Enduring Behavioral Effects Induced by Birth by Caesarean Section in the Mouse
Morais, Livia H. ; Golubeva, Anna V. ; Moloney, Gerard M. ; Moya-Pérez, Angela ; Ventura-Silva, Ana Paula ; Arboleya, Silvia ; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F.S. ; O'Sullivan, Orla ; Rea, Kieran ; Borre, Yuliya ; Scott, Karen A. ; Patterson, Elaine ; Cherry, Paul ; Stilling, Roman ; Hoban, Alan E. ; Aidy, Sahar El; Sequeira, Ana M. ; Beers, Sasja ; Moloney, Rachel D. ; Renes, Ingrid B. ; Wang, Shugui ; Knol, Jan ; Ross, R.P. ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Cotter, Paul D. ; Stanton, Catherine ; Dinan, Timothy G. ; Cryan, John F. - \ 2020
Current Biology 30 (2020)19. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3761 - 3774.e6.
behavior - Caesarean section - co-housing - gut-brain axis - microbiota - microbiota gut-brain axis - prebiotics - probiotics
Birth by Caesarean (C)-section impacts early gut microbiota colonization and is associated with an increased risk of developing immune and metabolic disorders. Moreover, alterations of the microbiome have been shown to affect neurodevelopmental trajectories. However, the long-term effects of C-section on neurobehavioral processes remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that birth by C-section results in marked but transient changes in microbiome composition in the mouse, in particular, the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was depleted in early life. Mice born by C-section had enduring social, cognitive, and anxiety deficits in early life and adulthood. Interestingly, we found that these specific behavioral alterations induced by the mode of birth were also partially corrected by co-housing with vaginally born mice. Finally, we showed that supplementation from birth with a Bifidobacterium breve strain, or with a dietary prebiotic mixture that stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria, reverses selective behavioral alterations in C-section mice. Taken together, our data link the gut microbiota to behavioral alterations in C-section-born mice and suggest the possibility of developing adjunctive microbiota-targeted therapies that may help to avert long-term negative consequences on behavior associated with C-section birth mode.
Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation
Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
New directions in earth system governance research
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Inoue, C. ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Gerlak, Andrea K. ; Ishii, Atsushi ; Patterson, James ; Pickering, Jonathan ; Scobie, M. ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, J. ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael ; Djalante, Riyante ; Dryzek, John ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renée ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, R. - \ 2019
Earth System Governance 1 (2019). - ISSN 2589-8116 - 18 p.
Governance - Research networks - Earth system - Transformation
The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
Next generation physiologically based kinetic (NG-PBK) models in support of regulatory decision making
Paini, A. ; Leonard, J.A. ; Joossens, E. ; Bessems, J.G.M. ; Desalegn, A. ; Dorne, J.L. ; Gosling, J.P. ; Heringa, M.B. ; Klaric, M. ; Kliment, T. ; Kramer, N.I. ; Loizou, G. ; Louisse, J. ; Lumen, A. ; Madden, J.C. ; Patterson, E.A. ; Proença, S. ; Punt, A. ; Setzer, R.W. ; Suciu, N. ; Troutman, J. ; Yoon, M. ; Worth, A. ; Tan, Y.M. - \ 2019
Computational Toxicology 9 (2019). - ISSN 2468-1113 - p. 61 - 72.
In silico - In vitro - PBPK - PBTK - Physiologically based kinetic models - Toxicokinetics
The fields of toxicology and chemical risk assessment seek to reduce, and eventually replace, the use of animals for the prediction of toxicity in humans. In this context, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling based on in vitro and in silico kinetic data has the potential to a play significant role in reducing animal testing, by providing a methodology capable of incorporating in vitro human data to facilitate the development of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of hazard information. In the present article, we discuss the challenges in: 1) applying PBK modelling to support regulatory decision making under the toxicology and risk-assessment paradigm shift towards animal replacement; 2) constructing PBK models without in vivo animal kinetic data, while relying solely on in vitro or in silico methods for model parameterization; and 3) assessing the validity and credibility of PBK models built largely using non-animal data. The strengths, uncertainties, and limitations of PBK models developed using in vitro or in silico data are discussed in an effort to establish a higher degree of confidence in the application of such models in a regulatory context. The article summarises the outcome of an expert workshop hosted by the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) – European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), on “Physiologically-Based Kinetic modelling in risk assessment – reaching a whole new level in regulatory decision-making” held in Ispra, Italy, in November 2016, along with results from an international survey conducted in 2017 and recently reported activities occurring within the PBK modelling field. The discussions presented herein highlight the potential applications of next generation (NG)-PBK modelling, based on new data streams.
