Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Strategies for robust and accurate experimental approaches to quantify nanomaterial bioaccumulation across a broad range of organisms
Petersen, Elijah J. ; Mortimer, Monika ; Burgess, Robert M. ; Handy, Richard ; Hanna, Shannon ; Ho, Kay T. ; Johnson, Monique ; Loureiro, Susana ; Selck, Henriette ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J. ; Spurgeon, David ; Unrine, Jason ; Brink, Nico W. Van Den; Wang, Ying ; White, Jason ; Holden, Patricia - \ 2019
Environmental Science: Nano covers the benefits... 6 (2019)6. - ISSN 2051-8153 - p. 1619 - 1656.

One of the key components for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is data on bioaccumulation potential. Accurately measuring bioaccumulation can be critical for regulatory decision-making regarding material hazard and risk, and for understanding the mechanism of toxicity. This perspective provides expert guidance for performing ENM bioaccumulation measurements across a broad range of test organisms and species. To accomplish this aim, we critically evaluated ENM bioaccumulation within three categories of organisms: single-celled species, multicellular species excluding plants, and multicellular plants. For aqueous exposures of suspended single-celled and small multicellular species, it is critical to perform a robust procedure to separate suspended ENMs and small organisms to avoid overestimating bioaccumulation. For many multicellular organisms, it is essential to differentiate between the ENMs adsorbed to external surfaces or in the digestive tract and the amount absorbed across epithelial tissues. For multicellular plants, key considerations include how exposure route and the role of the rhizosphere may affect the quantitative measurement of uptake, and that the efficiency of washing procedures to remove loosely attached ENMs to the roots is not well understood. Within each organism category, case studies are provided to illustrate key methodological considerations for conducting robust bioaccumulation experiments for different species within each major group. The full scope of ENM bioaccumulation measurements and interpretations are discussed including conducting the organism exposure, separating organisms from the ENMs in the test media after exposure, analytical methods to quantify ENMs in the tissues or cells, and modeling the ENM bioaccumulation results. One key finding to improve bioaccumulation measurements was the critical need for further analytical method development to identify and quantify ENMs in complex matrices. Overall, the discussion, suggestions, and case studies described herein will help improve the robustness of ENM bioaccumulation studies.

