Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Bamboo composites
    Keijsers, E.R.P. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research 2084) - ISBN 9789463955232 - 18
    This report describes the research that has been performed by Wageningen Food & Biobased Research on the development of bamboo composites from Bamboo from Ethiopia. This research is part of the INBAR DUTCH-Sino program. Currently the industry in Ethiopia is producing bamboo panels and bamboo stick based products – blinds, tooth picks, incense sticks. Plastic composite panels would be a new option for bamboo products in Ethiopia. Based on existing knowledge of plastic composite production processes an overview of possible processes and plastics matrix material is given. Ideally, plastic waste streams from Ethiopia would be used as plastic matrix, however, the plastic polymer type of two major large waste streams, PET bottles and PE bags and foils is considered not suited as plastic matrix for plastic fibre composites. Lab-scale tests have been performed on fine and course residues from current bamboo stick industry (based on highland and lowland bamboos) and on milled samples from top, middle and bottom parts of highland and lowland bamboo. Injection moulded composites were produced base on 30wt% of bamboo combined with a commercial grade polypropene (67 wt%) and a commercial coupling agent (3 wt%). Mechanical testing results show that all types of bamboo sources can be used to produce composites. On average, the composites of highland bamboo had slightly lower mechanical properties than lowland bamboo. The bending stiffness of the fine and course residues was slightly lower than the unprocessed bamboo samples. However, differences are small. Some considerations and recommendations concerning the development of bamboo composite panels are made, highlighting the differences with the current bamboo stick industry in Ethiopia. Current industry is labour intensive and the process is robust, the processes can be halted and restarted at any moment, water content/dryness of the bamboo is not extremely critical. The production process for bamboo composites is capital intensive. The process should be run continuously to prevent losses on start-up and shut down. Moisture content of the fibres needs to be controlled, ideally production should be performed under climate controlled conditions in the work space.
    Verkenning maximaal haalbarekwaliteiten gerecyclede PET uit schalen : Praktische studie naar de maximaal haalbare kwaliteit van mechanisch gerecyclede PET uitschalen
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Smeding, I.W. ; Molenveld, K. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research 2069) - ISBN 9789463954662 - 37
    Dit rapport beschrijft een technische verkenning naar de maximaal haalbare kwaliteit gerecycled poly(ethyleen tereftalaat) (rPET) die verkregen kan worden uit PET-schalen met een mechanisch recyclingproces. PET is een veel gebruikt verpakkingsmateriaal voor verschillende verse levensmiddelen als vlees, vis, kaas, maaltijdsalades, noten, etc. Voor flessen zijn goed functionerende mechanische recyclingprocessen ontwikkeld waarmee food-grade rPET wordt verkregen. Voor de grotere markt van PET-schalen is dit tot nu toe nog niet op industriële schaal gelukt, ondanks meerdere pogingen door verschillende bedrijven. Deze pogingen om uit het sorteerproduct PET-schalen PET te recyclen zijn tot nu toe gestrand op te lage massa-opbrengsten PET-product, teveel afvalstromen en een te lage kwaliteit van het eindproduct. PET-schalen zijn een ingewikkelde grondstof: ze zijn divers in grootte, kleur en samenstelling. Bovendien bestaan PET-schalen uit meerdere componenten en materialen. Mede hierdoor zijn er ook problemen met de kwaliteit van het gerecyclede PET materiaal, die de toepasbaarheid van het gerecyclede PET-materiaal aanzienlijk beperken. Om te bepalen wat de maximaal haalbare kwaliteit gerecycled PET uit schalen is, werden vier soorten schone PET-schalen getest in dit onderzoek. Het ging hier om mono-PET-schalen, maar ook om schalen met een sealmedium, een PE-laag of een rest top-folie. Al deze soorten schalen werden apart van elkaar gemalen, gedroogd, geëxtrudeerd en spuit-gegoten tot testsamples. De materiaaleigenschappen van deze mechanisch gerecyclede schalen-PET-soorten werden bestudeerd in relatie tot de samenstelling van de ingaande PET-schalen. Hieruit bleek dat gerecycled PET gemaakt van zuivere PET-schalen, waaraan dus geen sealmedium is toegevoegd, transparant en nauwelijks gekleurd is. Helaas was de intrinsieke viscositeitswaarde van dit soort gerecycled PET veel te laag, waardoor het materiaal te bros wordt. Dit materiaal zal eerst een nacondensatie-proces moeten ondergaan. Hierna zal dit materiaal sterker zijn, eenvoudiger te verwerken en breder toe te passen. Een andere en aanvullende optie om de intrinsieke viscositeit te verhogen is bijmengen met nieuw PET. In het geval de grondstof voor recycling nog een sealmedium of een restant top-folie bevat, wordt het gerecyclede PET grijs en ondoorzichtig. De intrinsieke viscositeitwaarden voor deze typen gerecycled