Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A Homeotic Mutation Changes Legume Nodule Ontogeny into Actinorhizal-Type Ontogeny
    Shen, Defeng ; Xiao, Ting Ting ; Velzen, Robin van; Kulikova, Olga ; Gong, Xiaoyun ; Geurts, René ; Pawlowski, Katharina ; Bisseling, Ton - \ 2020
    The Plant Cell 32 (2020)6. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 1868 - 1885.

    Some plants fix atmospheric nitrogen by hosting symbiotic diazotrophic rhizobia or Frankia bacteria in root organs known as nodules. Such nodule symbiosis occurs in 10 plant lineages in four taxonomic orders: Fabales, Fagales, Cucurbitales, and Rosales, which are collectively known as the nitrogen-fixing clade. Nodules are divided into two types based on differences in ontogeny and histology: legume-type and actinorhizal-type nodules. The evolutionary relationship between these nodule types has been a long-standing enigma for molecular and evolutionary biologists. Recent phylogenomic studies on nodulating and nonnodulating species in the nitrogen-fixing clade indicated that the nodulation trait has a shared evolutionary origin in all 10 lineages. However, this hypothesis faces a conundrum in that legume-type and actinorhizal-type nodules have been regarded as fundamentally different. Here, we analyzed the actinorhizal-type nodules formed by Parasponia andersonii (Rosales) and Alnus glutinosa (Fagales) and found that their ontogeny is more similar to that of legume-type nodules (Fabales) than generally assumed. We also show that in Medicago truncatula, a homeotic mutation in the co-transcriptional regulator gene NODULE ROOT1 (MtNOOT1) converts legume-type nodules into actinorhizal-type nodules. These experimental findings suggest that the two nodule types have a shared evolutionary origin.

    Study on the approaches to management for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries : DRuMFISH : final report - Study
    Poos, J.J. ; Oliveira, José De; Ulrich, C. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Mildenberger, Tobias ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Kokkalis, A. ; Minto, Coilín ; Pawlowski, Lionel ; Robert, Marianne ; Macher, Claire ; Merzereaud, Mathieu ; Garcia, Dorleta ; Ibaibarriaga, L. ; Bertignac, Michel ; Vermard, Youen ; Fischer, Simon ; Carpi, Piera ; Walker, Nicola ; Earl, Timothy ; Davie, Sarah ; Haslob, Holger ; Kempf, A. ; Taylor, Marc ; Martin, Paloma ; Maynou, Francesc ; Recasens, Laura ; Ramirez, John Gabriel ; Lleonart, Jordi ; Garriga, Mariona ; Tserpes, George ; Sgardeli, Viki ; Coro, Gianpolo ; Scarcella, Giuseppe ; Angelini, Silvia - \ 2018
    EU - ISBN 9789292024062 - 84 p.
    This is the final report of the European Commission funded research project "DRuMFISH" (service contract n° EASME/EMFF/2014/l.3.2.4/ SI2.721116). The main aim of the project was to develop models and strategies for providing advice for mixed fisheries that account for: (i) fishing mortality ranges consistent with MSY, (ii) all fish caught being landed, and (iii) significant components of the marine fish ecosystem lacking key biological information. In order to meet this aim, DRuMFISH delivered a review of assessment approaches for data-poor stocks, extended mixed fisheries simulation frameworks to include data-poor stocks. The assessment approaches and simulation frameworks were implemented in 7 case studies. These case studies were mixed fisheries in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Western Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, and the Aegean Sea. Within the case studies, 35 data-poor stock assessments were done. These assessments provided exploitation status of data-poor stocks. Different harvest control rules were subsequently tested for their expected yields and stock biomasses from the mixed fisheries in the simulation frameworks. Now that data-poor stocks can be incorporated with in the mixed fisheries simulation frameworks, the design of new management plans can account for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries.