Evaluation of academic legal publications in Germany
Purnhagen, K. ; Petersen, Niels - \ 2019
In: Evaluating academic legal research in Europe / van Gestel, Rob, Lienhard, Andreas, Elgar - ISBN 9781788115490
Legal research has a longstanding and proud tradition in Germany. German academia has always had assessment procedures in place to ensure the quality of legal research and teaching. However, there has been little study of legal research evaluation itself, its effectiveness and ‘fit[ness] for purpose’. A general evaluation of the state of legal scholarship in Germany has been conducted by the Wissenschaftsrat: a group of scientists and politicians which advises the German federal government and the state (Länder) governments on the structure and development of higher education and research. In 2012 the Wissenschaftsrat published a widely discussed analysis of legal scholarship in Germany, which also reflected on the evaluation of the quality of legal research in Germany. In response to this analysis, a number of publications have developed a specific vision of what legal research in Germany is and what it should look like. However, there is still very little discussion in German legal academia on what constitutes good legal research. As a consequence, unfortunately, little data exists on which to base this chapter. The most comprehensive evaluation is still the 2012 publication of the Wissenschaftsrat and publicly available official statistics on the matter. In light of this research gap, the analysis in this chapter is based mainly on these publications, as well as anecdotal evidence acquired from the authors’ own experiences and confidential open interviews with colleagues working at German universities.
A Migratory Divide Among Red-Necked Phalaropes in the Western Palearctic Reveals Contrasting Migration and Wintering Movement Strategies
Bemmelen, Rob S.A. van; Kolbeinsson, Yann ; Ramos, Raül ; Gilg, Olivier ; Alves, José A. ; Smith, Malcolm ; Schekkerman, Hans ; Lehikoinen, Aleksi ; Petersen, Ib Krag ; Þórisson, Böðvar ; Sokolov, Aleksandr A. ; Välimäki, Kaisa ; Meer, Tim Van Der; Okill, J.D. ; Bolton, Mark ; Moe, Børge ; Hanssen, Sveinn Are ; Bollache, Loïc ; Petersen, Aevar ; Thorstensen, Sverrir ; González-Solís, Jacob ; Klaassen, Raymond H.G. ; Tulp, Ingrid - \ 2019
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7 (2019). - ISSN 2296-701X - 17 p.
flexibility - itinerancy - migration strategy - Phalaropus lobatus - red-necked phalarope
Non-breeding movement strategies of migratory birds may be expected to be flexibly adjusted to the distribution and quality of habitat, but few studies compare movement strategies among populations using distinct migration routes and wintering areas. In our study, individual movement strategies of red-necked phalaropes (Phalaropus lobatus), a long-distance migratory wader which uses saline waters in the non-breeding period, were studied using light-level geolocators. Results revealed a migratory divide between two populations with distinct migration routes and wintering areas: one breeding in the north-eastern North Atlantic and migrating ca. 10,000 km oversea to the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, and the other breeding in Fennoscandia and Russia migrating
ca. 6,000 km—largely over land—to the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean). In line with our expectations, the transoceanic migration between the North Atlantic and the Pacific was associated with proportionately longer wings, a more even spread of stopovers in autumn and a higher migration speed in spring compared to the migration between Fennoscandian-Russian breeding grounds and the Arabian Sea. In the wintering period, van Bemmelen et al. Contrasting Movement Strategies in Phalaropes birds wintering in the Pacific were stationary in roughly a single area, whereas individuals wintering in the Arabian Sea moved extensively between different areas, reflecting differences in spatio-temporal variation in primary productivity between the two wintering areas. Our study is unique in showing how habitat distribution shapes movement strategies over the entire non-breeding period within a species.
Global monitoring of antimicrobial resistance based on metagenomics analyses of urban sewage
Hendriksen, Rene S. ; Munk, Patrick ; Njage, Patrick ; Bunnik, Bram Van; Mcnally, Luke ; Lukjancenko, Oksana ; Röder, Timo ; Nieuwenhuijse, David ; Pedersen, Susanne Karlsmose ; Kjeldgaard, Jette ; Kaas, Rolf S. ; Clausen, Philip Thomas Lanken Conradsen ; Vogt, Josef Korbinian ; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas ; De Schans, Milou G.M. Van; Zuidema, Tina ; Roda Husman, Ana Maria De; Rasmussen, Simon ; Petersen, Bent ; Amid, Clara ; Cochrane, Guy ; Sicheritz-ponten, Thomas ; Schmitt, Heike ; Alvarez, Jorge Raul Matheu ; Aidara-kane, Awa ; Pamp, Sünje J. ; Lund, Ole ; Hald, Tine ; Woolhouse, Mark ; Koopmans, Marion P. ; Vigre, Håkan ; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl ; Aarestrup, Frank M. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723 - 12 p.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global public health, but obtaining representative data on AMR for healthy human populations is difficult. Here, we use meta-genomic analysis of untreated sewage to characterize the bacterial resistome from 79 sites in 60 countries. We find systematic differences in abundance and diversity of AMR genes between Europe/North-America/Oceania and Africa/Asia/South-America. Antimicrobial use data and bacterial taxonomy only explains a minor part of the AMR variation that we observe. We find no evidence for cross-selection between antimicrobial classes, or for effect of air travel between sites. However, AMR gene abundance strongly correlates with socio-economic, health and environmental factors, which we use to predict AMR gene abundances in all countries in the world. Our findings suggest that global AMR gene diversity and abundance vary by region, and that improving sanitation and health could potentially limit the global burden of AMR. We propose metagenomic analysis of sewage as an ethically acceptable and economically feasible approach for continuous global surveillance and prediction of AMR.
A multi-parent recombinant inbred line population of C. elegans allows identification of novel QTLs for complex life history traits
Snoek, B.L. ; Volkers, J.M. ; Nijveen, H. ; Petersen, Carola ; Dirksen, Philipp ; Sterken, M.G. ; Nakad, Rania ; Riksen, J.A.G. ; Rosenstiel, P.C. ; Stastna, J.J. ; Braekman, B.P. ; Harvey, S.C. ; Schulenburg, Hinrich ; Kammenga, J.E. - \ 2019
BMC Biology 17 (2019). - ISSN 1741-7007 - 17 p.
Background - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively used to explore the relationships between complex traits, genotypes, and environments. Complex traits can vary across different genotypes of a species, and the genetic regulators of trait variation can be mapped on the genome using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from genetically and phenotypically divergent parents. Most RILs have been derived from crossing two parents from globally distant locations. However, the genetic diversity between local C. elegans populations can be as diverse as between global populations and could thus provide means of identifying genetic variation associated with complex traits relevant on a broader scale.
Results - To investigate the effect of local genetic variation on heritable traits, we developed a new RIL population derived from 4 parental wild isolates collected from 2 closely located sites in France: Orsay and Santeuil. We crossed these 4 genetically diverse parental isolates to generate a population of 200 multi-parental RILs and used RNA-seq to obtain sequence polymorphisms identifying almost 9000 SNPs variable between the 4 genotypes with an average spacing of 11 kb, doubling the mapping resolution relative to currently available RIL panels for many loci. The SNPs were used to construct a genetic map to facilitate QTL analysis. We measured life history traits such as lifespan, stress resistance, developmental speed, and population growth in different environments, and found substantial variation for most traits. We detected multiple QTLs for most traits, including novel QTLs not found in previous QTL analysis, including those for lifespan and pathogen responses. This shows that recombining genetic variation across C. elegans populations that are in geographical close proximity provides ample variation for QTL mapping.
Conclusion -Taken together, we show that using more parents than the classical two parental genotypes to construct a RIL population facilitates the detection of QTLs and that the use of wild isolates facilitates the detection of QTLs. The use of multi-parent RIL populations can further enhance our understanding of local adaptation and life history trade-offs.
Sameness and difference in delta planning
Zegwaard, Arjen ; Zwarteveen, Margreet ; Halsema, Gerardo van; Petersen, Arthur - \ 2019
Environmental Science & Policy 94 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 237 - 244.
Coevolution - Delta planning - Dutch delta knowledge - Masterplanning