PET waren wel iets beter, maar eigenlijk nog steeds te laag om goed te kunnen verwerken. Ook deze soorten gerecycled PET zullen dus een nacondensatie moeten ondergaan. Voor deze soorten gerecycled PET bestaat momenteel geen markt van betekenis. Deze resultaten laten zien dat de gewenste kwaliteit van transparante gerecyclede PET alleen kan worden verkregen uit PET-schalen die ook echt alleen uit PET bestaan en waaraan dus geen andere materialen zijn toegevoegd. Dit betekent dat PET-schalen die ontworpen worden voor mechanische recycling alleen uit PET mogen bestaan en uit andere verpakkingscomponenten (zoals labels) die met zeer hoge efficiëntie kunnen worden afgescheiden tijdens het wasproces. Overigens is de afwasbaarheid van verpakkingscomponenten niet onderzocht in deze studie, aangezien dit buiten de opdrachtbeschrijving valt. Deze studie opent – op basis van de eigenschappen van het gerecyclede materiaal - mogelijkheden voor de mechanische recycling van een deel van de PET-schalen. Het gaat om het deel waarvoor een gegarandeerde luchtdichte afsluiting niet noodzakelijk is, en waarvoor dus geen sealmedium nodig is, zoals bij klemdeksels voor druiven, tomaten, zacht-fruit, noten, etc. Voor PET-schalen die wel gegarandeerd luchtdicht afgesloten moeten worden (vlees, vis, kaas, vleeswaar, vleesvervangers, etc.) is een seal-systeem nodig dat of verenigbaar is met PET of volledig afgescheiden kan worden in het mechanische recyclingproces. Om verder te komen met de mechanische recycling van PET-schalen is meer onderzoek naar een dergelijk sealsysteem en de afwasbaarheid daarvan in een mechanisch recyclingproces noodzakelijk. In de tussentijd kan alleen een beperkte hoeveelheid PET-schalen mechanisch worden gerecycled mits er een sorteertechnologie wordt ontwikkeld om de zuivere PET-schalen uit het mengsel van PET-schalen te halen. Los hiervan, blijven er nog uitdagingen met het beperkte massa-rendement van het mechanische recycling proces.---A technical exploration study has been executed to define the maximal achievable quality of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET) that can be made from PET trays with a standard mechanical recycling process. PET is a versatile packaging material used to package multiple fresh food products such as meat, fish, cheese, salads, nuts, etc. Multiple recycling processes have been developed for PET bottles that deliver food-grade rPET. For the larger market of PET trays this has not been successful, yet, on an industrial scale, despite multiple attempts by various companies. The attempts to process the sorted product PET trays into recycled PET have failed because of low mass yields for the PET product, large volumes of waste being generated and insufficient quality of the final product. Sorted PET trays are a complicated feedstock. It is heterogeneous in size, colour and composition. Moreover, PET trays are composed of multiple components and materials. This translates in quality issues with the recycled PET material, which limit the applicability of the PET material largely. To determine the maximum achievable quality of rPET that can be made from trays, four types of trays were studied. It involved PET trays that were composed of only PET, but also PET trays with a sealing layer on the flange, PET trays with a PE coating on the inside and PET trays with sealing layers and residues of top-film. All these trays were separately comminuted, dried, extruded and injection moulded into test specimen. The material properties of the mechanically recycled PET trays were studied in relation to the composition of the feedstock trays. This revealed that recycled PET made from pure PET trays, to which no seal medium has been added, is transparent and hardly coloured. The intrinsic viscosity of this type of recycled PET is unfortunately too low, which results in a brittle material. This material will first have to be subjected to a solid-state post-condensation process. This will make the material stronger, easier to process and wider applicable. An additional and alternative option to increase the intrinsic viscosity is to mix with virgin PET. In case the feedstock contains a seal medium or a residue of top-film the rPET turns grey and hazy. Although the intrinsic viscosities of these types of rPET were slightly better, they are still too low to process the material smoothly. Also these types of rPET will need to be subjected to solid state postcondensation. For these types of recycled PET there is currently no market of significance. These results show that the desired quality of transparent recycled PET can only be obtained from PET trays that are solely composed of PET and to which no other material has been added. This implies that PET trays that are designed for mechanical recycling are only allowed to be composed of PET and the packaging components (such as labels) should be removed during recycling with very high separation efficiencies. The removal efficiency of packaging components during the washing step of the recycling process was not analysed, as this fell outside the scope of this study. According to this study the mechanical recycling should