Gruppen, Harry ; Schrama, Johan W. - \ 2019
Aquaculture Nutrition 25 (2019)4. - ISSN 1353-5773 - p. 783 - 797.
accessibility - algae - digestibility - disruption treatments - nutrient utilization - rigid cell wall

The rigid cell walls of microalgae may hinder their utilization in fish feeds. The current experiment assessed the correlation between the accessibility of microalgae nutrients and their in vivo digestibility in African catfish. Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass was subjected to physical or mechanical treatments to weaken its cell wall; untreated—no disruption treatment (UNT), pasteurization (PAS), freezing (FRO), freeze-drying (FRD), cold pasteurization (L40) and bead milling (BEM). Six experimental diets formulated from differently treated and untreated microalgae (at 30% diet inclusion level) were tested on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility (ADCs) in juvenile African catfish. A basal diet (REF) containing no microalgae was used as reference diet. Results showed that biomass gain and feed conversion ratio of fish fed L40 and BEM diets increased by 13% and 11%, respectively, relative to the UNT diet. Additionally, FRD, FRO, L40 and BEM cell wall disruption treatments improved protein digestibility by 0.5%, 5.9%, 8.4% and 16.3%, respectively, compared to the UNT treatment. There was a positive correlation between accessibility of microalgal nutrients and their digestibility in African catfish. Nutrient digestibility of microalgae was dependent on extent of cell disruption. Also, the impact of cell disruption on nutrient digestibility of microalgae differs between African catfish and Nile tilapia.

Bed morphodynamics at the intake of a side channel controlled by sill geometry
Ruijsscher, T.V. de; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Naqshband, S. ; Paarlberg, A.J. - \ 2019
Advances in Water Resources 134 (2019). - ISSN 0309-1708
Bifurcation - Longitudinal training dam - Physical scale model - River morphology - Side channel

As part of a general trend towards river management solutions that provide more room for the river, longitudinal training dams (LTDs) have recently been constructed in the inner bend of the Dutch Waal River, replacing groynes. LTDs split the river in a main channel and a bank-connected side channel with a sill at the entrance. In the present study, a physical scale model with mobile bed was used to study morphological patterns and discharge division in the entrance region of such a side channel. Alternative geometric designs of the sill are tested to investigate the controls on the diversion of water and sediment into the side channel. After reaching a morphodynamic equilibrium, two bar features were observed in the side channel under low flow conditions. An inner-bend depositional bar emerged against the LTD, resembling depositional bars observed in sharp river bends. A second bar occurred in the most upstream part of the side channel, next to the sill, induced by divergence of the flow by widening of the channel and an increasing flow depth after the sill, hence defined as a divergence bar. The morphologically most active system in the side channel emerges for the configuration in which the sill height decreases in downstream direction. For such a geometry, the sediment that settles during low flow is largely eroded during high flow, reducing maintenance needs. A qualitative comparison based on a lab experiment mimicking field conditions demonstrates the realism of the experiments.

Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome Response to Heat Stress in Kenyan Chicken Ecotypes Adapted to Low and High Altitudes Reveal Differences in Thermal Tolerance and Stress Response
Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy ; Kumar, Himansu ; Park, Woncheoul ; Byun, Mijeong ; Lim, Dajeong ; Kemp, Steve ; Pas, Marinus F.W. te; Kim, Jun Mo ; Park, Jong Eun - \ 2019
Frontiers in Genetics Livestock Genomics 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-8021
heat stress - hub genes - MAPK signaling - p53 signaling - PPAR signaling - RNA-Seq