    Comparative analysis of the nodule transcriptomes of ceanothus thyrsiflorus (rhamnaceae, rosales) and datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales)
    Salgado, Marco G. ; Velzen, Robin van; Nguyen, Thanh Van ; Battenberg, Kai ; Berry, Alison M. ; Lundin, Daniel ; Pawlowski, Katharina - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Plant Science 871 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Actinorhiza - Defensin - Divergent evolution - Nitrogen metabolism - Nitrogen-fixing root nodules - Nod factor receptor - Subtilase

    Two types of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses are known, rhizobial and actinorhizal symbioses. The latter involve plants of three orders, Fagales, Rosales, and Cucurbitales. To understand the diversity of plant symbiotic adaptation, we compared the nodule transcriptomes of Datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales) and Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (Rhamnaceae, Rosales); both species are nodulated by members of the uncultured Frankia clade, cluster II. The analysis focused on various features. In both species, the expression of orthologs of legume Nod factor receptor genes was elevated in nodules compared to roots. Since arginine has been postulated as export form of fixed nitrogen from symbiotic Frankia in nodules of D. glomerata, the question was whether the nitrogen metabolism was similar in nodules of C. thyrsiflorus. Analysis of the expression levels of key genes encoding enzymes involved in arginine metabolism revealed up-regulation of arginine catabolism, but no up-regulation of arginine biosynthesis, in nodules compared to roots of D. glomerata, while arginine degradation was not upregulated in nodules of C. thyrsiflorus. This new information corroborated an arginine-based metabolic exchange between host and microsymbiont for D. glomerata, but not for C. thyrsiflorus. Oxygen protection systems for nitrogenase differ dramatically between both species. Analysis of the antioxidant system suggested that the system in the nodules of D. glomerata leads to greater oxidative stress than the one in the nodules of C. thyrsiflorus, while no differences were found for the defense against nitrosative stress. However, induction of nitrite reductase in nodules of C. thyrsiflorus indicated that here, nitrite produced from nitric oxide had to be detoxified. Additional shared features were identified: genes encoding enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis were found to be upregulated in the nodules of both species. Orthologous nodule-specific subtilisin-like proteases that have been linked to the infection process in actinorhizal Fagales, were also upregulated in the nodules of D. glomerata and C. thyrsiflorus. Nodule-specific defensin genes known from actinorhizal Fagales and Cucurbitales, were also found in C. thyrsiflorus. In summary, the results underline the variability of nodule metabolism in different groups of symbiotic plants while pointing at conserved features involved in the infection process.

    Phylogenomics reveals multiple losses of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis
    Griesmann, Maximilian ; Chang, Yue ; Liu, Xin ; Song, Yue ; Haberer, Georg ; Crook, Matthew B. ; Billault-Penneteau, Benjamin ; Lauressergues, Dominique ; Keller, Jean ; Imanishi, Leandro ; Roswanjaya, Yuda Purwana ; Kohlen, Wouter ; Pujic, Petar ; Battenberg, Kai ; Alloisio, Nicole ; Liang, Yuhu ; Hilhorst, Henk ; Salgado, Marco G. ; Hocher, Valerie ; Gherbi, Hassen ; Svistoonoff, Sergio ; Doyle, Jeff J. ; He, Shixu ; Xu, Yan ; Xu, Shanyun ; Qu, Jing ; Gao, Qiang ; Fang, Xiaodong ; Fu, Yuan ; Normand, Philippe ; Berry, Alison M. ; Wall, Luis G. ; Ané, Jean Michel ; Pawlowski, Katharina ; Xu, Xun ; Yang, Huanming ; Spannagl, Manuel ; Mayer, Klaus F.X. ; Wong, Gane Ka Shu ; Parniske, Martin ; Delaux, Pierre Marc ; Cheng, Shifeng - \ 2018
    Science 361 (2018)6398. - ISSN 0036-8075 - 18 p.

    The root nodule symbiosis of plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria impacts global nitrogen cycles and food production but is restricted to a subset of genera within a single clade of flowering plants. To explore the genetic basis for this scattered occurrence, we sequenced the genomes of ten plant species covering the diversity of nodule morphotypes, bacterial symbionts and infection strategies. In a genome-wide comparative analysis of a total of 37 plant species, we discovered signatures of multiple independent loss-of-function events in the indispensable symbiotic regulator NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) in ten out of 13 genomes of non-nodulating species within this clade. The discovery that multiple independent losses shaped the present day distribution of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in plants reveals a phylogenetically wider distribution in evolutionary history and a so far underestimated selection pressure against this symbiosis.

