|The Domestic Domain: Chances, choices and strategies of family households
Pennartz, P. ; Niehof, A. - \ 1999
Aldershot [etc.] : Ashgate - ISBN 9780754610113 - 241
gezinnen - huishoudens - besluitvorming - huishoudbudgetten - arbeidsverdeling - man-vrouwrelaties - huisvesting - kracht - ontwikkelingslanden - wereld - zorg - families - households - decision making - household budgets - division of labour - gender relations - housing - power - Developing Countries - world - care
|Verbeelding in onderzoek : een alternatief voor het 'weten = meten' a priori in de wetenschap
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1999
In: Verbeelding en Toekomst in de Wetenschap / Niehof, A., - p. 17 - 34.
|Home : The Experience of Atmosphere
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1999
In: At Home : An Anthropology of Domestic Space / Cieraad, I., - p. 95 - 106.
|Habitants: experts by nature
Pennartz, P. - \ 1999
In: Households in an interdisciplinary perspective. Liber amicorum for Antine Hardon-Baars - p. 119 - 134.
|Bookreview: who dominates when? Asymetrical patterns of influence among Dutch husbands and wives. M.J.P. van Berkel.
Pennartz, P. - \ 1998
Huishoudstudies 8 (1998). - p. 39 - 41.
|The speechless city: on semiotics and the quality of the urban environment.
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1998
In: Signs and Space, Raum und Zeichen: an International Conference on the Semiotics of Space and Culture, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E.W.B. Hess-Luttich, J.E. Muller, A. van Zoest (eds.) - p. 103 - 116.
Leavers, planners and dwellers : the decision to leave the parental home
Baanders, A.N. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. Niehof, co-promotor(en): P.J.J. Pennartz. - S.l. : Baanders - ISBN 9789054859024 - 245
gezinnen - samenstelling - sociologie - huisvesting - ouders - kinderen - dochters - zonen - jongvolwassenen - basisbehoeften - motivatie - besluitvorming - verwijdering - families - composition - sociology - housing - parents - children - daughters - sons - young adults - basic needs - motivation - decision making - removal
Leaving the parental home is one of the most common events in the life course of individuals. It is a normal and natural thing to happen to virtually everyone at some time. However, despite the generality of the event, the transition is not the same for all. Furthermore, the generality of the event says nothing about changes in the patterns in home-leaving behaviour over time. During the past several decades, interesting shifts in the timing and arrangements of the transition have occurred. The question, central to this study, runs: What are the factors that influence the transition from living at home to living independently?
In the literature, there are mainly two perspectives dominating theoretical thinking about the determinants affecting departure from the parental home: an economic and a cultural one. First, in many previous demographic and economic studies, the search for an explanation of the changes in leaving home focused on the impact of the situational context on the individual's behaviour, i.e. the financial situation and the situation on the housing market, which constitute the young adult's opportunity structure. A second research tradition that has addressed the event of leaving home typically emphasises the normative context and the role of social norms which are believed to regulate the timing and arrangement of important life course transitions. This study aimed to determine more precisely the relative impact of each of these two factors. Furthermore, this study tried to find out whether, beside economic, housing and normative factors, additional aspects play a role in the decision to leave home, thus providing a more complete picture of the variety of factors that should be taken into account. An explorative analysis of written material collected among 300 students provided the necessary data to discover young adults' additional considerations in the matter of leaving home. These considerations appeared to deal with more practical and social-emotional aspects, and were briefly denoted as the Hotel-Mama factor. Apart from that, the qualitative material was used to obtain quantifiable information about the kind of normative expectations that are related to leaving home.
It is well known that since the 1950s remarkable social and economic changes have taken place in Dutch society, which undoubtedly have also affected the circumstances and opportunities of young adults. As one of our hypotheses emphasises the role of the opportunity structure in the decision to leave home, we start this study with a description of the relevant social and cultural changes, and a sociological assessment of the profound impact of these transformations on the social and economic position of young adults in general and on their opportunities to leave the parental home in particular (see chapter 2). This gives a solid base to our hypothesis that changes in home-leaving behaviour are related to economic and housing market opportunities. The presumed effect of the normative context is addressed in chapter 2 as well. Also, the temporal changes in leaving home that took place in the period between 1950 and 1980 and during the 1980s are reflected upon. The discussion results in the further elaboration and formulation of the research questions.
