Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Red rust thrips in smallholder organic export banana in Latin America and the Caribbean : Pathways for control, compatible with organic certification
    Arias de López, M. ; Corozo-Ayovi, R.E. ; Delgado, R. ; Osorio, B. ; Moyón, D. ; Rengifo, D. ; Suárez, P. ; Paulino, A. ; Medrano, S. ; Sanchez, L. ; Rojas, J.C. ; Vegas, U. ; Alburqueque, D. ; Staver, C. ; Tol, R. van; Clercx, L. - \ 2020
    Acta Horticulturae 1272 (2020). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 153 - 161.
    Bio-insecticides - Biological control of thrips - Organic banana

    Since 2010, red rust thrips (RRT) have become a serious pest in organic export banana plantations, causing yield losses of 30-40%. Although RRT blemishes on banana peel are only cosmetic, exporters apply zero tolerance. During 2014-2017, FONTAGRO co-financed studies on measures to reduce RRT damage in smallholder organic export banana. Research was initially guided by an IPM approach based on thrips population thresholds and linked abiotic factors, in order to schedule practices. Initial studies resulted in a preventive model for thrips management based on the year-round use of transparent bags with 3-mm orifices to protect bunches just as the bell emerges and before bracts open. This approach minimizes losses due to both Chaetanaphothrips signipennis found in Peru and Ecuador and Chaetanaphothrips orchidii common in the Dominican Republic. Experiments to develop scouting methods and establish thresholds suggested three conclusions: C. signipennnis flies very little, complicating trapping even with pheromones; thresholds for economic damage are very low; and scouting is difficult, costly and not practical for decision making. Routine monitoring of losses caused by RRT and other factors should be done during packing. Experiments to test the effectiveness of bagging and the use of applied products to repel or kill thrips showed that bagging alone reduced losses by 90-100% compared to bunches with no bag. Applications of organic products to the bell at bagging and the leaf whorl and the upper bunch stem simultaneously with other bunch practices reduced losses further by 0-8%. Studies of biological control identified predators, parasitoids and entomopathogens which attack different stages of thrips. Preliminary lab and release studies suggest that biological control should be further developed. However, RRT form part of a complex of insect bunch pests, and the use of general or targeted applications should be reviewed to avoid the use of products which reduce beneficial organisms.

    Linking growing conditions to stable isotope ratios and elemental compositions of Costa Rican bananas (Musa spp.)
    Wang, Zhijun ; Erasmus, Sara W. ; Dekker, Pieter ; Guo, Boli ; Stoorvogel, Jetse J. ; Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2020
    Food Research International 129 (2020). - ISSN 0963-9969
    Banana - Elemental profiling - Geographical attribute - Stable isotopic fingerprinting

    Traceability of agricultural produce is getting increasingly important for numerous reasons including marketing, certification, and food safety. Globally, banana (Musa spp.) with its high nutritional value and easy accessibility, is a popular fruit among consumers. Bananas are produced throughout the (sub-)tropics under a wide range of environmental conditions. Environmental conditions could influence the composition of bananas. Understanding the effect of these conditions on fruit composition provides a way of increasing the fruit's traceability and linking it to its origin – a crucial aspect for the increasing global supply chain. In this study, we examined the influence of growing conditions on the isotopic and elemental composition of bananas produced in 15 Costa Rican farms. A total of 88 bananas (peel and pulp) were collected from the farms and analysed for isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O) and elemental compositions. The growing conditions were characterized in terms of climate, topography and soil conditions. The isotopic ratios differed significantly between groups of farms. The δ13C and δ15N values were mainly influenced by soil types, while rainfall and temperatures related more to the δ18O values. The elemental compositions of the bananas were primarily influenced by the local rainfall and soil types, while the geographical origin could be distinguished using principal component analysis. The overall results link the growing conditions to the isotopic and elemental compositions of bananas, thereby also providing a way to trace its origin.