    The Huperzia selago Shoot Tip Transcriptome Sheds New Light on the Evolution of Leaves
    Evkaikina, Anastasiia I. ; Berke, Lidija ; Romanova, Marina A. ; Proux-Wéra, Estelle ; Ivanova, Alexandra N. ; Rydin, Catarina ; Pawlowski, Katharina ; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V. - \ 2017
    Genome Biology and Evolution 9 (2017)9. - ISSN 1759-6653 - p. 2444 - 2460.
    Lycopodiophyta—consisting of three orders, Lycopodiales, Isoetales and Selaginellales, with different types of shoot apical meristems (SAMs)—form the earliest branch among the extant vascular plants. They represent a sister group to all other vascular plants, from which they differ in that their leaves are microphylls—that is, leaves with a single, unbranched vein, emerging from the protostele without a leaf gap—not megaphylls. All leaves represent determinate organs originating on the flanks of indeterminate SAMs. Thus, leaf formation requires the suppression of indeterminacy, that is, of KNOX transcription factors. In seed plants, this is mediated by different groups of transcription factors including ARP and YABBY. We generated a shoot tip transcriptome of Huperzia selago (Lycopodiales) to examine the genes involved in leaf formation. Our H. selago transcriptome does not contain any ARP homolog, although transcriptomes of Selaginella spp. do. Surprisingly, we discovered a YABBY homolog, although these transcription factors were assumed to have evolved only in seed plants. The existence of a YABBY homolog in H. selago suggests that YABBY evolved already in the common ancestor of the vascular plants, and subsequently was lost in some lineages like Selaginellales, whereas ARP may have been lost in Lycopodiales. The presence of YABBY in the common ancestor of vascular plants would also support the hypothesis that this common ancestor had a simplex SAM. Furthermore, a comparison of the expression patterns of ARP in shoot tips of Selaginella kraussiana (Harrison CJ, etal. 2005. Independent recruitment of a conserved developmental mechanism during leaf evolution. Nature 434(7032):509–514.) and YABBY in shoot tips of H. selago implies that the development of microphylls, unlike megaphylls, does not seem to depend on the combined activities of ARP and YABBY. Altogether, our data show that Lycopodiophyta are a diverse group; so, in order to understand the role of Lycopodiophyta in evolution, representatives of Lycopodiales, Selaginellales, as well as of Isoetales, have to be examined.
    Phylogeny and Systematics of Leptomyxid Amoebae (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea, Leptomyxida)
    Smirnov, A. ; Nassonova, Elena ; Geisen, Stefan ; Bonkowski, M. ; Kudryavtsev, Alexander ; Berney, Cedric ; Glotova, Anna ; Bondarenko, Natalya ; Dyková, Iva ; Mrva, Martin ; Fahrni, Jose ; Pawlowski, Jan - \ 2017
    Protist 168 (2017)2. - ISSN 1434-4610 - p. 220 - 252.
    We describe four new species of Flabellula, Leptomyxa and Rhizamoeba and publish new SSU rRNA gene and actin gene sequences of leptomyxids. Using these data we provide the most comprehensive SSU phylogeny of leptomyxids to date. Based on the analyses of morphological data and results of the SSU rRNA gene phylogeny we suggest changes in the systematics of the order Leptomyxida (Amoebozoa: Lobosa: Tubulinea). We propose to merge the genera Flabellula and Paraflabellula (the genus Flabellula remains valid by priority rule). The genus Rhizamoeba is evidently polyphyletic in all phylogenetic trees; we suggest retaining the generic name Rhizamoeba for the group unifying R. saxonica, R.matisi n. sp. and R. polyura, the latter remains the type species of the genus Rhizamoeba. Based on molecular and morphological evidence we move all remaining Rhizamoeba species to the genus Leptomyxa. New family Rhizamoebidae is established here in order to avoid paraphyly of the family Leptomyxidae. With the suggested changes both molecular and morphological systems of the order Leptomyxida are now fully congruent to each other.