Triggered by an increased awareness of the possible effects of climate change, many deltaic regions around the world are undertaking planning initiatives to address the problems they expect to face in the future. Dutch delta planning knowledge and expertise figure prominently in some of these initiatives. We use this article to ask why this is so. What makes Dutch delta knowledge special, and how does it become generic enough to travel to other places? The pertinence of these questions stems from the realization that deltas do not pre-exist human interventions, but are as much the effect of different planning cultures, trajectories and objectives, as they are their cause. Through a discussion of some telling anecdotes of delta planning, our analysis shows that while the Dutchness of delta planning expertise is a powerful branding, this expertise can only travel through a conscious and simultaneous process of un-Dutching: by packaging and scientizing Dutch Delta planning to turn it into a more generic Adaptive Delta Management approach.

Correction to: In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5470 - 5470.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The email address Dr. Wen-Quan Zou, one of the corresponding authors should be written as “wxz6@case.edu” instead of “wxz@case.edu”.

The Role and Need for Space-Based Forest Biomass-Related Measurements in Environmental Management and Policy
Herold, Martin ; Carter, Sarah ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Espejo, Andrés B. ; Jonckheere, Inge ; Lucas, Richard ; McRoberts, Ronald E. ; Næsset, Erik ; Nightingale, Joanne ; Petersen, Rachael ; Reiche, Johannes ; Romijn, Erika ; Rosenqvist, Ake ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Seifert, Frank Martin ; Sanz, María J. ; Sy, V. de - \ 2019
Surveys in Geophysics 40 (2019)4. - ISSN 0169-3298 - p. 757 - 778.
The achievement of international goals and national commitments related to forest conservation and management, climate change, and sustainable development requires credible, accurate, and reliable monitoring of stocks and changes in forest biomass and carbon. Most prominently, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals in particular require data on biomass to monitor progress. Unprecedented opportunities to provide forest biomass data are created by a series of upcoming space-based missions, many of which provide open data targeted at large areas and better spatial resolution biomass monitoring than has previously been achieved. We assess various policy needs for biomass data and recommend a long-term collaborative effort among forest biomass data producers and users to meet these needs. A gap remains, however, between what can be achieved in the research domain and what is required to support policy making and meet reporting requirements. There is no single biomass dataset that serves all users in terms of definition and type of biomass measurement, geographic area, and uncertainty requirements, and whether there is need for the most recent up-to-date biomass estimate or a long-term biomass trend. The research and user communities should embrace the potential strength of the multitude of upcoming missions in combination to provide for these varying needs and to ensure continuity for long-term data provision which one-off research missions cannot provide. International coordination bodies such as Global Forest Observations Initiative (GFOI), Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics (GOFC‐GOLD) will be integral in addressing these issues in a way that fulfils these needs in a timely fashion. Further coordination work should particularly look into how space-based data can be better linked with field reference data sources such as forest plot networks, and there is also a need to ensure that reference data cover a range of forest types, management regimes, and disturbance regimes worldwide.
In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5456 - 5469.
Humanized transgenic mice - Polymorphism - Prion - Prion disease - Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) - Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) - Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr)