To illustrate how fluctuations in the situational context may be reflected in patterns of leaving home, chapter 4 examines at the aggregate level the shifts in behavioral patterns that occurred in the Netherlands during the 1980s, and relates them to the changing circumstances of this period. Three successive national Housing Demand Surveys (WBOs), conducted at the end of 1981, 1985 and 1989, provided the necessary data. It was concluded that although fluctuations in the situational context were indeed reflected in behavioral patterns, it was also evident that not all young adults react to a specific set of opportunities in the same way. Limited opportunities do not necessarily lead to a postponement of the transition, but in many instances rather to an adjustment of behavioral choices instead.
Both the discussion in chapter 2 and the results of chapter 4 made it clear that, nothwithstanding the useful insights a macro-level approach generates, it may sometimes be difficult or hazardous to draw firm conclusions regarding the effect of specific factors when analysing them on the aggregate level. It was therefore argued that a micro-level should be adopted, in which the decision to leave the parental home and its determinants are studied at the individual level.
In chapter 3, the Theory of Reasoned Action and its modifications are discussed and the theoretical model underlying this study, which is a modified version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour is presented. In order to use this theoretical model, it was necessary to specify the relevant consequences and the normative expectations that are related to leaving home. The qualitative method employed to identify prevailing perceptions on this subject is discussed in chapter 5.
Chapter 6 describes the process of setting up a cross-sectional survey among 1012 young adults of 18-26 years old, and the measurement and construction of relevant variables. The results of the analyses of the survey data are reported in chapters 7 and 8. By comparing the personal situation and subjective considerations of leavers, planners and dwellers, we tried to find evidence that the defined variables affect the decision to leave home as hypothesised (chapter 7). Chapter 8 aims to detect the most important determinants in this decision, either in the first stage (the stage of intention-formation), or in the second stage (in which the intention is effectuated into actual behaviour). The analyses revealed that the normative expectations of the parents play a decisive role in the first stage. Financial considerations are most important in the second stage. Particularly the subjective assessment of one's income situation appeared to be a crucial element. The type of housing young adults aimed at further affected their probability of leaving, with cheap 2 and 3 room accommodation clearly reducing a person's opportunities of finding a place to live and of leaving the parental home, and a quest for a single room or four room housing facilitating the transition. There is no convincing evidence that Hotel-Mama considerations affect the decision to leave home or to stay home.
Chapter 9 concludes this study with a summary overview of the research design and an evaluation of the main findings, followed by a discussion of their implications for policy, theory and research.
|De sprakeloze stad. (The speechless city).
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1997
In: Teken en betekenis / van der Lubbe, J.C.A., van Zoest, A.J.A., - p. 141 - 155.
|Besluitvorming in huishoudens als proces. (Household decision making as a process)
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1996
Huishoudstudies 6 (1996)2. - p. 11 - 19.
|Huis-vesting om te wonen.
Dam, H. van - \ 1996
In: De toekomst van de Woonconsument. Vakgroep Huishoudstudies, LU Wageningen / Pennartz, P., Kesler, B., - p. 24 - 42.
|De toekomst van de Woonconsument: symposium bij het afscheid van ir. Hanke van Dam.
Pennartz, P. ; Kesler, B. - \ 1996
Wageningen : Vakgroep Huishoudstudies, LU - 54 p.
|Boekbespreking: D.N. Benjamin (ed.) The Home: Words, interpretations, meanings and environments. Avebury, Aldershot, etc. 1995.
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1996
Netherlands journal of housing and the built environment 11 (1996). - ISSN 1383-2336 - p. 82 - 83.
|Luiers: Produktkeuze vanuit huishoudkundig perspectief.
Uitdenbogerd, D. ; Kleynen, S. ; Pennartz, P. ; Groot-Marcus, A. - \ 1995
Huishoudstudies 5 (1995)1. - p. 1 - 12.
|Produkt en natuur als teken. De rol van icoon, index en symbool.