    Recovery of eggplant field waste as a source of phytochemicals
    Mauro, Rosario Paolo ; Agnello, Michele ; Rizzo, Valeria ; Graziani, Giulia ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Leonardi, Cherubino ; Giuffrida, Francesco - \ 2020
    Scientia Horticulturae 261 (2020). - ISSN 0304-4238
    Anthocyanins - Polyphenols - Residual waste - Solanum melongena L. - Steroidal glycoalkaloids

    The influence of ripening stage was evaluated on fruit characteristics of three widely cultivated eggplant cultivars (Birgah, Black Bell and Black Moon), with the aim to characterize their fruit residual waste for phytochemicals extraction. At overripening stage, eggplant fruits showed the highest average weight, dry matter content and weight incidence of the pulp. Total anthocyanins concentration of the peel (mainly represented by nasunin) was higher at commercial ripening, whereas total polyphenols (most of all 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and steroidal glycoalkaloids (α-solasonine and α-solamargine) peaked at the overripening stage. Because of these modifications, every ton of fresh fruit gave up to 59 g of total anthocyanins, 1054 g CAE of total polyphenols and 252 g of total glycoalkaloids, depending on cultivar and fruit ripening stage. This study highlighted the possibility to manage the choice of cultivar and harvest time in the view of valorise this raw material for phytochemical extraction.

    Protecting the tangible and intangible values of transnational environmental spaces
    Etty, Thijs ; Heyvaert, Veerle ; Carlarne, Cinnamon ; Huber, Bruce ; Peel, Jacqueline ; Zeben, Josephine Van - \ 2019
    Transnational Environmental Law 8 (2019)1. - ISSN 2047-1025 - p. 1 - 9.
    Transnational Environmental Law across the Spectrum of Development
    Etty, Thijs ; Heyvaert, Veerle ; Carlarne, Cinnamon ; Huber, Bruce ; Peel, Jacqueline ; Zeben, Josephine Van - \ 2019
    Transnational Environmental Law 8 (2019)2. - ISSN 2047-1025 - p. 209 - 215.
    Transnational environmental law and 'other' environmental laws
    Etty, Thijs ; Heyvaert, Veerle ; Carlarne, Cinnamon ; Huber, Bruce ; Peel, Jacqueline ; Zeben, Josephine van - \ 2019
    Transnational Environmental Law 8 (2019)3. - ISSN 2047-1025 - p. 393 - 397.
    Hoe erg is het stikstofprobleem?
    Vries, W. de - \ 2019
    Soil lacquer peel do-it-yourself: Simply capturing beauty
    Stoof, Cathelijne R. ; Candel, Jasper H.J. ; Wal, Laszlo A.G.M. Van Der; Peek, Gert - \ 2019
    SOIL 5 (2019)2. - ISSN 2199-3971 - p. 159 - 175.

    Visualization can greatly benefit understanding of concepts and processes, which in soil science and geology can be done using real-life snapshots of soils and sediments in lacquer peels and glue peels. While it may seem complicated, anyone can make such a soil peel for use in classrooms, public places, homes, and offices for teaching, outreach, decoration, and awareness. Technological development has considerably simplified the making of soil peels, but this methodological innovation has not been described in the literature. Here, we report on a thoroughly tested and simple method for taking peels of sandy soils using readily available tools and materials. Our method follows the main previously published steps of preparing a soil face, impregnating the soil face with a fixation agent in the field, extracting the resulting peel, and mounting it on a wooden panel. Yet instead of using lacquers and thinning agents, we use strong though flexible contact adhesive (glue), which has the major advantage that it no longer requires use and mixing of toxic chemicals in the field or reinforcement of the peel to prevent breaking. Moreover, the preservation potential is much higher than with the old method. This new twist to old methods makes creation of soil peels safer, simpler, and more successful, and thereby a true DIY (do-it-yourself) activity. The resulting increased accessibility of making soil and sediment peels can benefit research, teaching, and science communication and can thereby bring the value and beauty of the ground below our feet to students, schools, policy makers, and the general public.