    Global Hindcasts and Future Projections of Coastal Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads Due to Shellfish and Seaweed Aquaculture
    Bouwman, A.F. ; Pawlowski, M. ; Liu, C. ; Beusen, A.W.H. ; Shumway, S.E. ; Glibert, P.M. ; Overbeek, C.C. - \ 2011
    Reviews in Fisheries Science 19 (2011)4. - ISSN 1064-1262 - p. 331 - 357.
    mussel mytilus-edulis - harmful algal blooms - oyster crassostrea-virginica - gracilaria-chilensis gracilariales - macroalgae cladophora-vagabunda - abalone haliotis-tuberculata - multi-trophic aquaculture - feeding bivalve mollusks - land-based systems - prorocen
    A model was developed to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for aquaculture production of crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and seaweed, using country production data for the 1970–2006 period from the Food and Agriculture Organi- zation and scenarios based on the Millenium Assessment for 2006–2050. Global production of crustaceans (18% yr-1), molluscs (7.4%), and seaweed (8%) increased rapidly during the 1970–2006 period. Scenarios indicate that annual nutrient release from all shellfish (crustaceans, bivalves, and gastropods) aquaculture will rapidly grow from 0.4 to up to 1.7 million tonnes of nitrogen and from 0.01 to 0.3 million tonnes of phosphorus between 2006 and 2050. The nitrogen and phosphorus releases from global freshwater shellfish aquaculture will increase from 1% of river export in 2006 to up to 6% in 2050. Marine shellfish production is an important contributor to nutrient loading of coastal seas, particularly in Eastern Asia. Nitrogen (7% of marine aquaculture + river export in 2006 and up to 19% in 2050) and phosphorus (12% in 2006 and up to 30% in 2050) releases from Chinese marine shellfish aquaculture are important and growing contributors to total nutrient inputs to coastal seas. Production of crustaceans and bivalves causes changes in nutrient stoichiometry and increasing reduced and organic nitrogen forms, which are of concern because of their preferential use by some harmful algae. Nutrient withdrawal by seaweed is projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades. To overcome effects of increasing nutrient release from shellfish production, integrated systems that include seaweed may play an important role in reducing this nutrient load
    Interactive effects of spectral shading and mechanical stress on the expression and costs of shade avoidance
    Anten, Niels P.R. ; Wettberg, Eric J. Von; Pawlowski, Marcin ; Huber, Heidrun - \ 2009
    American Naturalist 173 (2009)2. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. 241 - 255.
    Adaptive plasticity - Biomechanics - Evolution - Phenotypic integration - Shade avoidance - Thigmomorphogenesis

    The interacting effects of different environmental cues in determining a plant's phenotype and performance are poorly understood aspects of phenotypic plasticity. We examined the interacting effects of shading and mechanical stress (MS) on growth, reproduction, and mechanical stability. We subjected 10 grassland genotypes and 10 forest genotypes of Impatiens capensis to two levels of spectral shading and two levels of MS. Shade induced the production of taller, thinner internodes, but this response was inhibited by MS. This interactive effect was stronger in the grassland genotypes than in the forest genotypes, indicating that shade avoidance can be suppressed by MS and that the degree of this suppression differs between habitats. Among genotypes, greater plasticity in shade-induced internode elongation resulted in a larger reduction in the ability of plants to carry their own weight. This suggests that the occurrence of mechanical constraints may strongly contribute to the selection against shade-induced elongation responses in forest understory genotypes. Our results show that combined responses to different environmental cues can result in a fine-tuning of phenotypic expression by plants by maintaining the potential to strongly respond to single environmental cues but also by preventing potential future costs resulting from poor adaptation to other stresses.

    Making Rhizobium-infected root nodules
    Untergasser, A. ; Bisseling, T. ; Geurts, R. - \ 2009
    In: Prokaryotic symbionts in plants / Pawlowski, K., Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York : Springer (Microbiology monographs 8) - ISBN 9783540754596 - p. 45 - 69.