Pennartz, P. - \ 1995
In: Peirce in Verscheidenheid, H. van Driel, J. van der Lubbe (red.). Proc. 5e en 6e Toogdag Peirce, 1992 en 1994 Broek in Waterland. Peirce Kring Nederland, Tilburg - p. 135 - 140.
|Ambiance is de meerwaarde van de binnenstad, de kracht van toeval, ontwerp en emotie.
Pennartz, P.J.J. ; Wezel, R.H.J. van - \ 1995
Stedebouw en volkshuisvesting 76 (1995)1/2. - ISSN 0039-0879 - p. 4 - 8.
|Sustainability and the human sciences: instruments or arguments?
Pennartz, P.J.J. ; Hengel, A.H.E. van - \ 1994
In: The politics of human science / Miedema, S., - p. 153 - 164.
|Professionals and laymen: different cultures, different codes; perceptions of urban quality.
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1994
In: The expert sign: semiotics of culture, towards an interface of ethno- and cosmosystems / Slikkerveer, L.J., - p. 103 - 118.
|Construeren of representeren: Richard Rorty versus Karl Popper, consequenties voor de methodologie van onderzoek.
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1994
In: In: Spiegel van de samenleving. Programmaboek 6e Sociaal-Wetenschappelijke Studiedagen Amsterdam : SISWO - p. 103 - 104.
Woningbeheer : een onderzoek naar de sociaal - culturele waarden van huurders en verhuurders in het onderhoud van woningen in de non-profit sector
Wezel, R.H.J. van - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H. van Leeuwen; P.J.J. Pennartz. - S.l. : Van Wezel - ISBN 9789054852056 - 247
huisvesting - verbetering - levensomstandigheden - woningen - bewoning - huurders - bescherming - huur - bedrijfsvoering - kwaliteit - nederland - woningcorporaties - wensen - housing - improvement - living conditions - dwellings - tenancy - tenants - protection - rent - management - quality - netherlands - housing cooperatives - desires
Houses are maintained by people. Recent research on housing management has had a technical, financial and legal character. In the Netherlands research preference is quantitative and policy oriented and norms and values of the participants are stated as context variables. In this thesis housing maintenance is seen as a technical as well as a social process. The process character is underlined. Conceptual and operational definitions of maintenance are used to chart the management related communication. Two actors in social housing management have been isolated: the landlord (housing associations) and the tenants. They maintain their houses in communication with one another. This study aims at highlighting the communication between tenant and housing association with regards to their views and values on housing management and how to deal with it in daily life.
A number of arguments motivate a choice to study and analyze one strategic moment in the tenant - landlord relationship. It is the moment of a so called building renewal, that is a concrete technical renovation of the house carried out by a professional contractor, in order to bring the house up to modem standards so as to be able to let it for over 15 years from renovation. The building activities on the frame of the house are done without any change in rent. They concern for instance renewal of drains, wiring and the replacement of doors and windows. Besides these activities the tenants can opt for an upgrading of comfort in the house at a higher monthly rent. These upgrading activities consist of, for instance, a new kitchen, isolated window panes and - if possible - a different lay-out of the dwelling. At the time of the renewal the actors are forced to make explicit their ideas on how to use and maintain the house. They each view the house as possesion: for the landlord the house has exchange value, for the tenant the home has use value.
The theme of this study relates to Habermas' theory of communicative action. His system - life-world dichotomy is the theoretical starting-point of this thesis. Life-world is defined as the whole set of frames of interpretation culturally passed on and of a linguistical nature. This whole is stated as an unproblematic background, out of which actors can define specific situations. The system - in Habermas' terms - forms a domain in which the actors are, by definition, not interested in consensus. However they encounter each other on the market, so to speak, and coordinate their actions strategically by means of money and power. The opposition system - life-world has been studied in more detail and made fit for empirical study with the help of four recent theses in the field of Building and Housing in the Netherlands. This exercise produced the following conceptual framework for field study. Presentation of the scheme with the six sensitizing concepts:
This study empirically underpins Habermas' theory of communicative action. For that purpose some inspiration has been drawn from the scientific works on the ecology of habitat, and home economics. A housing association is a social institution, par excellence, with a social role; but it is also an efficiency-oriented non-profit organisation working on behalf of the working classes in the housing market. This work ethnographically studies the relationship between these kinds of landlords and their tenants. The fieldwork has been carried out in a domain between life-world and system: a interferential domain, in which system imperatives and life-world options are relevant simultaneously.
