Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Earth System Governance : Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project 2018
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Yumie Aoki Inoue, Christina ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, Joost ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael John ; Djalante, Riyanti ; Dryzek, John S. ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renee ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, Ruben - \ 2019
Utrecht : Earth System Governance - 128 p.
The Earth System Governance Project as a network organization: a critical assessment after ten years
Biermann, F. ; Betsill, Michele M. ; Burch, S. ; Dryzek, John ; Gordon, Christopher ; Gupta, A. ; Gupta, Joyeeta ; Inoue, Cristina ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Kanie, Norichika ; Olsson, Lennart ; Persson, Åsa ; Schroeder, H. ; Scobie, Michelle - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 39 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 17 - 23.

The social sciences have engaged since the late 1980s in international collaborative programmes to study questions of sustainability and global change. This article offers an in-depth analysis of the largest long-standing social-science network in this field: the Earth System Governance Project. Originating as a core project of the former International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, the Earth System Governance Project has matured into a global, self-sustaining research network, with annual conferences, numerous taskforces, research centers, regional research fellow meetings, three book series, an open access flagship journal, and a lively presence in social media. The article critically reviews the experiences of the Earth System Governance network and its integration and interactions with other programmes over the last decade.

Review of the evidence regarding the use of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in low- and middle-income countries
Bourassa, Megan W. ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth ; Ahmed, Saima ; Ajello, Clayton ; Bergeron, Gilles ; Black, Robert ; Christian, Parul ; Cousens, Simon ; Pee, Saskia de; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Arifeen, Shams El ; Engle-Stone, Reina ; Fleet, Alison ; Gernand, Alison D. ; Hoddinott, John ; Klemm, Rolf ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Kupka, Roland ; McLean, Erin ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Persson, Lars Åke ; Rasmussen, Kathleen M. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. ; Smith, Emily ; Sudfeld, Christopher R. ; Udomkesmalee, Emorn ; Vosti, Stephen A. - \ 2019
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1444 (2019)1. - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 6 - 21.
LMICs - micronutrient - pregnancy - supplements

Inadequate micronutrient intakes are relatively common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially among pregnant women, who have increased micronutrient requirements. This can lead to an increase in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. This review presents the conclusions of a task force that set out to assess the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes and adverse birth outcomes in LMICs; the data from trials comparing multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) that contain iron and folic acid (IFA) with IFA supplements alone; the risks of reaching the upper intake levels with MMS; and the cost-effectiveness of MMS compared with IFA. Recent meta-analyses demonstrate that MMS can reduce the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in comparison with IFA alone. An individual-participant data meta-analysis also revealed even greater benefits for anemic and underweight women and female infants. Importantly, there was no increased risk of harm for the pregnant women or their infants with MMS. These data suggest that countries with inadequate micronutrient intakes should consider supplementing pregnant women with MMS as a cost-effective method to reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes.

New directions in earth system governance research
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Inoue, C. ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Gerlak, Andrea K. ; Ishii, Atsushi ; Patterson, James ; Pickering, Jonathan ; Scobie, M. ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, J. ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael ; Djalante, Riyante ; Dryzek, John ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renée ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, R. - \ 2019
Earth System Governance 1 (2019). - ISSN 2589-8116 - 18 p.
Governance - Research networks - Earth system - Transformation
The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
Addendum: The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship
Wilkinson, Mark D. ; Dumontier, Michel ; Aalbersberg, Ijsbrand Jan ; Appleton, Gabrielle ; Axton, Myles ; Baak, Arie ; Blomberg, Niklas ; Boiten, Jan Willem ; Silva Santos, Luiz Bonino Da; Bourne, Philip E. ; Bouwman, Jildau ; Brookes, Anthony J. ; Clark, Tim ; Crosas, Mercè ; Dillo, Ingrid ; Dumon, Olivier ; Edmunds, Scott ; Evelo, Chris T. ; Finkers, Richard ; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra ; Gray, Alasdair J.G. ; Groth, Paul ; Goble, Carole ; Grethe, Jeffrey S. ; Heringa, Jaap ; Hoen, Peter A.C. 't; Hooft, Rob ; Kuhn, Tobias ; Kok, Ruben ; Kok, Joost ; Lusher, Scott J. ; Martone, Maryann E. ; Mons, Albert ; Packer, Abel L. ; Persson, Bengt ; Rocca-Serra, Philippe ; Roos, Marco ; Schaik, Rene van; Sansone, Susanna Assunta ; Schultes, Erik ; Sengstag, Thierry ; Slater, Ted ; Strawn, George ; Swertz, Morris A. ; Thompson, Mark ; Lei, Johan van der; Mulligen, Erik van; Velterop, Jan ; Waagmeester, Andra ; Wittenburg, Peter ; Wolstencroft, Katherine ; Zhao, Jun ; Mons, Barend - \ 2019
Scientific Data 6 (2019). - ISSN 2052-4463