Heat stress (HS) negatively affects chicken performance. Agricultural expansion will happen in regions that experience high ambient temperatures, where fast-growing commercial chickens are vulnerable. Indigenous chickens of such regions, due to generations of exposure to environmental challenges, might have higher thermal tolerance. In this study, two indigenous chicken ecotypes, from the hot and humid Mombasa (lowland) and the colder Naivasha (highland) regions, were used to investigate the effects of acute (5 h, 35°C) and chronic (3 days of 35°C for 8 h/day) HS on the cardiac and skeletal muscle, through RNA sequencing. The rectal temperature gain and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) [False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05] were two times higher in the acute stage than in the chronic stage in both ecotypes, suggesting that cyclic exposure to HS can lead to adaptation. A tissue- and stage-specific difference in response to HS was observed, with peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor (PPAR) signaling and mitogen-activate protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, enriched in heart and skeletal muscle, respectively, and the p53 pathway enriched only in the acute stage in both tissues. The acute and chronic stage DEGs were integrated by a region-specific gene coexpression network (GCN), and genes with the highest number of connections (hub genes) were identified. The hub genes in the lowland network were CCNB2, Crb2, CHST9, SESN1, and NR4A3, while COMMD4, TTC32, H1F0, ACYP1, and RPS28 were the hub genes in the highland network. Pathway analysis of genes in the GCN showed that p53 and PPAR signaling pathways were enriched in both low and highland networks, while MAPK signaling and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum were enriched only in the gene network of highland chickens. This shows that to dissipate the accumulated heat, to reduce heat induced apoptosis, and to promote DNA damage repair, the ecotypes activated or suppressed different genes, indicating the differences in thermal tolerance and HS response mechanisms between the ecotypes. This study provides information on the HS response of chickens, adapted to two different agro climatic environments, extending our understanding of the mechanisms of HS response and the effect of adaptation in counteracting HS.

Stikstofcrisis en PAS
Kistenkas, Fred - \ 2019
ledenvergadering van BRBS Recycling op 30 oktober 2019.
Using indicators to inform the sustainable governance of water-for-food systems
Oel, Pieter van; Chukalla, Abebe ; Vos, Jeroen ; Hellegers, Petra - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 55 - 62.

As global demand for food increases and impacts of climate-related extremes become more severe new governance mechanisms have become relevant. Individual and collective efforts by actors in water-for food governance could all contribute to sustainably managing the locally scarce water resources that are mobilized to meet the world's demand for food. This review synthesises insights from agricultural water management, water resources management and socio-hydrology to contribute to a knowledge base for informing joint efforts by networks of actors teaming up for sustainable water-for-food governance. The interpretation of water-for-food indicator values is complicated by spatiotemporal variations, different interests and perspectives. However, incorporating these complexities is crucial for governing a globalized food system that depends on water resources of which the availability varies in space and time.

Speciaal uitgezocht voor het offer
Beek, R. van - \ 2019

Het blijft een absolute topper in het Drents Museum te Assen: het rossige meisje van Yde. Amper zestien was ze toen haar hoofd half werd kaalgeschoren. Daarna wurgde iemand haar met een wollen band en doorboorde misschien ook nog - voor de zekerheid - haar hals met een mes. Vervolgens belandde ze in het veen tussen Vries en Yde. Pas na tweeduizend jaar werd ze er ontdekt. Herman Clerinx ging op zoek naar het verhaal achter dit 'veenlijk' en de duizenden andere exemplaren die in Europa werden gevonden.

Evolution of Increased Photosynthetic Capacity and Its Underlying Traits in Invasive Jacobaea vulgaris
Lin, Tiantian ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Pons, Thijs L. ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Vrieling, Klaas - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis - invasion ecology - photosynthetic capacity - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - root carbohydrate storage - shifting defense hypothesis

The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis and the shifting defense hypothesis (SDH) predict that evolutionary changes occur in a suite of traits related to defense and growth in invasive plant species as result of the absence of specialist herbivores. We tested how this suite of traits changed due to the absence of specialist herbivores in multiple invasive regions that differ in climatic conditions with native and invasive Jacobaea vulgaris in a controlled environment. We hypothesized that invasive J. vulgaris in all invasive regions have i) a higher plant growth and underlying traits, such as photosynthetic capacity, ii) lower regrowth-related traits, such as carbohydrate storage, and iii) an increased plant qualitative defense, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Our results show that invasive J. vulgaris genotypes have evolved a higher photosynthetic rate and total PA concentration but a lower investment in root carbohydrates, which supports the SDH hypothesis. All the traits changed consistently and significantly in the same direction in all four invasive regions, indicative of a parallel evolution. Climatic and soil variables did differ between ranges but explained only a very small part of the variation in trait values. The latter suggests that climate and soil changes were not the main selective forces on these traits.