Ten essentials for action-oriented and second order energy transitions, transformations and climate change research
Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Patterson, James ; Hultman, Johan ; Mierlo, Barbara Van; Säwe, Filippa ; Wiek, Arnim ; Wittmayer, Julia ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Waer, Husam Al; Battacharya, Nandini ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Carmen, Esther ; Colvin, John ; Cvitanovic, Christopher ; D’Souza, Marcella ; Gopel, Maja ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Hämäläinen, Timo ; Harper, Gavin ; Henfry, Tom ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Howden, Mark S. ; Kerr, Andy ; Klaes, Matthias ; Lyon, Christopher ; Midgley, Gerald ; Moser, Susanne ; Mukherjee, Nandan ; Müller, Karl ; O’brien, Karen ; O’Connell, Deborah A. ; Olsson, Per ; Page, Glenn ; Reed, Mark S. ; Searle, Beverley ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Spaiser, Viktoria ; Strasser, Tim ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Rao-Williams, Jennifer ; Wise, Russel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Woods, Mel ; Wyborn, Carina - \ 2018
Energy Research & Social Science 40 (2018). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 54 - 70.
The most critical question for climate research is no longer about the problem, but about how to facilitate the transformative changes necessary to avoid catastrophic climate-induced change. Addressing this question, however, will require massive upscaling of research that can rapidly enhance learning about transformations. Ten essentials for guiding action-oriented transformation and energy research are therefore presented, framed in relation to second-order science. They include: (1) Focus on transformations to low-carbon, resilient living; (2) Focus on solution processes; (3) Focus on ‘how to’ practical knowledge; (4) Approach research as occurring from within the system being intervened; (5) Work with normative aspects; (6) Seek to transcend current thinking; (7) Take a multi-faceted approach to understand and shape change; (8) Acknowledge the value of alternative roles of researchers; (9) Encourage second-order experimentation; and (10) Be reflexive. Joint application of the essentials would create highly adaptive, reflexive, collaborative and impact-oriented research able to enhance capacity to respond to the climate challenge. At present, however, the practice of such approaches is limited and constrained by dominance of other approaches. For wider transformations to low carbon living and energy systems to occur, transformations will therefore also be needed in the way in which knowledge is produced and used.
What are the scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted methods for food fraud testing and how can they be addressed? – Spectroscopy case study
McGrath, Terry F. ; Haughey, Simon A. ; Patterson, Jenny ; Fauhl-Hassek, Carsten ; Donarski, James ; Alewijn, Martin ; Ruth, Saskia van; Elliott, Christopher T. - \ 2018
Trends in Food Science and Technology 76 (2018). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 38 - 55.
Chemometric model - Food authenticity - Harmonisation - Non-targeted - Scientific opinion - Spectroscopy
Background: The authenticity of foodstuffs and associated fraud has become an important area. It is estimated that global food fraud costs approximately $US49b annually. In relation to testing for this malpractice, analytical technologies exist to detect fraud but are usually expensive and lab based. However, recently there has been a move towards non-targeted methods as means for detecting food fraud but the question arises if these techniques will ever be accepted as routine. Scope and approach: In this opinion paper, many aspects relating to the role of non-targeted spectroscopy based methods for food fraud detection are considered: (i) a review of the current non-targeted spectroscopic methods to include the general differences with targeted techniques; (ii) overview of in-house validation procedures including samples, data processing and chemometric techniques with a view to recommending a harmonized procedure; (iii) quality assessments including QC samples, ring trials and reference materials; (iv) use of “big data” including recording, validation, sharing and joint usage of databases. Key findings and conclusions: In order to keep pace with those who perpetrate food fraud there is clearly a need for robust and reliable non-targeted methods that are available to many stakeholders. Key challenges faced by the research and routine testing communities include: a lack of guidelines and legislation governing both the development and validation of non-targeted methodologies, no common definition of terms, difficulty in obtaining authentic samples with full traceability for model building; the lack of a single chemometric modelling software that offers all the algorithms required by developers.
