Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    An insight into antidiabetic properties of six medicinal and edible mushrooms : Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase linked to type-2 diabetes
    Stojkovic, D. ; Smiljkovic, M. ; Ciric, A. ; Glamoclija, J. ; Griensven, L. van; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. ; Sokovic, M. - \ 2019
    South African Journal of Botany 120 (2019). - ISSN 0254-6299 - p. 100 - 103.
    Diabetes mellitus - Edible and medicinal - Mushroom - α-Amylase - α-Glucosidase

    As a continuation of our search for biologically active mushroom species the present study investigates in vitro antidiabetic properties of six edible and medicinal mushroom species: Agaricus blazei Murrill, Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers., Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr., Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát, Morchella conica Pers. and Phellinus linteus Berk. & M.A. Curtis. In vitro assays on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes inhibition were performed with methanolic extracts of the selected mushrooms. Furthermore, we calculated the necessary daily intake of mushroom extracts and dry mushroom powders based on the equivalent doses of therapeutic drug acarbose given to diabetic patients per day. Our comparative study on enzymes inhibition showed that the most promising potential is ascribed to Inonotus obliquus extract, while no inhibition of α-amylase was recorded with Morchella conica and Cordyceps militaris methanolic extract at the tested concentration. This comparative study is the first highlighting in vitro antidiabetic potential by inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase with methanolic extracts; which makes the investigated species more promising for the diabetes type-2 treatment by an additional and different mechanism of action.

    Wereldwaterdag 2018; Spreken over water in de landbouw
    Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2018

    Wageningen Universiteit & Grodan over efficiënt watergebruik en afvalwatermanagement

    Over ruimte en het publieke domein : Globalisering en democratie
    Schuurman, A.J. - \ 2017
    In: Van historische informatiekunde naar historische sensatie / Engelen, Theo, Riswick, Tim, Valkhof Pers - ISBN 9789056254827 - p. 117 - 128.
    De koe maakt gehakt van ons klimaat
    Vellinga, P. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2017

    Door de uitstoot van broeikasgassen is de wereldwijde veehouderij een grotere vervuiler dan de auto. De oplossing? Een duurzamere veeteelt en minderen met vlees en melk.

    Corrigendum to “Polar snow algae as a valuable source of lipids?” [Bioresour. Technol. 235 (2017) 338–347](S096085241730411X)(10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.130)
    Hulatt, Chris J. ; Berecz, Orsolya ; Egeland, Einar Skarstad ; Wijffels, René H. ; Kiron, Viswanath - \ 2017
    Bioresource Technology 241 (2017). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 1208 - 1208.

    The authors regret that in the original version of this article, the culture collection strain ID numbers of the microalgae given in materials and methods Table 1 were not correctly assigned to the species names. The following revised Table 1 provides the correct strain ID numbers and information. The authors take the opportunity to note that the taxonomy of some of these strains is still under review (see “cf.” in Table 1). Recently, discussions have arisen regarding the correct taxonomy of CCCryo 194-04 (pers. comm. T. Leya, curator of CCCryo). Kawasaki et al. (2015) have recently revised several coccalean, oil-producing green algae and have assigned CCCryo 340b-08 (which is the same species as CCCryo 194-04) to the genus Macrochloris. On the other hand, it is currently being evaluated whether CCCryo 194-04 should be assigned to a different, still to be erected and published species within the genus Pleurastrum. The true taxonomy (and names) of some strains thus remain unclear at this time, and so the strain ID numbers containing the collection acronym listed above should be used to identify the microalgae used in this work. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

    First report of Truncatella Angustata causing postharvest rot on ‘topaz’ apples in the Netherlands
    Wenneker, M. ; Pham, K.T.K. ; Boekhoudt, L.C. ; Boer, F.A. de; Leeuwen, P.J. van; Hollinger, T.C. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2017
    Plant Disease 101 (2017)3. - ISSN 0191-2917 - p. 508 - 508.