be possible for the subset of PET trays that does not rely on a gas tight closure of the trays, such as clam shells for grapes, tomatoes, soft fruit, nuts, etc. For PET trays used in modified atmosphere packages, that hence need to be sealed hermetically (meat, fish, cheese, cured meats, meat replacements, etc.), first a sealing system is required that is either compatible with PET or can be completely removed during recycling. To progress with the mechanical recycling of PET trays, further research into such a sealing system, including its removal during a mechanical recycling process, is paramount. In the meantime, only a limited amount of PET trays can be mechanically recycled, provided that a sorting technology is developed that can sort out pure PET trays from a mixture of PET trays. Besides these challenges, also the limited mass yield of the mechanical recycling process for PET trays has to be resolved.
    Samenvatting: Gerecycled PET in nieuwe flessen : Het effect op migratie, verkleuring en flessterkte
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Alvarado, F. ; Brouwer, M.T. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 5 p.
    biobased economy - plastics - recycling - bottles
    Effect of recycled content and rPET quality on the properties of PET bottles, part II: Migration
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Stärker, Carina ; Welle, Frank - \ 2020
    Packaging Technology and Science 33 (2020)9. - ISSN 0894-3214 - p. 359 - 371.
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were produced from three types of recycled PET (rPET) with four levels of recycled content. The migration of substances from these bottles to water was studied. Several migrated substances were detected. The migrated amounts of acetaldehyde and ethylene glycol complied with the limits given in the food contact material (FCM) legislation. Migration of 2‐methyl‐1,3‐dioxolane was below the limit of 10 μg·L−1, which is conventionally applied for non‐intentionally added substances (NIAS) not classified as ‘carcinogenic’, ‘mutagenic’ or ‘toxic to reproduction’ (CMR). Limonene, acetone, butanone and furan were also detected as migrants, of which limonene is a natural fragrant, and the other three are probably residues from solvents used to clean and protect the mould at the small‐scale production facility. Finally, benzene and styrene were also found as migrants from rPET. These migrants appear to originate from heat‐induced reactions within the PET matrix, which involve contaminants. The formation of benzene in rPET is attributed to polyvinylchloride as contaminant. The migrated amounts of benzene from the PET bottles with recycled content to the water simulant are relatively small (0.03–0.44 μg·L−1) after 10 days at 40°C. Consequently, the margin of exposure is 3.105–8.106. Hence, the level of concern for the public health is low, and the migrated amount represents a low priority for risk management. The FCM legislation demands a risk assessment for migrating NIAS. Depending on the underlying data and exposure scenario, different threshold limits in the food can be derived which can still be considered as safe.
    Effect of recycled content and rPET quality on the properties of PET bottles, part III : Modelling of repetitive recycling
    Brouwer, Marieke T. ; Alvarado Chacon, Fresia ; Velzen, Eggo U.T. van - \ 2020
    Packaging Technology and Science 33 (2020)9. - ISSN 0894-3214 - p. 373 - 383.
    accumulation - contamination - modelling - PET bottles - recycled content
    The presence of contaminants in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and derived materials from the various steps in the recycling loop is studied. Based on these measurements, a model is proposed to generically describe the accumulation of these contaminants within closed‐loop recycling schemes for PET bottles. The measured levels of particle contamination and chlorine content of PET bottles, pellets, and intermediate recycling products are used to derive the modelling parameters. Previously determined relations between these measured parameters and critical bottle properties are used to model the effect of the accumulation of the contaminants on the bottle properties. The measurements reveal that the type of collection system influences the accumulation of contaminants in PET bottles greatly. PET bottles in mono‐collection systems accumulate less contaminants than PET bottles in co‐collection systems do. Therefore, PET bottles within recycling schemes using mono‐collection systems can contain more recycled content than those from co‐collection systems, without exceeding acceptation limits on critical bottle properties such as haziness, yellowing, and migration.
    A standardized Physical Equivalent Temperature urban heat map at 1-m spatial resolution to facilitate climate stress tests in the Netherlands
    Koopmans, S. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2020
    Building and Environment 181 (2020). - ISSN 0360-1323
    Climate scenario - GIS - Heat map - Physiological equivalent temperature - The Netherlands - Urban climate - Urban heat island - Urban planning