    Truncated hemoglobins in actinorhizal nodules of Datisca glomerata
    Pawlowski, K. ; Jacobsen, K.R. ; Alloisio, N. ; Denison, R.F. ; Klein, M. ; Tjepkema, J.D. ; Winzer, T. ; Sirrenberg, A. ; Guan, C. ; Berry, A.M. - \ 2007
    Plant Biology 9 (2007)6. - ISSN 1435-8603 - p. 776 - 785.
    soybean root-nodules - nitric-oxide - nitrogenase activity - oxygen diffusion - mycobacterium-tuberculosis - bradyrhizobium-japonicum - casuarina-actinorhizae - sinorhizobium-meliloti - symbiotic hemoglobin - arabidopsis-thaliana
    Three types of hemoglobins exist in higher plants, symbiotic, non-symbiotic, and truncated hemoglobins. Symbiotic (class II) hemoglobins play a role in oxygen supply to intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbionts in legume root nodules, and in one case ( Parasponia Sp.), a non-symbiotic (class I) hemoglobin has been recruited for this function. Here we report the induction of a host gene, dgtrHB1, encoding a truncated hemoglobin in Frankia-induced nodules of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata. Induction takes place specifically in cells infected by the microsymbiont, prior to the onset of bacterial nitrogen fixation. A bacterial gene (Frankia trHBO) encoding a truncated hemoglobin with O (2)-binding kinetics suitable for the facilitation of O (2) diffusion ( ) is also expressed in symbiosis. Nodule oximetry confirms the presence of a molecule that binds oxygen reversibly in D. glomerata nodules, but indicates a low overall hemoglobin concentration suggesting a local function. Frankia trHbO is likely to be responsible for this activity. The function of the D. glomerata truncated hemoglobin is unknown; a possible role in nitric oxide detoxification is suggested.
    Novel expression pattern of cytosolic gln synthetase in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of the actinorhizal host, Datisca glomerata
    Berry, A.M. ; Murphy, T.M. ; Okubara, P.A. ; Jacobsen, K.R. ; Swensen, S.M. ; Pawlowski, K. - \ 2004
    Plant Physiology 135 (2004)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1849 - 1862.
    phaseolus-vulgaris l - transgenic lotus-corniculatus - encoding glutamine-synthetase - differential expression - nucleotide-sequence - medicago-truncatula - gene-expression - corresponding genes - multigene family - alnus-glutinosa
    Gln synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme of primary ammonia assimilation in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of legumes and actinorhizal (Frankia-nodulated) plants. In root nodules of Datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae), transcripts hybridizing to a conserved coding region of the abundant nodule isoform, DgGS1-1, are abundant in uninfected nodule cortical tissue, but expression was not detectable in the infected zone or in the nodule meristem. Similarly, the GS holoprotein is immunolocalized exclusively to the uninfected nodule tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length cDNA of DgGS1-1 indicates affinities with cytosolic GS genes from legumes, the actinorhizal species Alnus glutinosa, and nonnodulating species, Vitis vinifera and Hevea brasilensis. The D. glomerata nodule GS expression pattern is a new variant among reported root nodule symbioses and may reflect an unusual nitrogen transfer pathway from the Frankia nodule microsymbiont to the plant infected tissue, coupled to a distinctive nitrogen cycle in the uninfected cortical tissue. Arg, Gln, and Glu are the major amino acids present in D. glomerata nodules, but Arg was not detected at high levels in leaves or roots. Arg as a major nodule nitrogen storage form is not found in other root nodule types except in the phylogenetically related Coriaria. Catabolism of Arg through the urea cycle could generate free ammonium in the uninfected tissue where GS is expressed.
    Cell cycle activity and beta-tubulin accumulation during dormancy breaking of Acer platanoides L. seeds
    Pawlowski, T.A. ; Bergervoet, J.H.W. ; Bino, R.J. ; Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2004
    Biologia Plantarum 48 (2004)2. - ISSN 0006-3134 - p. 211 - 218.