Hoe de veehouderij de bouw van woningen remt
Berendse, Frank - \ 2019
Prediction of in vivo genotoxicity of lasiocarpine and riddelliine in rat liver using a combined in vitro-physiologically based kinetic modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry approach
Chen, Lu ; Peijnenburg, Ad ; Haan, Laura de; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2019
Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)8. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 2385 - 2395.
Genotoxicity - In vitro–in vivo extrapolation - Lasiocarpine - Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model - Riddelliine

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are naturally occurring genotoxic compounds, and PA-containing plants can pose a risk to humans through contaminated food sources and herbal products. Upon metabolic activation, PAs can form DNA adducts, DNA and protein cross links, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and DNA double-strand breaks. These genotoxic effects may induce gene mutations and play a role in the carcinogenesis of PAs. This study aims to predict in vivo genotoxicity for two well-studied PAs, lasiocarpine and riddelliine, in rat using in vitro genotoxicity data and physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-based reverse dosimetry. The phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX was used as a quantitative surrogate endpoint for in vitro genotoxicity of lasiocarpine and riddelliine in primary rat hepatocytes and human HepaRG cells. The in vitro concentration–response curves obtained from primary rat hepatocytes were subsequently converted to in vivo dose–response curves from which points of departure (PoDs) were derived that were compared to available in vivo genotoxicity data. The results showed that the predicted PoDs for lasiocarpine and riddelliine were comparable to in vivo genotoxicity data. It is concluded that this quantitative in vitro-in silico approach provides a method to predict in vivo genotoxicity for the large number of PAs for which in vivo genotoxicity data are lacking by integrating in vitro genotoxicity assays with PBK modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry.

Costs of regulating ammonia emissions from livestock farms near Natura 2000 areas - analyses of case farms from Germany, Netherlands and Denmark
Jacobsen, Brian H. ; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe ; Luesink, Harry ; Michels, Rolf ; Ståhl, Lisa - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 246 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 897 - 908.
Abatement costs - Ammonia emissions - Livestock regulation - Natura 2000 - Nitrogen deposition

Natura 2000 areas are designated according to the EU's Birds and Habitats Directives in order to protect particular habitats and species. A variety of these habitats and species are particularly sensitive to deposition of nitrogen caused by ammonia emissions. Livestock farming is the primary source of this pollution. The purpose of this paper is to compare the costs of reaching the ammonia emission targets for different livestock farms near Natura 2000 sites in the Netherlands, Germany (Schleswig-Holstein), and Denmark. These countries have some of the highest NH3 deposition rates in Europe, and Germany in particular will have to implement new measures to reach the NEC requirements for 2030. This will also benefit nature sites in Denmark as a large share of the ammonia emissions is dispersed over long distances. The general regulation includes implementation of BAT technologies and emission ceilings. The analysis looks at regulatory aspects, the emission requirements and the cost of implementing the technologies to reduce emissions further. The selected case farms are a finisher farm and a dairy farm, and the distance to a Natura 2000 site is 400 and 2000 m. In all three countries, relatively few livestock farms are situated near or inside Natura 2000 areas. The regulatory approach is very different in the three countries and key issues are: additional deposition from projects, neighbouring livestock farms (cumulation), the inclusion of background deposition and the use of the critical loads concept. The Dutch PAS system is interesting as projected reductions in emissions are distributed as additional “room for development” today. The costs for the case farm with finishers in Schleswig-Holstein are the highest as the Filter Decree requires the use of air scrubbers. The findings suggest that farms 400 m from a Natura 2000 site in the Netherlands face lower and less costly constraints than in the other countries, whereas the opposite is the case for farms 2000 m from Natura 2000 sites. The requirements near Natura 2000, where strict requirements apply, are so high that farms will expand at a different site instead.