    In the Netherlands, municipalities and other sub-national governments have to conduct climate stress tests to examine the societal impact of heat load by citizens. So far, these parties have been hindered by the abundance of contrasting urban heat maps produced with different metrics and methods by different agencies. To unify the stress tests, we present a methodology for a standardized urban heat map at 1-m spatial resolution by selecting the Physical Equivalent Temperature (PET) as metric for heat stress. First we present an empirical regression model for PET, based on a variety of weather data and street configurations in the human thermal energy balance model Rayman. Thereafter, this empirical PET-model is evaluated for the midsized town Wageningen (the Netherlands). Meteorological observations taken at a nearby reference site and straightforward geographical data have been used as model input. Also, established methods were applied and elaborated to account for the urban heat island effect and wind speed reduction in the city. The presented method is validated against bike traverse observations of PET. Wind speed is the most challenging feature to map, due to its unsteady and local behaviour in cities. As a result, an afternoon averaged PET heat map is demonstrated as standard for an extreme heat day (1:1000 summer half year days), and a cumulative exceedance PET heat map for a representative year. Furthermore, a heat map is projected for 2050 according a warm climate change scenario.

    A systems analysis of microplastic pollution in Laizhou Bay, China
    Teng, Jia ; Zhao, Jianmin ; Zhang, C. ; Cheng, Bo ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Wu, Di ; Gao, Meng ; Sun, Xiyan ; Wang, Qing - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 745 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Microplastic contamination is attracting increasing attention worldwide. In this study, the patterns of microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment from 58 sites, and living fish from 31 sites were investigated in a semi-closed bay (Laizhou Bay, China). Microplastics in Laizhou Bay were pervasively distributed, particularly in the form of fibers. Microplastic abundance exhibited no significant differences among regions in either surface waters or sediments, indicating multiple sources of microplastics pollution in the bay. Spatial hotspot (Getis-Ord Gi*) analysis demonstrated that microplastic pollution was mainly concentrated in the Laizhou-Weifang area, which in turn was mainly affected by ocean current dynamics. Although the spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments was different from surface water, it was also affected by geology, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic activities. The most common polymer in the surface waters was polyethylene terephthalate (PET), while cellophane (CP) was the most frequently observed polymer in sediment, suggesting different sinking behaviors of these microplastics. The proportion of low-density microplastics (PE and PP) in surface water was approximately 19.9%, but these microplastics accounted for only approximately 1.7% in the sediment, suggesting that low-density microplastic particles preferentially migrate to open sea. There were significant differences in shape, size and polymer type of the microplastics among surface water, sediment and biota (p < 0.05). Cluster analysis suggested that the Gudong, Yellow River Estuary and Laizhou-Weifang regions are three sources of microplastics, which might originate from river input, plastic recycling and marine raft aquaculture. Furthermore, microplastic particle diversity was greater in sediment at offshore sites, suggesting that these sites receive microplastics from multiple sources. Our results characterize the microplastic pollution pattern, clarify the possible transfer mechanisms between different environmental media, and will provide important information for risk evaluation and pollution control in this area.
    Antifouling Polymer Brushes via Oxygen-Tolerant Surface-Initiated PET-RAFT
    Kuzmyn, Andriy R. ; Nguyen, Ai T. ; Teunissen, Lucas W. ; Zuilhof, Han ; Baggerman, Jacob - \ 2020
    Langmuir 36 (2020)16. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 4439 - 4446.