    A Late Glacial surface rupturing earthquake at the Peel Boundary fault zone, Roer Valley Rift System, the Netherlands
    Balen, R.T. van; Bakker, M.A.J. ; Kasse, C. ; Wallinga, J. ; Woolderink, H.A.G. - \ 2019
    Quaternary Science Reviews 218 (2019). - ISSN 0277-3791 - p. 254 - 266.
    Earthquake - Glacio-isostacy - Rupture length - Trench

    Paleoseismological trenching studies constrain recurrence times and magnitudes of faulting events and earthquakes on active faults. In a trench along the central part of the Peel Boundary fault zone (PBFZ), southeastern Netherlands, evidence was found for such a large faulting event that occurred around 14 ka. The event caused a fault scarp in unconsolidated sediments of ∼1 m height. A colluvial wedge was formed next to the scarp. A second faulting event offsets this colluvial wedge by 0.2–0.1 m. This event can be tentatively dated at ∼13 ka. During or immediately after the second event, a large clastic dyke intruded along the fault plane. The dyke is not faulted, but its emplacement did cause some minor thrust faulting around the injection. The sudden character of the main faulting event, the brittle deformation style of loam layers, the lack of growth faulting in the colluvial wedge, the clastic dykes and the flame structures demonstrate that the main faulting event was a surface rupturing earthquake. Based on the scarp height, the estimated moment magnitude is about 6.8 ± 0.3. Similar observations in a previous trench site suggest that the length of the surface rupture was at least 32 km. The earthquake took place during the Weichselian (Würmian) Late Glacial. This timing corresponds to the start of the glacio-isostatic forebulge collapse in the Netherlands. Glacio-isostatic movements have been invoked before to explain earthquake events in the Roer Valley Rift System in which the PBFZ is situated, and in northern Germany and Denmark. If these earthquakes can indeed be attributed to a collapsing forebulge, their ages should show a decrease in the direction of ice-sheet retreat. This might indeed be the case, as the ages decrease from 14 ka and 13 ka in this trench via 13–16 ka at the Osning Thrust Zone, NW Germany, to 12–14 ka in northern Denmark.

    Living Lab om Peel-problemen te tackelen
    Kroonen-Backbier, B.M.A. - \ 2019
    Soil lacquer peel DIY: simply capturing beauty
    Stoof, C.R. ; Candel, J.H.J. ; Wal, Laszlo van der; Peek, G.J.W.C. - \ 2018
    Geophysical Research Abstracts 20 (2018). - ISSN 1029-7006
    Fungal footwear and orange peel fabrics : the sustainable catwalk
    Poldner, Kim ; Houthoff, Iris ; Oever, M.J.A. van den - \ 2018
    biobased economy - clothing - biomass - fibres - biobased materials - chemistry
    De wonderlijke reis van de wolf
    Jansman, Hugh - \ 2018

    Een tweejarige Duitse wolvin heeft afgelopen maand ongezien door Nederland gezworven. Dit is ontdekt omdat het wijfje, Naya genaamd, een zender heeft. De wolvin wandelde op 18 december de grens over. Via onder meer de Nationale Parken de Sallandse Heuvelrug, de Maasduinen en de Groote Peel trok ze van Noord- naar Zuid-Nederland en overwon allerlei lastige barrières zoals rivieren en snelwegen. Begin januari stak de wolvin de grens over naar België. Daar is ze officieel de eerste wolf in honderd jaar.

    Onderzoeker Hugh Jansman van Wageningen Environmental Research heeft de route van de Duitse wolvin in Nederland de afgelopen weken onderzocht. Op verschillende plekken vond hij interessante sporen. Zo ontdekte hij dat Naya natuurlijke prooien heeft gegeten, zoals reeën en waarschijnlijk ook haasachtigen. Verder wordt onderzocht of de wolf ook schapen heeft gedood.

    Naya is oorspronkelijk afkomstig uit Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Duitsland.

    Characterization and in vitro digestibility of by-products from Brazilian food industry : Cassava bagasse, orange bagasse and passion fruit peel
    Bussolo de Souza, Carlota ; Jonathan, Melliana ; Isay Saad, Susana Marta ; Schols, Henk A. ; Venema, Koen - \ 2018
    Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre 16 (2018). - ISSN 2212-6198 - p. 90 - 99.
    Bagasse - By-product - Digestibility - Fibre - Peel - Sustainability