Ontwikkeling broekbossen
Runhaar, J. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Swinkels, C. ; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.T. ; Loeb, R. ; Smolders, A.J.P. - \ 2019
Wageningen : KNNV Publishing (Rapport / Vereniging van Bos-en Natuurterreineigenare nr. 2019/OBN227-BE) - 142
Het doel van het Kennisnetwerk Ontwikkeling en Beheer Natuurkwaliteit (OBN) is het ontwikkelen, verspreiden en benutten van kennis voor terreinbeheerders over natuurherstel, Natura 2000, PAS, leefgebiedenbenadering en ontwikkeling van nieuwe natuur. In het kader van Natura 2000 worden in Europees perspectief zeldzame soorten en vegetatietypen in Nederland beschermd. Deze studie heeft zich gericht op voor beekdalen kenmerkende broekbossen, die vallen onder het habitatsubtype H91E0_C Vochtige alluviale bossen (beekbegeleidende bossen). Het gaat daarbij met name om door Zwarte els (Alnus glutinosa) gedomineerde broekbossen. De vraag die in deze studie centraal stond is welke invloed nutriëntenbeschikbaarheid heeft op vegetatie en fauna van broekbossen en daarmee op de ontwikkelingsmogelijkheden van deze bostypen op voormalige landbouwgronden in beekdalen. De nadruk in deze studie ligt op de nutriëntenhuishouding en op de invloed die voormalig landgebruik en overstroming via de nutriëntenhuishouding hebben op de soortenrijkdom in broekbossen. Daarnaast wordt ook uitgebreid aandacht besteed aan de invloed van de vegetatiestructuur op de soortensamenstelling van de macrofauna. Dit onderzoek bevat ook een experiment met het toedienen ijzerhoudend drinkwaterslib dat vrijkomt bij productie van drinkwater. Dit experiment had tot doel om na te gaan of toediening van dit slib ook in natte organische bodems een geschikte maatregel is om fosfaat te binden. De resultaten laten zien dat het mogelijk is de mobilisatie van fosfaat succesvol tegen te gaan door de toediening van ijzer- en kalkrijk slib. Dit onderdeel is mogelijk gemaakt door financiering en medewerking van Brabant Water. De rest van de conclusies en aanbevelingen leest u in hoofdstuk 7.
Role of toxicokinetics and alternative testing strategies in pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity and risk assessment; state-of-the-art and future perspectives
Ning, Jia ; Chen, Lu ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2019
Food and Chemical Toxicology 131 (2019). - ISSN 0278-6915
Max 6) toxicokinetics - Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids - QIVIVE - Read-across

Toxicokinetics influences the toxicity of chemicals. This also holds for 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which need bioactivation to become toxic. Given that only for a limited number of 1,2-unsaturated PAs in vivo toxicity data are available, alternative testing strategies including read-across and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) are important. This paper presents how physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models for the PAs lasiocarpine and riddelliine were developed for rat and human, and used for conversion of in vitro data for toxicity in primary hepatocytes to quantitatively predict in vivo acute liver toxicity for both rat and human. Marked differences in toxicokinetics were observed between the two model PAs influencing the predicted in vivo toxicity. In a next step, in vitro toxicokinetic data that predicted relative bioactivation of the PAs, were shown to provide a possible basis for read-across from the BMDL10 for tumor formation by riddelliine of 237 μg/kg bw per day to other PAs for which tumor data are lacking. It is concluded that when comparing toxicity of different PAs, or when extrapolating in vitro toxicity data for PAs to the in vivo situation, differences in toxicokinetics should be taken into account, while future challenges are also discussed.

Determination of genotoxic potencies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in HepaRG cells using the γH2AX assay
Louisse, Jochem ; Rijkers, Deborah ; Stoopen, Geert ; Holleboom, Wendy Jansen ; Delagrange, Mona ; Molthof, Elise ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Audebert, Marc ; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M. - \ 2019
Food and Chemical Toxicology 131 (2019). - ISSN 0278-6915
Genotoxicity - HepaRG - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) - Relative potency factor (RPF) - γH2AX assay

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites from plants that have been found in substantial amounts in herbal supplements, infusions and teas. Several PAs cause cancer in animal bioassays, mediated via a genotoxic mode of action, but for the majority of the PAs, carcinogenicity data are lacking. It is assumed in the risk assessment that all PAs have the same potency as riddelliine, which is considered to be one of the most potent carcinogenic PAs in rats. This may overestimate the risks, since many PAs are expected to have lower potencies. In this study we determined the concentration-dependent genotoxicity of 37 PAs representing different chemical classes using the γH2AX in cell western assay in HepaRG human liver cells. Based on these in vitro data, PAs were grouped into different potency classes. The group with the highest potency consists particularly of open diester PAs and cyclic diester PAs (including riddelliine). The group of the least potent or non-active PAs includes the monoester PAs, non-esterified necine bases, PA N-oxides, and the unsaturated PA trachelanthamine. This study reveals differences in in vitro genotoxic potencies of PAs, supporting that the assumption that all PAs have a similar potency as riddelliine is rather conservative.