    This work presents a new method for the synthesis of antifouling polymer brushes using surface-initiated photoinduced electron transfer-reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization with eosin Y and triethanolamine as catalysts. This method proceeds in an aqueous environment under atmospheric conditions without any prior degassing and without the use of heavy metal catalysts. The versatility of the method is shown by using three chemically different monomers: oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide, and carboxybetaine methacrylamide. In addition, the light-triggered nature of the polymerization allows the creation of complex three-dimensional structures. The composition and topological structuring of the brushes are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The kinetics of the polymerizations are followed by measuring the layer thickness with ellipsometry. The polymer brushes demonstrate excellent antifouling properties when exposed to single-protein solutions and complex biological matrices such as diluted bovine serum. This method thus presents a new simple approach for the manufacturing of antifouling coatings for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

    Urinary excretion of advanced glycation end products in dogs and cats
    Palaseweenun, Pornsucha ; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A. ; Schonewille, Thomas J. ; Koop, Gerrit ; Butre, Claire ; Jonathan, Melliana ; Wierenga, Peter A. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. - \ 2020
    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0931-2439
    advanced glycation end products - cats - diet - dogs - urinary excretion

    The present study was conducted with privately owned dogs and cats to investigate whether a relationship exists between the dietary AGEs and the urinary excretion of AGEs, as indication of possible effective absorption of those compounds in the intestinal tract of pet carnivores. For this purpose, data were collected from both raw fed and dry processed food (DPF) fed to dogs and cats, through spot urine sampling and questionnaires. Raw pet food (RF, low in AGE diets) was fed as a primary food source to 29 dogs and DPF to 28 dogs. Cats were categorized into 3 groups, which were RF (n = 15), DPF (n = 14) and dry and wet processed pet food (DWF, n = 25). Urinary-free carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL) and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analysed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)—mass spectrometry, and were standardized for variable urine concentration by expressing the AGE concentrations as a ratio to urine creatinine (Ucr) concentration (µg/µmol Ucr). Urinary excretion of CML, CEL and LAL in dogs fed with DPF was 2.03, 2.14 and 3 times higher compared to dogs fed with RF (p <.005). Similar to the dogs, a significant difference in CML:Ucr, CEL:Ucr and LAL:Ucr between the three diet groups was observed in cats (p-overall < 0.005, ANOVA), in which the RF fed group excreted less AGEs than the other groups. Linear regression coefficients and SE of CML:Ucr, CEL:Ucr and LAL:Ucr showed that body weight and neuter status were significantly correlated with CML and CEL excretion, but not to LAL excretion. Our results revealed a significant correlation between dietary AGEs and urinary excretion of free CML, CEL and LAL, and also showed that endogenous formation of these AGEs occurs in both dogs and cats under physiological conditions.

    Are urban water bodies really cooling?
    Jacobs, Cor ; Klok, Lisette ; Bruse, Michael ; Cortesão, João ; Lenzholzer, Sanda ; Kluck, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Urban Climate 32 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0955

    Small urban water bodies, like ponds or canals, are often assumed to cool their surroundings during hot periods, when water bodies remain cooler than air during daytime. However, during the night they may be warmer. Sufficient fetch is required for thermal effects to reach a height of 1–2 m, relevant for humans. In the ‘Really cooling water bodies in cities’ (REALCOOL) project thermal effects of typical Dutch urban water bodies were explored, using ENVI-met 4.1.3. This model version enables users to specify intensity of turbulent mixing and light absorption of the water, offering improved water temperature simulations. Local thermal effects near individual water bodies were assessed as differences in air temperature and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The simulations suggest that local thermal effects of small water bodies can be considered negligible in design practice. Afternoon air temperatures in surrounding spaces were reduced by typically 0.2 °C and the maximum cooling effect was 0.6 °C. Typical PET reduction was 0.6 °C, with a maximum of 1.9 °C. Night-time warming effects are even smaller. However, the immediate surroundings of small water bodies can become cooler by means of shading from trees, fountains or water mists, and natural ventilation. Such interventions induce favorable changes in daytime PET.

