Two novel porcine teschovirus strains as the causative agents of encephalomyelitis in the Netherlands
Vreman, Sandra ; Caliskan, Nermin ; Harders, Frank ; Boonstra, Jan ; Peperkamp, Klaas ; Ho, Cynthia K.Y. ; Kuller, Wikke ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
BMC Veterinary Research 16 (2020)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
Non-suppurative encephalomyelitis - Porcine teschovirus - Weanling pigs
Background: Porcine teschovirus (PTV) circulates among wild and domesticated pig populations without causing clinical disease, however neuroinvasive strains have caused high morbidity and mortality in the past. In recent years, several reports appeared with viral agents as a cause for neurologic signs in weanling and growing pigs among which PTV and new strains of PTV were described. Case presentation: On two unrelated pig farms in the Netherlands the weanling pig population showed a staggering gate, which developed progressively to paresis or paralysis of the hind legs with a morbidity up to 5%. After necropsy we diagnosed a non-suppurative encephalomyelitis on both farms, which was most consistent with a viral infection. PTV was detected within the central nervous system by qPCR. From both farms PTV full-length genomes were sequenced, which clustered closely with PTV-3 (98%) or PTV-11 (85%). Other common swine viruses were excluded by qPCR and sequencing of the virus. Conclusion: Our results show that new neuroinvasive PTV strains still emerge in pigs in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of PTV and other viral agents causing encephalomyelitis within wild and domestic pig populations supported by the awareness of veterinarians.
Schmallenberg virus antibodies in bovine and ovine foetuses
Maanen, C. van; heijden, H. van der; Wellenberg, G.J. ; Witteveen, G. ; Luttikholt, S. ; Vellema, P. ; Peperkamp, K. ; Mars, J. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Kooi, B. - \ 2012
Veterinary Record 171 (2012)12. - ISSN 0042-4900
akabane virus - arthrogryposis - cattle - infection
We conclude that testing for antibodies against SBV in foetal or neonatal precolostral serum samples, either by ELISA or VNT, is a valuable tool to diagnose SBV infections in affected lambs and calves as it is for related viruses like Akabane virus.
|Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection
Brom, R. van der; Luttikholt, S.J. ; Lievaart-Peterson, K. ; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T. ; Mars, M.H. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2012
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 137 (2012)2. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 106 - 111.
schapenhouderij - lammeren - lammerenziekten - misvormingen - veterinaire praktijk - schmallenbergvirus - virusziekten - orthobunyavirus - sheep farming - lambs - lamb diseases - malformations - veterinary practice - schmallenberg virus - viral diseases - orthobunyavirus - cache valley virus - akabane virus - bluetongue virus - small ruminants - newborn lambs - sheep - arthrogryposis - disease - pathology - fever
Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight farms that had submitted lambs for post-mortem examination. This Schmallenberg virus was first reported in Germany and seems to be related to the Shamonda, Aino, and Akabane viruses, all of which belong to the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. These preliminary findings suggest that the Schmallenberg virus is the most likely cause of this epizootic of ovine congenital malformations, which is the first such outbreak reported in Europe
|Epizootic congenital hydranencephaly and abortion in cattle due to bluetongue virus serotype 8 in the Netherlands.
Wouda, W. ; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T. ; Roumen, M. ; Muskens, J. ; Rijn, P.A. van; Vellema, P. - \ 2009
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 134 (2009)10. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 422 - 427.
spontane abortus - bluetonguevirus - virusziekten - virussen - serotypen - rundveeziekten - spontaneous abortion - bluetongue virus - viral diseases - viruses - serotypes - cattle diseases - calves - encephalopathy - transmission
An outbreak of hydranencephaly in aborted foetuses and newborn calves occurred following the 2007 epidemic of bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV8\net2006) in the Netherlands. In total 35 aborted foetuses and 20 live-born calves, submitted from September 2007 to May 2008, were examined pathologically. Foetuses with gestational ages between 4 and 9 months (mean 6.8 month) showed varying stages of cerebral malformation. Initial stages were cavitations in the cerebral hemispheres with massive destruction of neuroparenchyma, calcium deposits, and a phagocytic inflammatory response. Later stages showed distinct hydranencephaly, the cerebral hemispheres being almost completely replaced by fluid-filled sacs. In seven cases the cerebellum was affected as well, but brainstem structures were intact. Newborn calves with clinical signs of abnormal behaviour ('dummy calves'), circling, head pressing, incoordination, and blindness were seen from the end of January 2008. The calves were born between 2nd January and 16th March 2008. The calves were euthanized after 1 day up to 14 weeks (mean 4-7 weeks). Brain malformations in these calves were confined to the cerebrum and consisted of varying degrees of hydranencephaly. Spleen tissue was PCR-positive for bluetongue virus (BTV) in 21 of 35 foetuses and in 1 of 20 calves. A higher percentage of PCR-positives was found in foetuses aborted in early gestation than in late gestation, suggesting clearance of BTV during gestation. Fifteen of 33 dams of PCR-negative hydranencephalic foetuses or calves could be traced and all were BTV-seropositive, indicating a previous BTV infection. The timing of hydranencephaly cases in live-born calves during the first months of 2008 was consistent with infection in early gestation during the prior transmission season. Vertical transmission and teratogenic potential have previously been described for modified-live vaccines for bluetongue but are highly unusual for field strains of BTV, which raises the issue whether BTV8\net2006 or its ancestor has been cell- or laboratory-adapted in the past
|Isolation and typing of Brachyspira spp. from pigs in The Netherlands
Wagenaar, J.A. ; Peperkamp, K. ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Bergen, M.A.P. van; Graaf, L. van der; Heijden, H.M.J.F. van der; Bakker, J. - \ 2003
|Isolation and characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from pigs showing signs of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in the Netherlands
Wellenberg, G.J. ; Pesch, S. ; Berndsen, F.W. ; Steverink, P.J.G.M. ; Hunneman, W. ; Vorst, T.J.K. van der; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T. ; Ohlinger, V.F. ; Schippers, R. ; Oirschot, J.T. van; Jong, M.F. de - \ 2000
Veterinary Quarterly 22 (2000). - ISSN 0165-2176 - p. 167 - 172.
Distribution of capsular types and production of muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries
Wisselink, H.J. ; Smith, H.E. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. ; Peperkamp, K. ; Vecht, U. - \ 2000
Veterinary Microbiology 74 (2000). - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 237 - 248.
Streptococcus suis strains (n=411), isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries were serotyped using specific antisera against serotype 1 to 28, and were phenotyped on the basis of their muramidase-released-protein (MRP) and extracellular-factor protein (EF) production. Overall, S. suis serotype 2 appeared to be most prevalent (32%), followed by serotype 9 (20%) and serotype 1 (12%). Serotype 2 was most frequently isolated in France, Italy and Spain, whereas serotype 9 was most frequently isolated in Belgium, The Netherlands and Germany. In the United Kingdom serotypes 1 and 14 were most frequently isolated. High percentages of S. suis serotype 1, 2, 1/2 and 14 strains, isolated from tissues associated with S. suis infections such as brain, serosa, joint, heart and organs expressed the EF-protein, indicating that in these serotypes expression of EF is likely to be associated with virulence. In contrast, strains belonging to serotype 7 and 9, isolated from tissues associated with S. suis infections did not produce EF. These results strongly suggest that in the serotypes 7 and 9 EF expression is not related to virulence. More than 80% of the S. suis serotype 9 strains produced an MRP* protein, a high molecular variant of the 136kDa MRP. Expression of MRP* in serotype 9 strains is possibly associated with virulence.