Associations of AD biomarkers and cognitive performance with nutritional status: The NUDAD project
Doorduijn, Astrid S. ; Visser, Marjolein ; Rest, Ondine van de; Kester, Maartje I. ; Leeuw, Francisca A. de; Boesveldt, Sanne ; Fieldhouse, Jay L.P. ; Heuvel, Ellen G.H.M. van den; Teunissen, Charlotte E. ; Scheltens, Philip ; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Schueren, Marian A.E. de van der - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 2072-6643
Alzheimer’s disease - Body composition - Malnutrition - Mild cognitive impairment - Older adults - Subjective cognitive decline

As malnutrition is common in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we evaluated nutritional status and body composition of patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls, and studied associations of AD biomarkers and cognitive performance with nutritional status and body composition. We included 552 participants, of which 198 patients had AD, 135 patients had MCI and 219 controls. We assessed nutritional status (mini nutritional assessment (MNA)) and body composition (body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist circumference). Linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender and education where appropriate) were applied to test associations of AD biomarkers and cognitive performance on five domains with nutritional parameters (dependent). Patients with MCI and AD had a lower BMI and MNA score than controls. Worse performance in all cognitive domains was associated with lower MNA score, but not with body composition. AD biomarkers were associated with MNA score, BMI and waist circumference, and associations with MNA score remained after adjustment for cognitive performance. Both AD biomarkers and cognitive performance were associated with nutritional status, associations with AD biomarkers remained after adjustment for cognition. Our data suggest that malnutrition is not only related to impaired cognition but also to AD pathology.

Verkenning van de aanwezigheid van rifvormende schelpdierbanken op locaties voor nieuwe mosselpercelen : helpdeskvraag 2b in het kader van mosseltransitie (KD-2019-028)
Jansen, Henrice ; Perdon, Jack ; Zweeden, Carola - \ 2019
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C037/19) - 28
In het kader van de mosseltransitie is er een serie kennisvragen geformuleerd gerelateerd aan (1) mosselzaadvisserij in relatie tot beschermde gebieden en (2) vragen gerelateerd aan de kweek van mosselen en de interacties tussen mosselkweek en natuurwaarden. Deze vragen zijn via de Helpdesk LNV uitgezet.De huidige memo beschrijft kennisvraag 2b: Zijn de gebieden waar nieuwe percelen komen te liggen plekken waar van nature veel (rifvormende) schelpdieren voorkomen? In 2018 is er een T0 bemonstering met een box-corer uitgevoerd in de nieuwe kweekgebieden om de bodemdiergemeenschap vóór er percelen aangelegd zullen worden te beschrijven kweek. Omdat deze gegevens pas later dit jaar beschikbaar zullen komen (KOMPRO programma), geven we in deze korte rapportage een korte schets van het voorkomen van schelpdieren en geassocieerde soorten op locaties die in 2014 bemonsterd zijn met een mosselkor. In 2014 is er een verkennende studie uitgevoerd door de werkgroep ‘Nieuwe percelen’ bestaande uit afgevaardigden van het Ministerie van LNV, de mosselsector, de garnalen sector en bureau MarinX. Deze survey had als doel het identificeren van locaties die potentieel geschikt zijn voor mosselkweek. Tijdens deze survey zijn ook gegevens opgeschreven over het voorkomen van schelpdieren. Deze gegevens zijn nu verder opgewerkt en worden in de huidige rapportage beschreven.Uit deze survey blijkt dat in de meeste gebieden mosselen (halfwas/consumptie) aangetroffen zijn. Ook oesters en zeesterren zijn in meer dan de helft van de gebieden waargenomen, terwijl sponzen en slangsterren slechts sporadisch werden gezien. Omdat de aangetroffen hoeveelheden mosselen en oesters onvoldoende zijn om als schelpdierbank geclassificeerd te kunnen worden, kan geconcludeerd worden dat er in de zoekgebieden voor nieuwe percelen zoals die in 2014 bemonsterd zijn geen grote hoeveelheden rifvormende schelpdieren aanwezig waren. Ook op het echolood werden geen aanwijzingen gezien dat er schelpdierriffen aanwezig waren in de zoekgebieden voor nieuwe percelen. In de periode 2014-2018 zijn de discussies over potentiele nieuwe kweekgebieden voortgezet, wat geresulteerd heeft in aanvullende locaties ten opzichte van de gebieden die geïnventariseerd zijn in de survey in 2014. Op basis van de huidige kennis kan geconcludeerd worden dat er waarschijnlijk geen rifvormende schelpdieren voorkomen op de locaties die in 2014 geïnventariseerd zijn. Gedetailleerdere natuurtypering van de nieuwe kweekgebieden kan echter pas plaats vinden na analyse van de T0 bemonstering uit het KOMPRO programma.
Healthy, but Disgusting: An Investigation Into Consumers' Willingness to Try Insect Meat
Poortvliet, M. ; Pas, Lieke Van der; Mulder, Bob C. ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2019
Journal of Economic Entomology 112 (2019)3. - ISSN 0022-0493 - p. 1005 - 1010.
bovine meat - consumer decision-making - food choice motives - insect meat