Quorum Sensing Controls Adaptive Immunity through the Regulation of Multiple CRISPR-Cas Systems
Patterson, Adrian G. ; Jackson, Simon A. ; Taylor, Corinda ; Evans, Gary B. ; Salmond, George P.C. ; Przybilski, Rita ; Staals, Raymond H.J. ; Fineran, Peter C. - \ 2016
Molecular Cell 64 (2016)6. - ISSN 1097-2765 - p. 1102 - 1108.
bacterial communication - CRISPR-Cas - horizontal gene transfer - phage resistance - quorum sensing - regulation
Bacteria commonly exist in high cell density populations, making them prone to viral predation and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through transformation and conjugation. To combat these invaders, bacteria possess an arsenal of defenses, such as CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity. Many bacterial populations coordinate their behavior as cell density increases, using quorum sensing (QS) signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that QS regulation results in increased expression of the type I-E, I-F, and III-A CRISPR-Cas systems in Serratia cells in high-density populations. Strains unable to communicate via QS were less effective at defending against invaders targeted by any of the three CRISPR-Cas systems. Additionally, the acquisition of immunity by the type I-E and I-F systems was impaired in the absence of QS signaling. We propose that bacteria can use chemical communication to modulate the balance between community-level defense requirements in high cell density populations and host fitness costs of basal CRISPR-Cas activity.
Alternative futures for global food and agriculture
Lampe, Martin von; Tongeren, F. van; Abderrahmane, M. ; Giacalone-Belkadi, M. ; Patterson, M. ; Thompson-Lipponen, C. ; Tabeau, A.A. - \ 2016
OECD - ISBN 9789264247826 - 112 p.
Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales : update 2016
Afonso, Claudio L. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Bányai, Krisztián ; Bào, Yīmíng ; Basler, Christopher F. ; Bavari, Sina ; Bejerman, Nicolás ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Briand, François Xavier ; Briese, Thomas ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Chandran, Kartik ; Chéng, Jiāsēn ; Clawson, Anna N. ; Collins, Peter L. ; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Domier, Leslie L. ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Farkas, Szilvia L. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Formenty, Pierre ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Fù, Yànpíng ; Ghedin, Elodie ; Goodin, Michael M. ; Hewson, Roger ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Kitajima, Elliot W. ; Kobinger, Gary P. ; Kondo, Hideki ; Kurath, Gael ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lenardon, Sergio ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Ci Xiu ; Lin, Xian Dan ; Liú, Lìjiāng ; Longdon, Ben ; Marton, Szilvia ; Maisner, Andrea ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Patterson, Jean L. ; Payne, Susan L. ; Paweska, Janusz T. ; Randall, Rick E. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shi, Mang ; Smither, Sophie J. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Takada, Ayato ; Terregino, Calogero ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Tian, Jun Hua ; Tomonaga, Keizo ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Volchkov, Viktor E. ; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria ; Walsh, John A. ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, David ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wetzel, Thierry ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Xiè, Jiǎtāo ; Yuen, Kwok Yung ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Kuhn, Jens H. - \ 2016
Archives of Virology 161 (2016)8. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 2351 - 2360.
In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).
Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka
Katinic, P.J. ; Patterson, D.A. ; Ydenberg, R.C. - \ 2015
Journal of Fish Biology 86 (2015)1. - ISSN 0022-1112 - p. 276 - 287.
british-columbia - atlantic salmon - temperature - water - river - populations - mortality - migration - pacific - energetics
Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs¿>¿130¿days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods recorded for any O. nerka population. Copper Creek presents an easy upstream migration, with mild water temperatures (7 to 14°¿ C), short distance (13·1¿km) and low elevation gain (41¿m) to the lake where fish hold prior to spawning. An energetic model estimates that
Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output
Weijerman, M.W. ; Birkeland, C. ; Piniak, G.A. ; Miller, M.W. ; Eakin, C.M. ; McElhany, P. ; Dunlap, M.J. ; Patterson, M. ; Brainard, R.E. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 7 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 15 - 21.