Forest biomass retrieval approaches from earth observation in different biomes
Rodríguez-Veiga, Pedro ; Quegan, Shaun ; Carreiras, Joao ; Persson, Henrik J. ; Fransson, Johan E.S. ; Hoscilo, Agata ; Ziółkowski, Dariusz ; Stereńczak, Krzysztof ; Lohberger, Sandra ; Stängel, Matthias ; Berninger, Anna ; Siegert, Florian ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Herold, Martin ; Mermoz, Stéphane ; Bouvet, Alexandre ; Toan, Thuy Le; Carvalhais, Nuno ; Santoro, Maurizio ; Cartus, Oliver ; Rauste, Yrjö ; Mathieu, Renaud ; Asner, Gregory P. ; Thiel, Christian ; Pathe, Carsten ; Schmullius, Chris ; Seifert, Frank Martin ; Tansey, Kevin ; Balzter, Heiko - \ 2019
International Journal of applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 77 (2019). - ISSN 0303-2434 - p. 53 - 68.
The amount and spatial distribution of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) were estimated using a range of regionally developed methods using Earth Observation data for Poland, Sweden and regions in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Mexico (Central Mexico and Yucatan peninsula), and South Africa (Eastern provinces) for the year 2010. These regions are representative of numerous forest biomes and biomass levels globally, from South African woodlands and savannas to the humid tropical forest of Kalimantan. AGB retrieval in each region relied on different sources of reference data, including forest inventory plot data and airborne LiDAR observations, and used a range of retrieval algorithms. This is the widest inter-comparison of regional-to-national AGB maps to date in terms of area, forest types, input datasets, and retrieval methods. The accuracy assessment of all regional maps using independent field data or LiDAR AGB maps resulted in an overall root mean square error (RMSE) ranging from 10 t ha−1 to 55 t ha−1 (37% to 67% relative RMSE), and an overall bias ranging from −1 t ha−1 to +5 t ha−1 at pixel level. The regional maps showed better agreement with field data than previously developed and widely used pan-tropical or northern hemisphere datasets. The comparison of accuracy assessments showed commonalities in error structures despite the variety of methods, input data, and forest biomes. All regional retrievals resulted in overestimation (up to 63 t ha−1) in the lower AGB classes, and underestimation (up to 85 t ha−1) in the higher AGB classes. Parametric model-based algorithms present advantages due to their low demand on in situ data compared to non-parametric algorithms, but there is a need for datasets and retrieval methods that can overcome the biases at both ends of the AGB range. The outcomes of this study should be considered when developing algorithms to estimate forest biomass at continental to global scale level.
The emerging accountability regimes for the Sustainable Development Goals and policy integration: Friend or foe?
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Dahl, A.L. ; Persson, Åsa - \ 2018
Reducing chemical risks in low-income countries: strategies for improved coverage of basic chemicals-management legislation
Persson, L. ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. - \ 2018
SEI Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI Policy brief ) - 4 p.
National approaches to reduce antimicrobial usage in dairy herds – Lessons learned in five European countries
Borne, Bart van den; Reyher, Kirsten ; Persson, Y. ; Vliegher, S. de; Farre, M. ; Scherpenzeel, C. ; Lam, T. ; Koops, W. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Research background, theoretical frameworks and methodologies for social entrepreneurship
During, R. ; Persson, T. ; Biggeri, M. ; Testi, E. ; Bellucci, M. - \ 2018
In: Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation / Biggeri, M., Testi, E., Bellucci, M., During, Roel, Persson, T., Routledge (Routledge Studies in Innovation, Organizations and Technology ) - ISBN 9780815375791 - p. 13 - 23.
European welfare systems play an important role in improving the living conditions of its citizens, most notably in the areas of childcare, health prevention services, employment services, and benefits for the elderly. In other words, social policies are put in place to meet the growing needs of citizens. In 2013 Europe launched the Social Investment Package as a response to major social challenges—including unemployment, poverty, and social exclusion—brought about by the 2008 economic crisis and an ageing population (Brancati et al., 2017). According to the OECD, economic and industrial innovation often leads to an increase in inequality, as benefits predominantly accrue to innovators and their customers (OECD, 2016). Made worse by an ageing populace and a decline in the total working population, these types of societal challenges may be well beyond the scope of existing social policy aims (Misuraca et al., 2017). As a result, social entrepreneurs and representatives from the private sector are expected to play a pivotal role in encouraging innovative social policies (European Commission, 2015).
The diversity of the European social enterprise sector : an evolutionary perspective
During, R. ; Dam, R.I. van - \ 2018
In: Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation / Biggeri, M., Testi, E., Bellucci, M., During, Roel, Persson, T., Routledge (Routledge Studies in Innovation, Organizations and Technology ) - ISBN 9780815375791 - p. 38 - 53.
Several in-depth analyses of social entrepreneurship in Europe reveal significant differences in the way it has developed (Hazenberg et al., 2016). The EFESEIIS project supports this notion, as do other European projects, such as SIMPACT (Debref et al., 2015) and SEFORIS (SEFORIS, 2016). In many cases, national differences are explained by referring to contextual information (Svensson, 2015), including resources, institutions, economic objectives, social needs, political objectives, and governance (Terstriep et al., 2015). Indeed, Terstriep and his peers (2015) state that very few projects engage in network analysis, which is often a significant part of Social Innovation Biographies or narrative approaches. Until now, the system analysis perspective has not been used as a means of analyzing the interaction between social enterprises (SEs) and their environments.
The emerging accountability regimes for the Sustainable Development Goals and policy integration : Friend or foe?
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia ; Dahl, Arthur L. ; Persson, Åsa - \ 2018
Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 36 (2018)8. - ISSN 2399-6544 - p. 1371 - 1390.
Accountability - global - governance - integration - policy - sustainable development