    The aim of the present study was to characterize selected by-products from Brazilian food industry and their in vitro digestibility. These by-products (cassava and orange bagasses and passion fruit peels) are potentially rich sources of dietary fibres, but currently they are mostly disposed. Their analysis revealed differences in composition for the same by-product type from different suppliers. Cassava bagasses were mainly composed of starch, with high variability among tested by-products (45–77.5% starch). In vitro experiments indicated that cassava bagasses had ~ 12% of resistant starch. The orange bagasses had free glucose and highly methyl esterified pectin as the main constituents (~23.5% of total pectin). Seventy-seven % of digestible glucose present in the orange bagasse were absorbed within 3 h experimental run. Passion fruit peels were a good source of fibres, especially pectin (~19%) and (hemi)cellulose (~16%). These in vitro experiments indicated that passion fruit peel had slower absorption of glucose than the other by-products, with 80% of digestible glucose absorbed within 5 h. In conclusion, the tested by-products are good sources of diverse types of fibres and have a great potential to be incorporated into different food products, decreasing food waste and contributing to a sustainable food system.

    Complexity in African savannas : Direct, indirect, and cascading effects of animal densities, rainfall and vegetation availability
    Leeuwis, Tim ; Peel, Mike ; Boer, Willem F. De - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)5. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Savanna ecosystems are popular subjects for interaction studies. Multiple studies have been done on the impact of elephants on vegetation, the impact of grass and browse availability on animal densities or on competition between herbivore species. Previous studies showed that elephant densities are frequently negatively correlated with densities of tall trees, and that browse and grass availability are correlated with browser and grazer density respectively. Additionally, a competition effect between browse and grass availability has been reported. These relationships are usually analysed by testing direct relationships between e.g., herbivore densities and food availability, without addressing competition effects or other indirect effects. In this study, multiple interactions in a savanna system have been analysed simultaneously using Partial Least Square-Path Modelling (PLS-PM) using mammal and vegetation data from three different wildlife reserves in southern KwaZulu-Natal. The results showed that the processes that three separate models for the three areas provided the best understanding of the importance of the different interactions. These models suggest that elephants had a negative impact on trees, but also on grass availability. The impact is stronger when elephants are not able to migrate during the dry season. Browsers and grazers were correlated with browse and grass availability, but competition between browse and grass was not detected. This study shows that due to the complexity of the interactions in an ecosystem and differences in environmental factors, these interactions are best studied per area. PLS-PM can be a useful tool for estimating direct, indirect, and cascading effects of changing animal densities in conservation areas.

    The effect of storage time and temperature on the population dynamics and vitality of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in potato tubers
    Teklu, Misghina G. ; Schomaker, Corrie H. ; Been, Thomas H. - \ 2018
    Nematology 20 (2018)4. - ISSN 1388-5545 - p. 373 - 385.
    Hatching curves - infectivity - quarantine pest - root-knot nematode - tuber peel - tuber storage - viability
    The population densities of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in potato tubers stored at 4, 8 and 12°C after 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 days of storage were assessed. Compared to day 0, storage temperatures of 4 and 8°C reduced population densities to 9 and 35%, respectively, after 240 days of storage, while nematode numbers in tubers stored at 12°C increased 2.5 times. The maximum hatching rate of nematodes from tubers stored at 8 and 12°C increased linearly with storage time. At 4°C it remained constant. The time required for the hatching process to reach the maximum number of second-stage juveniles (J2) decreased with increasing storage temperature. Recovered juveniles of M. chitwoodi from tubers after 180 and 240 days of storage at all three temperatures were still infective and able to multiply on 'Desiree' with estimates of the maximum multiplication rate (a) and the maximum population density (M) of 63.6 and 70.8 J2 (g dry soil)-1, respectively.
    A British perspective on strategic land banking : Critical voices on land banking
    Peel, Deborah - \ 2018
    In: Instruments of Land Policy Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9781138201514 - p. 284 - 288.
    The strategic use of scarce environmental resources is clearly a matter of societal concern. Certain features of the land resource differentiate it from, say, air or water, since land is relatively fixed and finite in nature. Land also varies in terms of its inherent desirable qualities, such as its location, accessibility, productivity, or cultural meaning. Planning goals, and the means deemed to be appropriate and just by which to implement political or state objectives, likewise vary.
    Planning and governance issues in the restructuring of the high street
    Peel, Deborah ; Parker, Cathy - \ 2017
    Journal of Place Management and Development 10 (2017)4. - ISSN 1753-8335 - p. 404 - 418.
    Governance - Holistic - Joint working - Resilience - Restructuring - Wicked issue