    In the Netherlands, about 30% of the organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production consists of apple scab resistant cultivars, such as Topaz and Santana. However, organic ‘Topaz’ apples show a high incidence of fungal rot after storage. Hot-water treatment (HWT) of freshly harvested apple fruit prior to long-term storage is an important strategy for the control of postharvest diseases, especially in the organic production sector (Maxin et al. 2012). The recommended treatment temperatures and times vary according to the cultivar because of the risk of heat damage to the fruit peel. In January 2016, light peel damage caused by HWT was observed on ‘Topaz’ apples from an organic orchard. Also, up to 15% of the ‘Topaz’ apples showed typical rot lesions of an unknown causal agent. The lesions showed brown, irregular necrosis and were slightly sunken. To isolate the causal agent, fruits were rinsed with sterile water, lesions were sprayed with 70% ethanol until droplet runoff, the skin was removed aseptically with a scalpel, and tissue under the lesion was placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). The PDA plates were incubated at 20°C in the dark, and single spore isolates were transferred to fresh PDA plates. The colonies that appeared on PDA were cottony to woolly, dull white to brown in color, with black acervuli mainly in the center of the PDA plates. The isolates produced four-celled conidia, 16 to 19 × 7 to 9 µm, straight to slightly curved, with two brown to dark-brown median cells that had thick walls. More than one hyaline apical appendage, variable in size and branched dichotomically, were observed and a basal appendage was absent. The fungus was morphologically identical to Truncatella angustata (Pers.) S. Hughes (Sutton 1980). The identity of two representative isolates (PPO-45246 and PPO-45321) was confirmed by means of gene sequencing. To this end, DNA was extracted using the LGC Mag Plant Kit (Berlin, Germany) in combination with the Kingfisher method (Waltham, MA). Sequences of the ITS region were amplified using primers ITS1/ITS4, sequenced, and deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KX085227 and KX085228. MegaBLAST analysis revealed that both of our ITS sequences matched 99% with T. angustata isolates in GenBank (EU342216, JX390614, and KF646105). Koch’s postulates were fulfilled using 10 ‘Topaz’ apples. Surface sterilized fruits were inoculated with 20 μl of 105 conidiospores ml–1 in water, prepared from a 15-day-old PDA culture of the isolate PPO-45246, after wounding with a needle. Inoculated fruits were sealed in a plastic bag and incubated in darkness at 20°C. Symptoms appeared after 7 days on 100% of the fruits while mock-inoculated controls with water remained symptomless. Fungal colonies isolated from the lesions and cultured on PDA morphologically resembled the inoculated isolates. The identity of the reisolations was confirmed as T. angustata by sequencing. T. angustata has a worldwide distribution and has also been reported to cause leaf spot on Rosa canina (Eken et al. 2009), canker and twig dieback on blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) (Espinoza et al. 2008), and fruit rot of olive (Olea europaea) (Arzanlou et al. 2012). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. angustata causing fruit rot of apples. Importantly, we note that the occurrence of this fruit rot may be enhanced by wounding, in this case as a result of hot water treatment.

    Sustainable Forest Management as a potential integrative approach in international public policy
    Mattei Faggin, Joana ; Offermans, A. - \ 2016
    In: Sustainable Development Research at ICIS / Cövers, R., Kraker, J. de, Kemp, R., Martens, P., Lente, H. van, Maastricht : Universitaire Pers Maastricht - ISBN 9789461596475 - p. 189 - 201.
    Deforestation negatively affects the provision of environmental services, and
    consequently affects local populations’ livelihoods that depend on the use of forest
    resources. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) aims to use forest resources in such a
    way as to provide environmental services while at the same time achieving economic
    and social goals. Even though there is currently no forest convention in an international
    public policy context, the SFM concept is included in several international public policy
    forums. The present chapter analyses SFM in three United Nations Conventions (CBD –
    on Biological Diversity, UNFCCC – on Climate Change, and UNCCD – to Combat
    Desertification). The chapter concludes that SFM is a broad concept, and its
    implementation specificities are addressed at a national policy scale, which is mainly
    influenced by the sovereignty principle. Finally, we concluded that the SFM concept still
    hardly touches upon the social dimension, compared to the economic and
    environmental dimensions.
    Bastiaan Vroegindeweij met eier-raap-robot donderdag op Radio 1
    Vroegindeweij, Bastiaan - \ 2016
    eierraaprobot - poultrybot

    De PoultryBot, die bij de leerstoelgroep Farm Technology is ontwikkeld door onder meer Bastiaan Vroegindeweij, trekt veel aandacht bij de pers. Donderdag 21 januari is Bastiaan op Radio1 te horen in het programma Nieuws & Co. 27 januari zal het tv-programma Trots Op Gelderland van Omroep Gelderland er aandacht aan besteden

    Tolerância à dessecação e longevidade de sementes germinadas de Sesbania virgata (Cav.) Pers.
    Costa, Maria Cecília Dias ; Faria, José Marcio Rocha ; José, Anderson Cleiton ; Ligterink, Wilco ; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. - \ 2016
    Journal of seed science 38 (2016)1. - ISSN 2317-1537 - p. 50 - 56.
    Desiccation tolerance - Germination - Osmotic stress - Storage