Consumption of insects has gained interest because it may provide a more sustainable and healthier alternative for conventional meat. However, in Western societies, insect consumption is met with resistance due to negative attitudes based on fear and disgust. To further understand consumers' willingness to try insect meat, a 2 (meat type: bovine vs. insect) × 2 (product type: common vs. uncommon) experiment was conducted (n = 130). Four food choice factors were expected to mediate the effect of meat type and product type on willingness to try: health, sensory appeal, risk perception, and disgust. Results indicate that meat type had no effect on willingness to try. Relative to bovine meat, insect meat was perceived as both healthier and more disgusting, which could explain the absence of a meat type effect. Unexpectedly, use of insects in common products (burgers) as compared to uncommon products (skewers) was met with a lower willingness to try. Also, common products with insect meat was considered to be less healthy and more disgusting, compared to uncommon products with insect meat.

Urban greening through nature-based solutions – Key characteristics of an emerging concept
Dorst, Hade ; Jagt, Alexander van der; Raven, Rob ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2019
Sustainable Cities and Society 49 (2019). - ISSN 2210-6707
Ecosystem-based adaptation - Environmental governance - Green infrastructure - Multifunctionality - Performance-based planning - Sustainable cities

As a result of urbanisation and climate change, many cities experience the necessity of efficient and sustainable land use. Nature-Based Solutions (NBS)are interventions that address social, economic and environmental sustainability issues simultaneously, thereby presenting a multifunctional, solution-oriented approach to increasing urban sustainability. As elements of the emerging NBS concept resemble related, existing approaches to urban greening, this review assesses the implications of this concept for discourse and practice in urban greening. The paper identifies key NBS principles and compares them with those of Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA)and Green Infrastructure (GI). Key differences emerge: the NBS concept incorporates a broader array of interventions and a broader range of perspectives on what qualifies as ‘nature-based’, and it is most explicitly oriented towards providing solutions to complex challenges. NBS implementation could therefore benefit from a more performance-based planning approach; a flexible approach to urban planning which accommodates the integration of multiple land uses and considers urban complexity. We conclude that the NBS concept has potential to unite currently segregated bodies of knowledge generated as part of related approaches to urban greening, and can enable researchers and policymakers to more explicitly discuss the role of nature in addressing a broad range of sustainability challenges.

Intraspecific variability in response to phosphorus depleted conditions in the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Raphidiopsis raciborskii
Guedes, Iame Alves ; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz F. ; Vilar, Mauro C.P. ; Mello, Mariana M. ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi ; Lurling, Miquel ; Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O. - \ 2019
Harmful Algae 86 (2019). - ISSN 1568-9883 - p. 96 - 105.
Cylindrospermopsis - Ecotypes - Phosphorus uptake - Strain variability

Phosphorus loading plays an important role in the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and understanding how this nutrient affects the physiology of cyanobacteria is imperative to manage these phenomena. Microcystis aeruginosa and Raphidiopsis raciborskii are cyanobacterial species that form potentially toxic blooms in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Blooms comprise numerous strains with high trait variability, which can contribute to the widespread distribution of these species. Here, we explored the intraspecific variability in response to phosphorus depleted conditions (P-)testing five strains of each species. Strains could be differentiated by cell volume or genetic profiles except for those of the same species, sampling location and date, though these presented differences in their response to (P-). Although differently affected by (P-)over 10 days, all strains were able to grow and maintain photosynthetic activity. For most M. aeruginosa and R. raciborskii strains growth rates were not significantly different comparing (P+)and (P-)conditions. After ten days in (P-), only one M. aeruginosa strain and two R. raciborskii strains showed reduction in biovolume yield as compared to (P+)but in most strains chlorophyll-a concentrations were lower in (P-)than in (P+). Reduced photosystem II efficiency was found for only one R. raciborskii strain while all M. aeruginosa strains were affected. Only two M. aeruginosa and one R. raciborskii strain increased alkaline phosphatase activity under (P-)as compared to (P+). Variation in P-uptake was also observed but comparison among strains yielded homogeneous groups comprised of representatives of both species. Comparing the response of each species as a whole, the (P-)condition affected growth rate, biovolume yield and chlorophyll yield. However, these parameters revealed variation among strains of the same species to the extent that differences between M. aeruginosa and R. raciborskii were not significant. Taken together, these results do not support the idea that R. raciborskii, as a species, can withstand phosphorus limitation better than M. aeruginosa and also point that the level of intraspecific variation may preclude generalizations based on studies that use only one or few strains.