    The proposition: 'Prevent suffering among pets with a welfare assessment'
    Schop, Marijke - \ 2020
    Investigation on food packaging polymers: Effects on vegetable oil oxidation
    Hu, Keqing ; Huyan, Zongyao ; Ding, Shaoxuan ; Dong, Yaoyao ; Yu, Xiuzhu - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 315 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Contact angles - Packaging polymer - Vegetable oil oxidation - Volatile compounds

    Polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces and particles were employed to study effects of polymer materials on linseed oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower seed oil oxidation. The surface types of the materials, hydroperoxide content and volatile in oils were determined by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Oils on PP surfaces underwent a more rapid oxidation, followed by PA, PE and PET. Except PP sets, this order was consistent with surface hydrophilicity of polymers. Further study using polymer particles avoiding packaging barrier suggested this was probably due to barrier factors. Although PE surfaces allowed oil to have lower content of hydroperoxides, it can promote oil hydroperoxide decomposition into volatile products. Surface types of polymer materials are correlated with oxidation of contacted oil, and these surfaces can also affect the oil secondary oxidation and the degradation of oxidation products.

    Faecal carriage, risk factors, acquisition and persistence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in dogs and cats and co-carriage with humans belonging to the same household
    Bunt, G. van den; Fluit, A.C. ; Spaninks, M.P. ; Timmerman, A.J. ; Geurts, Y. ; Kant, A. ; Scharringa, J. ; Mevius, D. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Bonten, M.J.M. ; Pelt, W. van; Hordijk, J. - \ 2020
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 75 (2020)2. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 342 - 350.

    BACKGROUND: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are observed in many reservoirs. Pets might play an important role in the dissemination of ESBL-E to humans since they live closely together. OBJECTIVES: To identify prevalence, risk factors, molecular characteristics, persistence and acquisition of ESBL-E in dogs and cats, and co-carriage in human-pet pairs belonging to the same household. METHODS: In a nationwide study, one person per household was randomly invited to complete a questionnaire and to submit a faecal sample. Dog and cat owners were invited to also submit a faecal sample from their pet. Repeated sampling after 1 and 6 months was performed in a subset. ESBL-E were obtained through selective culture and characterized by WGS. Logistic regression analyses and random forest models were performed to identify risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ESBL-E carriage in these cohorts was 3.8% (95% CI: 2.7%-5.4%) for human participants (n=550), 10.7% (95% CI: 8.3%-13.7%) for dogs (n=555) and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.5%-3.8%) for cats (n=285). Among animals, blaCTX-M-1 was most abundant, followed by blaCTX-M-15. In dogs, persistence of carriage was 57.1% at 1 month and 42.9% at 6 months. Eating raw meat [OR: 8.8, 95% CI: 4.7-16.4; population attributable risk (PAR): 46.5%, 95% CI: 41.3%-49.3%] and dry food (OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.5; PAR: 56.5%, 95% CI: 33.2%-66.6%) were predictors for ESBL-E carriage in dogs. Human-dog co-carriage was demonstrated in five households. Human-cat co-carriage was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: ESBL-E prevalence was higher in dogs than in humans and lowest in cats. The main risk factor for ESBL-E carriage was eating raw meat. Co-carriage in dogs and household members was uncommon.

    Effect of recycled content and rPET quality on the properties of PET bottles, part I: Optical and mechanical properties
    Alvarado, F. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2020
    Packaging Technology and Science 33 (2020)9. - ISSN 0894-3214 - p. 345 - 394.


    The effect of recycled content and type of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (rPET) on the haziness; colour parameters L*, a*, and b*; total colour change; ultraviolet‐visual spectrum (UV‐VIS) absorption; and environmental stress cracking (ESC) of PET bottles was studied. Three series of PET bottles were made at a small scale production facility with same type of virgin PET and three different types of rPET with recycled contents of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Also, the particle contamination of the produced PET bottles was studied by dissolving bottle fragments and counting the insoluble particles. A linear relationship was found between the haziness of PET bottles and the particle contamination, with a coefficient of determination of 0.96. Linear relationships were also found between the colour parameters L* and b* and the particle contamination of the PET bottles, but the slope differed for each type of rPET. The origin of rPET (mono‐collection or cocollection) seems to be the crucial factor determining particle contamination and colour of the produced bottles. No correlation was found between the recycled content and the incidence of ESC. However, PET bottles in which high intrinsic viscosity (IV) values were measured showed lower chances of ESC than PET bottles with low IV values
    Welfare and interactions between humans and companion animals
    Koene, Paul - \ 2019
    In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior / Chun Choe, Jae, Elsevier - ISBN 9780128132524 - p. 176 - 195.
    Animal behavior - Animal welfare - Behavioral assessment - Companion animal - Exotic pet - Five freedoms - Human-companion animal interaction - Pet animal - Pet Owner - Proxy assessment - Veterinary practice - Welfare assessment - Welfare Quality - Welfare status