region-wide declines - deep-sea corals - climate-change - reefs
Determining whether a species warrants listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act depends on the government's assessment of the species' extinction risk, usually in response to a petition. Deciding whether data are sufficient to make a listing determination is a challenging part of the process. We examined three case studies involving corals. A petition for deep-sea corals was rejected for full status review of the species, based on insufficient information on population trends and threats. Information on threats for 82 tropical corals was sufficient to propose listing of 66 species. Significant population declines and identified threats resulted in listing two Atlantic Acropora corals as 'Threatened'. There was no decrease in journal publication rate on the Acropora species after that listing, and no decrease in research permit applications in marine protected areas. However, the effects of listings on research that might help to sustain or recover species remains largely unknown.
|Statecraft, the Market State and the Development of European Legal Culture
Afilalo, A. ; Patterson, D. ; Purnhagen, K. - \ 2014
In: Towards a European Legal Culture / Helleringer, G., Purnhagen, K.P., Baden Baden : C.H. Beck Hart Nomos - ISBN 9783832971953 - p. 277 - 302.
Virus-like particle nanoreactors: programmed en capsulation of the thermostable CelB glycosidase inside the P22 capsid
Patterson, D.P. ; Schwarz, B. ; El-Boubbou, K. ; Oost, J. van der; Prevelige, P.E. ; Douglas, T. - \ 2012
Soft Matter 8 (2012)39. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 10158 - 10166.
beta-glucosidase celb - archaeon pyrococcus-furiosus - protein cages - scaffolding protein - bacteriophage p22 - silica immobilization - enzyme immobilization - gold nanoparticles - functional domains - escherichia-coli
Self-assembling biological systems hold great potential for the synthetic construction of new active soft nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate the hierarchical bottom-up assembly of bacteriophage P22 virus-like particles (VLPs) that encapsulate the thermostable CelB glycosidase creating catalytically active nanoreactors. The in vivo assembly and encapsulation produces P22 VLPs with a high packaging density of the tetrameric CelB, but without loss of enzyme activity or the ability of the P22 VLP to undergo unique morphological transitions that modify the VLPs internal volume and shell porosity. The P22 VLPs encapsulating CelB are also shown to retain a high percentage of the enzyme activity upon being embedded and immobilized in a polymeric matrix
The role of innovation brokers in the agricultural innovation system
Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the OECD Conference on Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS), Paris, France, 15-17 June, 2011. - Paris : OECD - ISBN 9789264167438 - p. 237 - 245.
|Quantification of Patterson's Curse infestation with remote sensing
Schut, A.G.T. ; McIntyre, D. - \ 2009
In: Proceedings of Surveying & Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial International Conference. Adelaide, South Australia. Surveying & Spatial Sciences Institute. - - p. 915 - 924.
Soy oligosaccharides in vitro fermentation characteristics and its effect on caecal microorganisms of young broiler chickens
Lan, Y. ; Williams, B.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Patterson, R. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 2007
Animal Feed Science and Technology 133 (2007)3-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 286 - 297.
gradient gel-electrophoresis - gas-production - pcr detection - rumen fluid - bacteria - dna - fluorescence - curves - feces
An in vitro trial was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of soybean meal oligosaccharides (SMO) and changes in the caecal contents microbial community of broiler chickens as affected by SMO by using cumulative gas production and a PCR/DGGE technique. An in vivo trial aimed to study the effect of SMO on the caecal contents lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population and caecal wall attached microorganisms by means of a real-time PCR technique and scanning electron microscope, when SMO was used in the diet of broiler chickens during the first 2 weeks of post-hatch. In vitro trial results indicated SMO produced 245.7 ml gas/g DM, 261.8 mg acetic acid/g DM, 187.2 mg propionic acid/g DM and 155.2 mg butyric acid/g DM. In vivo experimental results showed that dietary SMO increased visible microbial populations attached on caecal walls and increased the population of a group of lactic acid bacteria (genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Weissella and Leuconostoc) in the caecal contents of young broiler chickens (P <0.05). In conclusion, SMO does show promise for use as a product which may promote competitive exclusion of potential pathogens. SMO may therefore, be a suitable substitute for dietary antibiotics in young broiler chickens in the future. As a potential prebiotic material, the selective stimulation of SMO on LAB could not be certified by the current experimental results and needs to be further studied. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Long-term results of peripheral arterial disease rehabilitation
Menard, J.R. ; Smith, H.E. ; Riebe, D. ; Braun, C.M. ; Blissmer, B. ; Patterson, R.B. - \ 2004
Journal of Vascular Surgery 39 (2004)6. - ISSN 0741-5214 - p. 1186 - 1192.