    Seed desiccation tolerance (DT) and longevity are necessary for better dissemination of plant species and establishment of soil seed bank. They are acquired by orthodox seeds during the maturation phase of development and lost upon germination. DT can be re-induced in germinated seeds by an osmotic and/or abscisic acid treatment. However, there is no information on how these treatments affect seed longevity. Germinated Sesbania virgata seeds were used as a model system to investigate the effects of an osmotic treatment to re-establish DT on seed longevity. Longevity of germinated S. virgata seeds treated and non-treated by an osmoticum was analysed after storage or artificial ageing. The radicle is the most sensitive organ, the cotyledons are the most resistant, and the ability to produce lateral roots is the key for whole seed survival. Germinated S. virgata seeds with 1mm protruded radicle tolerate desiccation and storage for up to three months without significant losses in viability. An osmotic treatment can improve DT in these seeds, but not longevity. Germinated S. virgata seeds are a good model to study DT uncoupled from longevity. Further studies are necessary to unveil the molecular mechanisms involved in both DT and longevity.

    Osmanlı Döneminde Diyarbekir'de Toplumsal İlişkiler (1870-1915)
    Jongerden, J.P. ; Verheij, Jelle ; Akgunduz, Emrullah ; Aydin, Suavi ; Gaunt, David ; Klein, Janet ; Özok-Gündoğan, Nilay ; Ümit Üngör, Uğur - \ 2016
    Istanbul : Istanbul Bilgi Universitesi Yayinlari - ISBN 9786053994176 - 369 p.
    Tarihi çok eskilere uzanan, Bereketli Hilal’in Dicle kıyısında kurulmuş Diyarbekir, tarih boyunca Amida adıyla Arami krallığı, Asur, Med, Pers, Roma ve Bizans imparatorluklarından sonra Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun bir parçası olmuş, sonunda modern Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin içinde bir il olarak kalmıştır. Bölgesel alanının sınırları ile idari örgütlenmesi sürekli değişen Diyarbekir; 1867’ye kadar Eyâlet-i Kürdistan olarak adlandırılmış, sonra büyük bir bölgeyi kapsayan vilayet haline getirilmiş, Cumhuriyet döneminde ise daralarak Diyarbakır adını almıştır.
    Bu kitabın derleyenlerinin ifade ettiği gibi Diyarbekir’in tarihi “hiçbir zaman kendi başına bir alan olarak” araştırılmadı. Yapılan çalışmaların çoğu olayları, tarihsel olguları genel bir bağlamda ele alırken, resmi görüşlerin, egemen zihniyetin dışına çıkamadı.
    Joost Jongerden ile Jelle Verheij’in derlediği ve konunun uzmanı birçok yazarın katkıda bulunduğu Osmanlı Döneminde Diyarbekir’de Toplumsal İlişkiler (1870-1915) adlı bu kitap ise Diyarbekir’in yüzyıllar boyunca geçirmiş olduğu toplumsal ilişkiler ağını, bunun sonuçları olan olgusal ilişkileri 19. yüzyılın sonundaki zaman dilimine yoğunlaştırarak, milliyetçi tarihyazımının dışına çıkıyor. Bu çalışmada yazarların temel yaklaşımı, alışılagelmiş merkez-çevre ilişkisini değil “çokmerkezlilik” ve bunun biçimlenmesini sağlayan farklı etkileşim biçimlerini temel alıyor.
    Bu önemli çalışmada; değişik merkezlerde bulunan devlet çapında lider ve örgütlerle birlikte yerel liderler, Osmanlı bürokratları, çeşitli kuruluşlar, geleneksel ve modern alt gruplar, köylüler, aşiret liderleri ve üyeleri, milliyetçi gruplar, yörenin kültürel ve siyasal kişileri, şehirli alt gruplarla birlikte dinî tarikatlar, çeşitli etnik gruplar vb. ile dönemin Osmanlı Diyarbekir’inin karmaşık ve çok yüzlü tablosu ortaya çıkarken; devlet ve aşiret ilişkilerinden, Hamidiye Alayları’na, Ermeni soykırımından, Kürtlere, Süryanilere uzanan konular tüm ayrıntılarıyla inceleniyor.
    Kitap bu yanıyla, Osmanlı’dan Cumhuriyet’e taşınan ve günümüzde de farklı veçheleriyle süregelen sorunlara yeni bir bakış açısı getirmektedir.

    Rule set transferability for object-based feature extraction : An example for cirque mapping
    Anders, N.S. ; Seijmonsbergen, Arie C. ; Bouten, Willem - \ 2015
    Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 81 (2015)6. - ISSN 0099-1112 - p. 507 - 514.