A series of characteristics of three sites of study are presented in order to be able -to carry out a constant comparison of the data found in the different fields. In Amsterdam a complex of buildings is studied in a city context. In Oss actors are studied in a provincial setting. And in Musselkanaal the village setting is found. The geographical spread, size and religious background of each housing association is summed up as well as the phase in the professionalization of that specific housing association. This short introduction indicates the circumstances in which the data have been produced.
A methodological account is given of how the data have been produced and analyzed in this study. The data are qualitative in nature and controlled on the basis of the triangulation principle. The importance of the conferment of meaning and the (re)production of norms and values is described with the help of international methodological literature. The idea that the researcher is also the measuring instrument creates tensions for the researcher: the 'softer a research technique the harder it is to do.'. The bias in the interpretation of action legitimations is a problem, although through alert observation, corrections can be written down at the same time as the, sometimes socially anticipated, expressions of the actors. Participant observation and the emic-etic approach are favoured by me, although in a modem form, namely as a commuting researcher. The in-depth interviews have been audio-taped and typed out verbatim.
My personal working method is described and discussed in relation to the prescribed way of producing ethnography: nothing is seen as 'given' data but as produced data. With the help of an advanced computer program the data have been stored and systematically worked out.
Two chapters contain the research material and my analyses. In the first I pose the question: which arc the disturbing factors about which people complain. And the second chapter deals with the question why people articulate opposed or corresponding validity claims. The first chapter is presented in two columns: on the left hand side the stories of some tenants and on the right hand side my interpretation. This enables the reader to follow the analysis him/herself. In sum the result of this analysis is that four major categories of choices are felt as important to the actors: material, method, tools and people. Tenant and landlord both practice housing maintenance: one in the do-it-yourself form and the other with the help of a professional contractor. They both undertake (re)building activities and both are forced to make choices: what kind of materials to use, with which tools to perform the tasks, how to go about it and with whom? At first sight the considerations are of a practical nature. The efficiency of the system seems decisive, but further study has been executed.
The second chapter shows that these considerations are based on social-cultural values and that, most of the time, they are implicit and of unproblematised tacit knowledge out of the lifeworld. The dichotomized sensitizing concepts from the theoretical framework enables the researcher to read the data anew. With the catch-words which have been attributed to scenes described in the data, an abstract concept is generated in the form of a key social-cultural values. Six of these values have been produced: accessibility, safety, economizing, personalization, beauty and orderliness.
The closing chapter provides the summary and conclusions drawn from the analyses. The four technical choices: material, tools, building methods and collaborators, are related to the six values, thus generating an example of an interferential domain in which system and life-world are both simultaneously valid and active in one specific situation. A schematic picture results in the following matrix:
For some of the combinations in the matrix (1 to 8) an application is described and practical aspects of optimization of the communication between tenants and housing association are indicated. At the end of the study, I have tried to place the theme of housing management within a broader social development scope. My argument is that cultural practices such as housing maintenance contain information concerning cultural processes in a wider social context. If research inspired by the theory of communication has a practical and empirical value for the topic of housing maintenance then it may also be useful in other areas in which system and life-world interact. The proposed conceptual framework for housing maintenance at the end of this thesis is an attempt to provide a theoretical and practical contribution to the on-going debate about housing maintenance. It tries to do justice to the position (uneven balance of power), possibilities (uneven distribution of money) and norms and values of the actors concerned.
|Besluitvorming inzake verwerving van milieu-relevante goederen door huishoudens.
Pennartz, P.J.J. - \ 1993
Huishoudstudies 3 (1993)1. - p. 5 - 15.