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the full Agenda 2030 in which they are embedded are aspirational and intended to be both transformational and integrative in a number of ways. The need for integration across policy domains is stressed throughout the agenda. The Sustainable Development Goals are also accompanied by an emerging system for follow-up and review centered on a long list of indicators that are intended to enable countries to be accountable towards their citizens. There is, however, in the accountability literature indication that some accountability mechanisms can be counterproductive for integrative policies. This paper is centered around the question whether an accountability regime, and if so how, is compatible with a high degree of policy integration both conceptually and in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals. We approach this question through looking both at the literature on integrative governance and some of the central concepts it covers such as (environmental) policy integration and mainstreaming, and the accountability literature. This enables us to provide an analytical framework for evaluating the potential of the emerging accountability regimes for the Sustainable Development Goals to enhance more integrated policy making and action. We conclude that there are little or no strong hierarchical elements of accountability relationships at the global level which can be good news for more integrative policies – but only if there is a strong sense of shared responsibility among actors at all levels, available information on the types of behavioural efforts that support integration, and accountholders that take an active interest in integration. At the national level, there may be hierarchical accountability mechanisms with sanction possibilities that may discourage integration. Here, those who hold actors to account can counteract this if they have deeper understanding of the underlying interlinkages among the goals and targets, and based on this, engage in accountability mechanisms.