randomized controlled trial - intermittent claudication - exercise rehabilitation - functional status - angioplasty - outcomes - therapy - program
Purpose Although the Peripheral Arterial Disease Rehabilitation Program (PADRx) improves walking ability and quality of life over brief periods of follow-up, the long-term durability of results has not been established. This study examined functional status, walking ability, and quality of life in patients several months after completion of a 12-week PADRx. Methods Patients who completed a PADRx were eligible for participation. A Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ), and physical activity questionnaire were administered by telephone. A progressive treadmill test was performed on-site. Results Of 63 eligible patients, 14 were lost to follow-up, 11 refused participation, and four died. Thirty-four patients had completed PADRx 20 to 80 months previously (mean, 48.2 ± 13.7 months), and completed the phone survey. Fifteen patients reported exercising a minimum of 60 min/wk for 3 months (EX group), and 19 had not exercised in the preceding 3 months (SED group). Self-reported SF-36 values were significantly different between the EX and SED groups for Physical Function (43.3 ± 8.2 vs 34.2 ± 7.8), Role–Physical Function (41.2 ± 7.7 vs 32.8 ± 9.2), and Bodily Pain (46.9 ± 8.8 vs 38.9 ± 7.1), as well as the Physical Composite (43.5 ± 6.5 vs 34.0 vs 5.8) domains of the SF-36. Similarly the WIQ demonstrated significant differences in Walking Distance (46.8 ± 36.2 vs 7.8 ± 9.4), Walking Speed (47.5 ± 32.6 vs 14.5 ± 13.9), and Stair Climbing (60.6 ± 36.6 vs 37.1 ± 27.6), favoring the EX group. Sixteen patients, equally distributed between the EX and SED groups, completed the progressive treadmill test. Both groups had experienced improvement (P <.05) in claudication pain time and maximal walking time after completing the 12-week supervised program. The EX group maintained increased claudication pain time of 121% and maximum walking time of 109% over baseline, whereas the SED group values had returned to baseline (P <.05). Conclusions Patients with claudication realize symptomatic and functional improvement with supervised exercise programs. Those who continue to exercise will potentially maintain these benefits and experience improved health-related quality of life.
Effects of oligosaccharides in weanling pig diets on performance, microflora and intestinal health.
Gebbink, G.A.R.K. ; Sutton, A.L. ; Williams, B.A. ; Patterson, J.A. ; Richert, B.T. ; Kelly, D.T. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
In: Digestive physiology in pigs. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, 20-22 June 2000 / Lindberg, J.E., Ogle, B., CABI - ISBN 9780851995175 - p. 269 - 271.
Specific oligosaccharides in weanling pig diets may help to temper the transition from milk diets to dry feed, though performance may not reach the levels found when antibiotics are included in the diet. Within the normal stresses of a production type environment, use of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and sugarbeet pulp (BP), either separate or combined, helped in maintaining a healthy gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment through greater colonization of bifido bacteria or reduction of Escherichia coli in the intestinal system. Further research is needed to determine whether changing levels of various oligosaccharides can also provide consistent efficient pig gains and feed conversion.
|Nomadism or site-fidelity: two different breeding strategies in dark-bellied brent geese
Ebbinge, B.S. ; Spaans, B. ; Müskens, G.J.D.M. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2001
In: GOOSE21; 6th annual meeting of the Goose Specialist Group of Wetlands International; Roosta, Estonia, 27 April - 2 May 2001. Tartu (Estonia), Wetlands International Goose Specialist Group, 2001. Wetlands Int. Goose Spec. Group Bull. 9 Suppl / Patterson, I., - p. 19 - 20.
fauna - broedvogels - ecologie - fauna - ganzen - noordpoolgebied - ornithologie - Rusland - Siberië
|Density dependent population limitation in dark-bellied brent geese
Ebbinge, B.S. ; Heesterbeek, J.A.P. ; Ens, B.J. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2001
In: GOOSE21; 6th annual meeting of the Goose Specialist Group of Wetlands International; Roosta, Estonia, 27 April - 2 May 2001. Tartu (Estonia), Wetlands International Goose Specialist Group, 2001. Wetlands Int. Goose Spec. Group Bull. 9 Suppl / Patterson, I., - p. 18 - 18.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ganzen - noordpoolgebied - ornithologie - populatiebiologie - trekvogels - Rusland - Siberië