    Welfare of pets can be assessed on the basis of three distinct but overlapping domains: health and physiological functioning (body), affective state (mind), and normal development, behavior, and temperament, including social functioning (nature). Behavioral assessment is used to assess each of these domains. Behavior provides information about pets’ health, needs, preferences, internal states and interaction with their environment. Several types of assessments of group or individual welfare may be used for varying situations, i.e. home, veterinary practice or shelter. Evidence-based assessment support management or treatment decisions that enhance the welfare of pets. Human-companion animal interactions occur in many contexts and on many levels. Positive and negative aspects of the interactions influence welfare and health of both human and companion animals in different and several ways. Many reviews of aspects of the interactions are described in literature with a focus on dogs and some on cats and often almost no information of other species in formal literature is found (sometimes in grey literature). The reviews are not yet very conclusive about effects of interactions mainly caused by biased and mostly correlational methodology of studying the interactions. For this review is chosen to focus on the existing frameworks of interactions and ameliorating the methodology of studying interactions. Human-Companion Animal Interactions (HCAI) can take several outcomes of which only some are clearly proven using sound scientific methods, such as incidences of increased human health and welfare. On the other hand, HCAI have also negative outcomes and can cause hospital visits after bites, traffic accidents and environmental damage by stray or feral former-companion animals. For this review is chosen to focus on the existing frameworks of human-companion animal interactions and ameliorating the methodology of studying interactions. Finally, emphasis is on the ethological and veterinary practice of helping/interacting with companion animals and focus on the suitability of species as a companion animal.

    De in-home studie - Stichting Better Pet World
    Bos, Evelien - \ 2019
    Stichting Better Pet World
    Good grub: Are insects the answer to unsustainable pet food?
    Bosch, Guido ; Corbee, Ronald Jan - \ 2019
    Highly transparent films of new copolyesters derived from terephthalic and 2,4-furandicarboxylic acids
    Zaidi, Sami ; Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam ; Bougarech, Abdelkader ; Sebti, Fouzia ; Abid, Souhir ; Majdi, Abid ; Silvestre, Armando J.D. ; Sousa, Andreia F. - \ 2019
    Polymer Chemistry 10 (2019)39. - ISSN 1759-9954 - p. 5324 - 5332.

    In this study transparent films of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-co-(ethylene 2,4-furandicarboxylate) (PET-co-2,4-PEF) copolymers were developed for the first time, exploring the ability of 2,4-furandicarboxylic acid (2,4-FDCA) to impart excellent optical properties to the polymers thereof. The properties were fine-tuned by feeding this furan monomer content. For example, specifically up to 15 mol% the copolyesters were semi-crystalline in nature, and they were amorphous materials when exceeding the limits of 50 mol% and above. The amorphous polymers had excellent thermal stability over 400 °C, in combination with high transmittance at the wavelength of 555 nm.

    Staat van het dier : Beschouwingen en opinies over de verschuivende relatie tussen mens en dier in Nederland
    Schukken, Y.H. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Alphen, J.J.M. van; Hopster, H. - \ 2019
    Den Haag : Raad voor Dierenaangelegenheden - 199
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - gezelschapsdieren - wilde dieren - laboratoriumdieren - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - diervoeding - diergedrag - dierethiek - animal welfare - animal production - pets - wild animals - laboratory animals - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition - animal behaviour - animal ethics
    De positie van het dier in onze maatschappij verandert. De opstelling van de mens als heerser over dieren maakt geleidelijk plaats voor een houding die gekenmerkt wordt door betrokkenheid bij dieren en acceptatie van hun eigenheid. Inbreuken op dierenwelzijn worden steeds minder geaccepteerd. We bewegen naar een nieuw verbond tussen mensen en dieren. Dat stelt de Raad in zijn rapport 'De Staat van het Dier'.
    PET heat map Wageningen (the Netherlands)
    Koopmans, S. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2019
    PET (Physical Equivalent Temperature) heat map valid for 1 July 2015 on 1 meter resolution. This is a hot summer day with a PET exceedance probability of ~1: 5.5 years
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