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of “restructuring” in confronting the challenges facing contemporary high streets in the devolved UK. It complements three articles concerned with repositioning, reinventing and rebranding and illustrates the multi-faceted approaches involved in addressing retail change and town centre transformations. This paper emphasises the role of planning and governance in effecting change. Design/methodology/approach: Informed by a literature review, action research involved inter-related interventions in selected locations, and associated workshops with engaged practitioners and community actors. Findings: The findings highlight that the “resilience” of contemporary town centres demands resisting efforts to return to the status quo and necessitate forms of adaptive management. Understanding high street degeneration and the limitations of a retail-only led policy focus as a “wicked issue” further demands socially constructing town centres as an ecosystem requiring a holistic response. New forms of joint-working involve selecting appropriate models, attending to relational aspects and defined roles and responsibilities. Land use planning, including masterplanning and creating evidenced policy options, provides an important democratic space for legitimising action, offering leadership and extending participation to new change agents. Practical implications: Restructuring of governance is an essential prerequisite in effecting change. Originality/value: The originality of this study lies in the application of the restructuring element of the 4 Rs Framework which enables a focus on the governance dimensions of town centre and high street regeneration. The findings are enhanced through the experiential evidence which stresses both the importance of place-based diversification and value of prioritising holistic and joint actions developed through participatory visioning exercises.

    Assessing the peel colour behaviour of mango 'Nam Dok Mai See Thong' during cool storage
    Penchaiya, P. ; Tijskens, L.M.M. - \ 2017
    Acta Horticulturae 1154 (2017). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 207 - 212.
    Appearance - Biological variation - Colour - Quality - Thai mango

    Mango 'Nam Dok Mai See Thong' recently became the number-one exported mango of Thailand. It has an attractive appearance, with a golden-yellow peel colour at harvest and slight colour development during ripening. Its peel colour could possibly be used as an indicator for ripeness. Assessing the behaviour of peel colour during storage is the main objective of this research. Mangoes were kept at cool temperature (13°C) for 2 weeks prior moving to ambient temperature in Thailand (28°C). The data set was separated into two groups for non-destructive and destructive tests. In the non-destructive set, peel colour of 108 fruits was measured repeatedly until the quality became unacceptable. In the destructive set, 60 fruits were sampled at random to measure the peel colour and other quality attributes, each time on different fruit. Mangoes from two growing locations were compared. The results showed that peel colour (L∗, a∗, b∗ and Hue) developed gradually during cool storage, but changed drastically after relocation to higher temperatures. The L∗ a∗ and b∗ values and hue angle behaved according to a logistic function. a∗ and b∗ showed an increase, L∗ and hue a decrease. The variation is clearly high at the beginning and decreased gradually during the storage period. Fruit from both the non-destructive and destructive sets showed similar behaviour during storage. The obtained results allow prediction of the behaviour of peel colour during cool storage.

    Tuber and root resistance of potato genotypes against Meloidogyne chitwoodi in the presence of Avena strigosa, related to tuber quality
    Teklu, Misghina G. ; Schomaker, Corrie H. ; Been, Thomas H. ; Molendijk, Leendert P.G. - \ 2017
    Nematology 19 (2017)3. - ISSN 1388-5545 - p. 281 - 291.
    Relative tuber infestation and quality of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi resistant potato genotypes, AR04-4096 and 2011M1, were compared in glasshouse experiments at initial population density (Pi) = 16 second-stage juveniles (g dry soil)−1 in the presence and absence of the bristle oat, Avena strigosa. When A. strigosa was added, Pfroot+soil (Pf= final population) on both AR04-4096 and 2011M1 increased 130×, Pftuber increased 1.9 and 3.7×, respectively, while Pftuber × fresh root weight (FRW)−1 was the same. Nematode hatch from peel of AR04-4096, without A. strigosa, was delayed by 3 weeks but relative hatching rate was increased. Although the RStuber (RS = Relative Susceptibility) of both AR04-4096 and 2011M1 were lower than 1%, in the presence of A. strigosa tuber quality of 2011M1 dropped below the marketable level, while that of AR04-4096 was hardly affected. We conclude that: i) Pftuber is influenced by root mass; ii) root quality influences nematode hatch; iii) tuber quality is not an estimator for tuber resistance, and the reverse; iv) root resistance is equal to tuber resistance.
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