    flow cytometric determination - nuclear replication activity - fir pseudotsuga-menziesii - brassica-oleracea l. - norway maple - warm stratification - qualitative changes - protein-synthesis - early germination - plant development
    Cell cycle events in embryo axes of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) seeds were studied during dormancy breaking by flow cytometric analyses of the nuclear DNA content and by immunodetection of beta-tubulin. Most embryonic nuclei of dry, fully matured seeds were arrested in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle. In addition, the lowest content of beta-tubulin was detected in dry, mature seeds. Imbibition in water and cold stratification resulted in a decrease in the number of nuclei in G(2), and a simultaneous increase in beta-tubulin content. In germinated seeds the content of beta-tubulin was the highest and the number of cells in G(2) was the lowest. Both cell cycle events preceded cell expansion and division and subsequent growth of the radicle through the seed coat. The anatomical investigation has proved that the main reason for decrease in the number of nuclei in G(2) is mitosis, started with seeds germination ( radicle protrusion). The activation of the cell cycle and the beta-tubulin accumulation were associated with embryo dormancy breaking.
    Distinct patterns of symbiosis-related gene expression in actinorhizal nodules from different plant families
    Pawlowski, K. ; Swensen, S. ; Guan, C. ; Hadri, A.E. ; Berry, A.M. ; Bisseling, T. - \ 2003
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 16 (2003)9. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 796 - 807.
    pathogenesis-related proteins - cytosolic glutamine-synthetase - transgenic lotus-corniculatus - subtilisin-like protease - cell-specific expression - birch pollen allergen - root-nodules - hemoglobin genes - alnus-glutinosa - major allergen
    Phylogenetic analyses suggest that, among the members of the Eurosid I clade, nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses developed multiple times independently, four times with rhizobia and four times with the genus Frankia. In order to understand the degree of similarity between symbiotic systems of different phylogenetic subgroups, gene expression patterns were analyzed in root nodules of Datisca glomerata and compared with those in nodules of another actinorhizal plant, Alnus glutinosa, and with the expression patterns of homologous genes in legumes. In parallel, the phylogeny of actinorhizal plants was examined more closely. The results suggest that, although relationships between major groups are difficult to resolve using molecular phylogenetic analysis, the comparison of gene expression patterns can be used to inform evolutionary relationships. In this case, stronger similarities were found between legumes and intracellularly infected actinorhizal plants (Alnus) than between actinorhizal plants of two different phylogenetic subgroups (Alnus/Datisca).
    Sustainable development in industry by closed water loops
    Rulkens, W.H. - \ 2000
    In: Sustainable development - a European view, Lublin 2000 / Dudzinska, M.R., Pawlowski, A., Lublin : - ISBN 9788388110979 - p. 41 - 60.
    Casuarina glauca prenodule cells display the same differentiation as the corresponding nodule cells
    Laplaze, L. ; Duhoux, E. ; Franche, C. ; Frutz, T. ; Svistoonoff, S. ; Bisseling, T. ; Bogusz, D. ; Pawlowski, K. - \ 2000
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 13 (2000)1. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 107 - 112.
    Recent phylogenetic studies have implied that all plants able to enter root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria go back to a common ancestor (D.E. Soltis, P.S. Soltis, D.R. Morgan, S.M. Swensen, B.C. Mullin, J.M. Dowd, and P.G. Martin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92:2647-2651, 1995). However, nodules formed by plants from different groups are distinct in nodule organogenesis and structure. In most groups, nodule organogenesis involves the induction of cortical cell divisions. In legumes these divisions lead to the formation of a nodule primordium, while in non-legumes they lead to the formation of a so-called prenodule consisting of infected and uninfected cells. Nodule primordium formation does not involve prenodule cells, and the function of prenodules is not known. Here, we examine the differentiation of actinorhizal prenodule cells in comparison to nodule cells with regard to both symbionts. Our findings indicate that prenodules represent primitive symbiotic organs whose cell types display the same characteristics as their nodule counterparts. The results are discussed in the context of the evolution of root nodule symbioses
    Characterization of a Casuarina glauca nodule-specific subtilisin-like protease gene, a homolog of Alnus glutinosa ag12
    Laplaze, L. ; Ribeiro, A. ; Franche, C. ; Duhoux, E. ; Auguy, F. ; Bogusz, D. ; Pawlowski, K. - \ 2000
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 13 (2000)1. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 113 - 117.