Dietary Patterns Are Related to Clinical Characteristics in Memory Clinic Patients with Subjective Cognitive Decline: The SCIENCe Project
Wesselman, Linda M.P. ; Doorduijn, Astrid S. ; Leeuw, Francisca A. de; Verfaillie, Sander C.J. ; Leeuwenstijn-Koopman, Mardou van; Slot, Rosalinde E.R. ; Kester, Maartje I. ; Prins, Niels D. ; Rest, Ondine van de; Schueren, Marian A.E. van der; Scheltens, Philip ; Sikkes, Sietske A.M. ; Flier, Wiesje M. van der - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 2072-6643 - 10 p.
Alzheimer’s disease - cognition - memory clinic - nutrition - prevention - subjective cognitive decline

As nutrition is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline, we studied the relationship between dietary quality and clinical characteristics in cognitively normal individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 165 SCD subjects (age: 64 ± 8 years; 45% female) from the SCIENCe project, a prospective memory clinic based cohort study on SCD. The Dutch Healthy Diet Food Frequency Questionnaire (DHD-FFQ) was used to assess adherence to Dutch guidelines on vegetable, fruit, fibers, fish, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, salt and alcohol intake (item score 0-10, higher score indicating better adherence). We measured global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination), cognitive complaints (Cognitive Change Index self-report; CCI) and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CES-D). Using principal component analysis, we identified dietary components and investigated their relation to clinical characteristics using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and education. We identified three dietary patterns: (i) "low-Fat-low-Salt", (ii) "high-Veggy", and (iii) "low-Alcohol-low-Fish". Individuals with lower adherence on "low-Fat-low-Salt" had more depressive symptoms (β -0.18 (-2.27--0.16)). Higher adherence to "high-Veggy" was associated with higher MMSE scores (β 0.30 (0.21-0.64)). No associations were found with the low-Alcohol-low-Fish component. We showed that in SCD subjects, dietary quality was related to clinically relevant outcomes. These findings could be useful to identify individuals that might benefit most from nutritional prevention strategies to optimize brain health.

Discrimination learning and judgment bias in low birth weight pigs
Roelofs, Sanne ; Alferink, Floor A.C. ; Ipema, Allyson F. ; Pas, Tessa van de; Staay, Franz Josef van der; Nordquist, Rebecca E. - \ 2019
Animal Cognition 22 (2019)5. - ISSN 1435-9448 - p. 657 - 671.
Ambiguity - Birth weight - Cognition - Cognitive bias - Emotion - Pigs

Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for cognitive and emotional impairments in humans. In pigs, LBW is a common occurrence, but its effects on cognition and emotion have received only limited scientific attention. To assess whether LBW pigs suffer from impaired cognitive and emotional development, we trained and tested 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) pigs in a judgment bias task. Judgment bias is a measure of emotional state which reflects the influence of emotion on an animal’s interpretation of ambiguous stimuli. Pigs were trained to perform a specific behavioral response to two auditory stimuli, predicting either a positive or negative outcome. Once pigs successfully discriminated between these stimuli, they were presented with intermediate, ambiguous stimuli. The pigs’ responses to ambiguous stimuli were scored as optimistic (performance of ‘positive’ response) or pessimistic (performance of ‘negative’ response). Optimistic or pessimistic interpretation of an ambiguous stimulus is indicative of a positive or negative emotional state, respectively. We found LBW pigs to require more discrimination training sessions than NBW pigs to reach criterion performance, suggesting that LBW causes a mild cognitive impairment in pigs. No effects of LBW on judgment bias were found, suggesting a similar emotional state for LBW and NBW pigs. This was supported by comparable salivary and hair cortisol concentrations for both groups. It is possible the enriched housing conditions and social grouping applied during our study influenced these results.

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