Conclusion : Drawing lessons for Environmental Policy Integration and prospects for future research
Persson, Åsa ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 85 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 141 - 145.
Coordination - Environmental policy integration - Governance - Harmonisation
Editorial : Environmental policy integration: Taking stock of policy practice in different contexts
Persson, Åsa ; Runhaar, Hens ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia ; Mullally, Gerard ; Russel, Duncan ; Widmer, Alexander - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 85 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 113 - 115.
Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance
Bergjord Olsen, A.K. ; Persson, T. ; Wit, A. de; Nkurunziza, L. ; Sindhøj, E. ; Eckersten, H. - \ 2018
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 204 (2018)1. - ISSN 0931-2250 - p. 62 - 73.
FROSTOL - LT - modelling - plant cover - risk assessments - winter damage
Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this model, four winter wheat cultivars were sown in a field experiment in Uppsala, Sweden in 2013 and 2014. The LT50 was determined by tests of frost tolerance in November, and the cultivars’ LT50c was estimated. Further, recorded winter survival from 20 winter wheat field variety trials in Sweden and Norway was collected from two winter seasons with substantial winter damages. FROSTOL simulations were run for selected cultivars at each location. According to percentage of winter damage, the cultivar survival was classified as “survived,” “intermediate” or “killed.” Mean correspondence between recorded and simulated class of winter survival was 75% and 37% for the locations in Sweden and Norway, respectively. Stress factors that were not accounted for in FROSTOL might explain the poorer accuracy at the Norwegian locations. The accuracy was poorest for cultivars with intermediate LT50c levels. When low temperature was the main cause of damage, as at the Swedish locations, the model accuracy was satisfying.
Mainstreaming climate adaptation: taking stock about "what works" from empirical research worldwide
Runhaar, Hens ; Wilk, B. ; Persson, A. ; Uittenbroek, C.J. ; Wamsler, C. - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)4. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1201 - 1210.
Adaptation to a changing climate is unavoidable. Mainstreaming climate adaptation objectives into existing policies, as opposed to developing dedicated adaptation policy, is widely advocated for public action. However, knowledge on what makes mainstreaming effective is scarce and fragmented. Against this background, this paper takes stock of peer-reviewed empirical analyses of climate adaptation mainstreaming, in order to assess current achievements and identify the critical factors that render mainstreaming effective. The results show that although in most cases adaptation policy outputs are identified, only in a minority of cases this translates into policy outcomes. This B implementation gap
is most strongly seen in developing countries. However, when it comes to the effectiveness of outcomes, we found no difference across countries. We conclude that more explicit definitions and unified frameworks for adaptation mainstreaming research are required to allow for future research syntheses
and well-informed policy recommendations.
Combining models to estimate the impacts of future climate scenarios on feed supply, greenhouse gas emissions and economic performance on dairy farms in Norway
Özkan Gülzari, Şeyda ; Åby, Bente Aspeholen ; Persson, Tomas ; Höglind, Mats ; Mittenzwei, Klaus - \ 2017
Agricultural Systems 157 (2017). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 157 - 169.
Climate change - Dairy farming - Dry matter yield - Economics - Greenhouse gas emission - Modelling

There is a scientific consensus that the future climate change will affect grass and crop dry matter (DM) yields. Such yield changes may entail alterations to farm management practices to fulfill the feed requirements and reduce the farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms. While a large number of studies have focused on the impacts of projected climate change on a single farm output (e.g. GHG emissions or economic performance), several attempts have been made to combine bio-economic systems models with GHG accounting frameworks. In this study, we aimed to determine the physical impacts of future climate scenarios on grass and wheat DM yields, and demonstrate the effects such changes in future feed supply may have on farm GHG emissions and decision-making processes. For this purpose, we combined four models: BASGRA and CSM-CERES-Wheat models for simulating forage grass DM and wheat DM grain yields respectively; HolosNor for estimating the farm GHG emissions; and JORDMOD for calculating the impacts of changes in the climate and management on land use and farm economics. Four locations, with varying climate and soil conditions were included in the study: south-east Norway, south-west Norway, central Norway and northern Norway. Simulations were carried out for baseline (1961–1990) and future (2046–2065) climate conditions (projections based on two global climate models and the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B GHG emission scenario), and for production conditions with and without a milk quota. The GHG emissions intensities (kilogram carbon dioxide equivalent: kgCO2e emissions per kg fat and protein corrected milk: FPCM) varied between 0.8 kg and 1.23 kg CO2e (kg FPCM)− 1, with the lowest and highest emissions found in central Norway and south-east Norway, respectively. Emission intensities were generally lower under future compared to baseline conditions due mainly to higher future milk yields and to some extent to higher crop yields. The median seasonal above-ground timothy grass yield varied between 11,000 kg and 16,000 kg DM ha− 1 and was higher in all projected future climate conditions than in the baseline. The spring wheat grain DM yields simulated for the same weather conditions within each climate projection varied between 2200 kg and 6800 kg DM ha− 1. Similarly, the farm profitability as expressed by total national land rents varied between 1900 million Norwegian krone (NOK) for median yields under baseline climate conditions up to 3900 million NOK for median yield under future projected climate conditions.

The globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals-Explaining the legal implementation gap
Persson, Linn ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia ; Lai, Adelene ; Persson, Åsa ; Fick, Stephen - \ 2017
Sustainability 9 (2017)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Chemicals management - Classification and labelling of chemicals - GHS - Global standards
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a system for classifying and labelling chemicals according to their intrinsic hazardous properties. The GHS is one of the cornerstones of sound chemicals management, an issue consistently on the international sustainable development agenda since 1992. In 2002, it was agreed under the United Nations that all countries should be encouraged to implement the GHS by 2008. However, to date, it is unclear where, how, and to what extent the GHS has been implemented and what factors best explain any differences in implementation coverage. The aim of this paper is to provide a global overview of current GHS implementation status in national legislation using primary and secondary data, and explain differences between countries based on theory on motivational and capacity-related factors for implementation of international standards. We conclude that there seems to be broad support from countries for enhanced international collaboration in the field of sound chemicals management. However, several drivers and barriers for national GHS implementation co-exist, and there is a clear positive correlation between the financial and regulatory capacities of a country and its GHS implementation status. At the same time, our data suggest that it is possible to increase the global implementation coverage by using a combination of motivational and capacity related strategies.
Towards standards for human fecal sample processing in metagenomic studies
Costea, Paul I. ; Zeller, Georg ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Pelletier, Eric ; Alberti, Adriana ; Levenez, Florence ; Tramontano, Melanie ; Driessen, Marja ; Hercog, Rajna ; Jung, Ferris Elias ; Kultima, Jens Roat ; Hayward, Matthew R. ; Coelho, Luis Pedro ; Allen-Vercoe, Emma ; Bertrand, Laurie ; Blaut, Michael ; Brown, Jillian R.M. ; Carton, Thomas ; Cools-Portier, Stéphanie ; Daigneault, Michelle ; Derrien, Muriel ; Druesne, Anne ; Vos, Willem M. De; Finlay, B.B. ; Flint, Harry J. ; Guarner, Francisco ; Hattori, Masahira ; Heilig, Hans ; Luna, Ruth Ann ; Hylckama Vlieg, Johan Van; Junick, Jana ; Klymiuk, Ingeborg ; Langella, Philippe ; Chatelier, Emmanuelle Le; Mai, Volker ; Manichanh, Chaysavanh ; Martin, Jennifer C. ; Mery, Clémentine ; Morita, Hidetoshi ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Orvain, Céline ; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb ; Penders, John ; Persson, Søren ; Pons, Nicolas ; Popova, Milena ; Salonen, Anne ; Saulnier, Delphine ; Scott, Karen P. ; Singh, Bhagirath ; Slezak, Kathleen ; Veiga, Patrick ; Versalovic, James ; Zhao, Liping ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Ehrlich, S.D. ; Dore, Joel ; Bork, Peer - \ 2017
Nature Biotechnology 35 (2017)11. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 1069 - 1076.
Technical variation in metagenomic analysis must be minimized to confidently assess the contributions of microbiota to human health. Here we tested 21 representative DNA extraction protocols on the same fecal samples and quantified differences in observed microbial community composition. We compared them with differences due to library preparation and sample storage, which we contrasted with observed biological variation within the same specimen or within an individual over time. We found that DNA extraction had the largest effect on the outcome of metagenomic analysis. To rank DNA extraction protocols, we considered resulting DNA quantity and quality, and we ascertained biases in estimates of community diversity and the ratio between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We recommend a standardized DNA extraction method for human fecal samples, for which transferability across labs was established and which was further benchmarked using a mock community of known composition. Its adoption will improve comparability of human gut microbiome studies and facilitate meta-analyses.
The importance of a life cycle approach for valuing carbon sequestration
Middelaar, C.E. van; Cederberg, C. ; Gerber, P.J. ; Persson, M. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2016
In: Book of Abstracts of the 10th international conference on Life Cycle Assessment of Food. - - 7 p.
livestock, greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, mitigation, dairy production
Carbon sequestration (C-seq) in grassland has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the net contribution of livestock to
climate change. Carbon stored in soils, however, can easily be re-emitted to the atmosphere if soil conditions change. The
aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of C-seq for reducing the impact of dairy production on climate change
over time, based on life cycle assessment. Annual emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (cradle-to-farm
gate) were analysed for two types of dairy systems in the Netherlands: a grass-based system (high C-seq potential) and a
maize-based system (low C-seq potential). Soil carbon fluxes were modelled to quantify the uptake and release of carbon
dioxide in agricultural soils. The climate impact per ton of fat-and-protein corrected milk (FCPM) for each system was
modelled over time, based on the radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime of annual emissions and soil carbon fluxes.
Systems were compared for a situation in which soil carbon was re-emitted after 20 years, or stored for an indefinite period
of time. Results show that C-seq favours the grass-based system in the short-term, until the point at which soil carbon is reemitted
(i.e., 20 years), or reaches equilibrium (after 70 years). Results demonstrate the importance of including both annual
emissions and soil carbon fluxes by means of a life cycle approach, and to consider the climate impact over time, when
valuing the potential benefit of C-seq.
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