    Cirques are complex landforms resulting from glacial erosion and can be used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitudes and infer climate history. Automated extraction of cirques may help research on glacial geomorphology and climate change. Our objective was to test the transferability of an object-based rule set for the extraction of glacial cirques, using lidar data and color-infrared orthophotos. In Vorarlberg (W-Austria), we selected one training area with well-developed cirque components to parameterize segmentation and classification criteria. The rule set was applied to three test areas that are positioned in three altitudinal zones. Results indicate that the rule set was successful (81 percent) in the training area and a higher situated area (71 percent). Accuracy decreased in the two lower situated test areas (66 percent and 51 percent). We conclude that rule sets are transferable to areas with a comparable geomorphological history. Yet, significant deviation from the training area requires a different extraction strategy.

    Medicinal Mushrooms
    Lindequist, U. ; Won Kim, H. ; Tiralongo, E. ; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van - \ 2014
    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 (2014). - ISSN 1741-427X
    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants have traditionally been used as a source of most medical systems and as such herbal medicines constitute an important part of traditional and evidence-based medicine worldwide. In contrast though, the broad medicinal use of mushrooms was for a very long time restricted to Asian countries. Nowadays, the medicinal use of mushrooms, so called, medicinal mushrooms’, is increasing also in Western and other countries. This is underlined not only by growing sales of mushroom products but also by an increasing number of scientific papers and international conferences in this field. Medicinal mushrooms can be defined as macroscopic fungi, mostly higher Basidiomycetes, which are used in the form of extracts or powder for prevention, alleviation, or healing of diseases and/or for nutritional reasons. Presently medicinal mushrooms are mainly used as dietary supplements or functional food. Nevertheless they have the potential to become real drugs of traditional and/or evidence-based medicine. To explore this potential high quality products, preclinical and clinical trials according to the regulations, and legal authorization are necessary. The most important mushroom species are Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor (L.:Fr.)Quél. (syn. Trametes versicolor [L.:Fr.]Pilát), Lentinula edodes (Berk.)Pegler, Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.)Sacc. (Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.)Sung & al.), Grifola frondosa (Dicks.:Fr.)Gray, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.)Pers. and some others. Due to the extended traditional use of these mushrooms extensive knowledge about in vitro activities and mode of action and effects in animal assays is available. Some information about several chemical constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects is also available. Needless to say more research on the pharmacology and chemistry of these and others, so far less explored mushrooms, is urgently needed. What’s also missing, however, are investigations about structure-activity-relationships and possible toxicological risks of these mushrooms and their products, clinical trials and suitable quality critera for mushroom products and established methods for its control. We received 13 research papers in this field which indicates that mushroom research is still very limited. However, this special issue includes 6 high-quality peer-reviewed papers demonstrating essential new findings about different pharmacological effects of several medicinal mushrooms and their components in vitro, in animal assays and in humans. Chan et al. and Kawai et al. showed that Amauroderma rugosum and Pleurotus eryngii have promising antiinflammatory properties. A. rugosum is used by indigenous communities in Malaysia, P. eryngii is consumed as fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide. Clitocybe nuda, also known as Lepista nuda, is an edible mushroom in Europe. It is known for its antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. The study by Shi et al. validated the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Clitocybe nuda in diabetic mice and gives detailed insight into its mode of action. Beta-glucans (MBGS) constitute one of the most important groups of bioactive compounds in mushrooms. They have been reported as anticancer agents mainly by strengthening immune activities. The papers of Chen et al. and Wu et al. focus on investigations of beta-glucans from Ganoderma lucidum, the famous Reishi or Ling Zhi mushroom. The beta-glucans isolated from solid culture of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit, in combination with radiation, tumor metastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma bearing mice (Chen at el.), whereas the oral administration of MBG, also obtained from mycelium of G. lucidum, modulates immune responses in an allergy murine model (Wu et al.). The study of Rossi et al. investigated the influence of a mixture of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis on the performance and stress resistance of cyclists by monitoring the testosterone/cortisol ratio in saliva, as well as oxidative stress. Although only a small number of participants were included in this study, the presented results confirm the potential clinical use of mushrooms in general and the protection of the athletes from overtraining syndrome in particular.
    Consumption of Coprinus comatus polysaccharide extract causes recovery of alcoholic liver damage in rats