    Re-evaluation of phytohormone-independent division of tobacco protoplast-derived cells
    Schell, J. ; Bisseling, T. ; Dülz, M. ; Franssen, H. ; Fritze, K. ; John, M. ; Kleinow, T. ; Lessnick, A. ; Miklashevichs, E. ; Pawlowski, K. ; Röhrig, H. ; Sande, K. van den; Schmidt, J. ; Steinbiss, H.H. ; Stoll, M. - \ 1999
    The Plant Journal 17 (1999)5. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 461 - 466.
    We have used a [3H] thymidine incorporation assay and microscopic observation in order to reassess recently published data dealing with the response of tobacco protoplasts to phytohormones, lipochitooligosaccharides and peptides (Harling et al., 1997; Hayashi et al., 1992; Miklashevichs et al., 1996; Miklashevichs et al., 1997; Rohrig et al., 1995; Rohrig et al., 1996; van de Sande et al., 1996; Walden et al., 1994). These proliferation assays reveal that, in contrast to published data, isolated cells of the investigated mutant plant lines axi159 (Hayashi et al., 1992; Walden et al., 1994), axi4/1 (Harling et al., 1997) and cyil (Miklashevichs et al., 1997), which were generated by activation T-DNA tagging, were unable to grow in the absence of auxin or cytokinin. Furthermore, lipochitooligosaccharides which play a key role in the induction of nodules on roots of legumes were unable to promote auxin- or cytokinin-independent cell division in tobacco protoplasts as claimed by Rohrig et al. (1995, 1996). The finding of van de Sande et al. (1996) that ENOD40 confers tolerance of high auxin concentration to wild-type tobacco protoplasts was also reinvestigated. The results of our investigations show that we were unable to reproduce the proliferation data presented in this study, which were obtained by counting tobacco protoplast-derived cells undergoing division. In total, none of the published data on phytohormone-independent division of tobacco cells could be reproduced.
    Infection of cortical cells in non-nitrogen-fixing nodules of Alnus glutinosa
    Pawlowski, K. ; Wolters, D.J. ; Dijk, C. van; Bisseling, T. - \ 1999
    In: From symbiosis to eukaryotism / Wagner, E., Geneva : University of Geneva - p. 241 - 252.
    Symbiotic root nodules of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata express Rubisco activase mRNA
    Okubara, P.A. ; Pawlowski, K. ; Murphy, T.M. ; Berry, A.M. - \ 1999
    Plant Physiology 120 (1999)2. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 411 - 420.
    N2-fixing symbiotic root nodules of the actinorhizal host Datisca glomerata express Dgrca (D. glomerata Rubisco activase) mRNA, a transcript usually associated with photosynthetic organs or tissue. In northern blots a mature, 1700-nucleotide Dgrca mRNA was detected in green plant organs (leaves, flowers, and developing fruits) and in nodules but was not detected in roots. A second message of 3000 nucleotides was observed only in nodules. Both size classes of transcripts were polyadenylated. The larger transcript was 2- to 5-fold more abundant than the mature mRNA; it was hybridized to an intronic probe, indicating that a stable, incompletely spliced transcript was accumulating. Treatment with light on excised nodules did not alter the relative abundance of the species. In situ hybridization the Dgrca message was expressed intensely in the nuclei of infected cells. The Dgrca transcript also accumulated at lower levels in uninfected cortical cells adjacent to the periderm and the vascular cylinder. mRNA encoding the large subunit of Rubisco (DgrcL) was abundant in mature infected cells and in the amyloplast-rich sheath of uninfected cortical cells lying between the infected cells and nodule periderm. The proteins Rubisco activase, Rubisco, and the 33-kD O2-evolving complex subunit did not accumulate to detectable levels, indicating that a functional photosynthetic apparatus was not prevalent in nodule tissue. Signals or factors required for the transcription of Dgrca appeared to be present in nodules, but efficient splicing and translation of the message were not observed in Frankia-infected tissue where transcript accumulation was highest.
    Flavan-containing cells delimit Frankia-infected compartments in Casuarina glauca nodules
    Laplaze, L. ; Gherbi, H. ; Frutz, T. ; Pawlowski, K. ; Franche, C. ; Macheix, J.J. ; Auguy, F. ; Bogusz, D. ; Duhoux, E. - \ 1999
    Plant Physiology 121 (1999)1. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 113 - 122.
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