    Ozalp, F.O. ; Canbek, M. ; Yamac, M. ; Kanbak, G. ; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van; Uyanoglu, M. ; Senturk, H. ; Karlkava, K. ; Oglakci, A. - \ 2014
    Pharmaceutical biology 52 (2014)8. - ISSN 1388-0209 - p. 994 - 1002.
    induced diabetic-rats - ethanol-induced apoptosis - induced oxidative stress - mouse-liver - caspase-3 activation - injury - disease - lipopolysaccharide - neurodegeneration - hepatotoxicity
    Excess use of alcohol is known to be associated with liver diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Various practices may be applied to prevent or treat the damage caused by chronic alcoholism. Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. (Agaricaceae) is a macrofungus that has been reported to aid the recovery of murine livers damaged by benzopyrene.
    The world starts with me. Promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescents in Uganda
    Rijsdijk, E. - \ 2013
    Maastricht University. Promotor(en): R.A.C. Ruiter, co-promotor(en): A.E.R. Bos; Rico Lie. - Maastricht : Universitaire Pers Maastricht - 202 p.
    Affect en cognitie in attitudevorming van (on)bekende attitude objecten
    Giesen, R.I. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Dijk, H. van; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
    In: ASPO congres 2012, 13-14 december 2013. - Groningen : Aspo Pers - ISBN 9789081889728 - p. 81 - 84.
    Nutrients and non-nutrients composition and bioactivity of wild and cultivated Coprinus comatus (O.F.Müll.) Pers.
    Stojkovic, D. ; Reis, F.S. ; Barros, L. ; Glamoclija, J. ; Ciric, A. ; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van; Sokovic, M. ; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. - \ 2013
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 59 (2013). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 289 - 296.
    antioxidant properties - edible mushrooms - chemical-composition - nutritional-value - mycelia - cells - broth - mice - cap
    Mushrooms have been reported as sources of biomolecules with various potential. Coprinus comatus was studied to obtain information about this species, comparing cultivated and wild samples. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids and phenolic acids were analyzed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. C. comatus methanolic extract was tested for its antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and antimicrobial properties (tested towards Gram positive and negative bacteria, and microfungi). The toxicity for liver cells was tested in porcine liver primary cells. Both studied samples revealed similar nutritional value and energy contribution. The cultivated sample revealed the highest content in free sugars, monounsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols, while the wild mushroom was richer in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, organic acids and phenolic compounds. The cultivated species also revealed the highest antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity (with exception towards Gram negative bacteria and Aspergillus ochraceus). Both species revealed no toxicity towards porcine liver cells. The present study proved that cultivated and wild mushrooms from the same species could be excellent options as food and as sources of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Furthermore, differences in wild and cultivated samples were comparatively investigated for the first time.
    Puppy's, Injectienaalden en Attitudevorming: Hoe verschillende stimuluscategorieën mentaal verwerkt worden
    Giesen, R.I. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Dijk, H. van; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2012
    In: Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2012, 13-14 December 2012, Utrecht, the Netherlands. - Groningen, Nederland : Aspo Pers - p. 83 - 88.
    Met eye-tracking is aangetoond dat verschillende type stimuli (univalent, neutraal, ambivalent) om verschillende mentale verwerking vragen. Voor ambivalente stimuli is uitgebreidere mentale verwerking nodig voor affectieve attitudes, voor neutrale stimuli geldt dit voor cognitieve attitudes. De attitude component (affectief, cognitief) die meer verwerking vraagt is minder belangrijk voor de eind-attitude.
    Vorst maakt onze natuur wat Nederlandser
    Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2012
    Aantal vlinders met eenderde teruggelopen
    Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2012
    De Pers (2012).
    Inzet van vrijwilligers bij natuurbeheer
    Mabelis, A.A. - \ 2011
    Dorp & Natuur 56 (2011). - ISSN 1878-4933 - p. 10 - 12.
    natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - vrijwilligers - utrechtse heuvelrug - nature management - landscape management - volunteers - utrechtse heuvelrug
    Beheerders van natuurterreinen zijn steeds meer afhankelijk van de inzet van vrijwilligers, zeker nu ze door extreme bezuinigingen worden getroffen. Vrijwilligers kunnen beroepsmensen niet vervangen, maar ze kunnen wel een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan het realiseren van de natuurdoelstellingen. Zonder hun inbreng zou veel werk blijven liggen. De doelmatigheid van het werk kan echter worden vergroot door in een vroeg stadium doel en werkwijze met alle betrokkenen te bespreken. Dat is belangrijk voor een goed contact tussen terreinbeheerders en vrijwilligers en ook tussen vrijwilligers onderling. Het resultaat van zulk overleg kan via de pers of tijdens een voorlichtingsbijeenkomst openbaar worden gemaakt. Dit voorkomt niet alleen nodeloze drukte over impopulaire maatregelen, maar kan ook nieuwe vrijwilligers opleveren. Dit zijn de ervaringen vanuit Amerongen - Leersum
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