Both sporadic variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the prion protein (PrP) V180I mutation (fCJDV180I) have been found to share a unique pathological prion protein (PrPSc) that lacks the protease-resistant PrPSc glycosylated at residue 181 because two of four PrP glycoforms are apparently not converted into the PrPSc from their cellular PrP (PrPC). To investigate the seeding activity of these unique PrPSc molecules, we conducted in vitro prion conversion experiments using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays with different PrPC substrates. We observed that the seeding of PrPSc from VPSPr or fCJDV180I in the sPMCA reaction containing normal human or humanized transgenic (Tg) mouse brain homogenates generated PrPSc molecules that unexpectedly exhibited a dominant diglycosylated PrP isoform along with PrP monoglycosylated at residue 181. The efficiency of PrPSc amplification was significantly higher in non-CJDMM than in non-CJDVV human brain homogenate, whereas it was higher in normal TgVV than in TgMM mouse brain homogenate. PrPC from the mixture of normal TgMM and Tg mouse brain expressing PrPV180I mutation (Tg180) but not TgV180I alone was converted into PrPSc by seeding with the VPSPr or fCJDV180I. The RT-QuIC seeding activity of PrPSc from VPSPr and fCJDV180I was significantly lower than that of sCJD. Our results suggest that the formation of glycoform-selective prions may be associated with an unidentified factor in the affected brain and the glycoform-deficiency of PrPSc does not affect the glycoforms of in vitro newly amplified PrPSc.

Feedbacks from Filter Feeders: Review on the Role of Mussels in Cycling and Storage of Nutrients in Oligo- Meso- and Eutrophic Cultivation Areas
Jansen, Henrice Maria ; Strand, Øivind ; Broekhoven, Wouter Van; Strohmeier, Tore ; Verdegem, Marc C. ; Smaal, Aad C. - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 143 - 177.
Cultured and wild bivalve stocks provide ecosystem services through regulation of nutrient dynamics; both by regeneration of nutrients that become available again for phytoplankton production (positive feedback), and by extraction
of nutrients through filtration and storage in tissue (negative feedback). Consequently, bivalves may fulfil a role in water quality management. The magnitude of regulating services by filter feeding bivalves varies between coastal ecosystems. This review uses the blue mussel as a model species and evaluates how cultured mussel stocks regulate nutrient dynamics in oligo- meso- and eutrophic ecosystems. We thereby examine (i) the eco-physiological response of mussels, and (ii) the positive and negative feedback mechanisms between mussel stocks and the surrounding ecosystem. Mussel culture in nutrient-poor areas (deep Norwegian fjords) are compared with cultures in other coastal systems with medium- to rich nutrient conditions. It was found that despite differences in eco-physiological rates under nutrient-poor conditions (higher clearance, lower egestion, similar excretion and tissue storage rates), the proportion of nutrients regenerated was similar between (deep) nutrient-poor
and (shallow) nutrient-rich areas. Of the filtered nutrients, 40–50% is regenerated
and thus made available again for phytoplankton growth, and 10–50% of the
filtered nutrients is stored in tissue and could be removed from the system by harvest. A priori, we inferred that as a consequence of low background nutrient levels, mussels would potentially have a larger effect on ecosystem functioning in nutrient-poor systems and/or seasons. However, this review showed that due to the physical characteristics (volume, water residence time) and low mussel densities in nutrient-poor Norwegian fjord systems, the effects were lower for these sites, while estimates were more profound in shallow nutrient-rich areas with more intensive aquaculture activities, especially in terms of the negative feedback mechanisms (filtration intensity).
Global Production of Marine Bivalves. Trends and Challenges
Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Troost, K. ; Fang, J. ; Roncarati, A. - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 7 - 26.
The global production of marine bivalves for human consumption is more than 15 million tonnes per year (average period 2010–2015), which is about 14% of the total marine production in the world. Most of the marine bivalve production
(89%) comes from aquaculture and only 11% comes from the wild fishery.
Asia, especially China, is by far the largest producer of marine bivalves, accounting for 85% of the world production and responsible for the production growth. In other continents, the production is stabilizing or decreasing (Europe) the last decades. In order to stimulate growth, sustainability (Planet, Profit, People) of the aquaculture activities is a key issue. Environmental (Planet) aspects for sustainable aquaculture include the fishery on seed resources, carrying capacity, invasive species and organic loading. Food safety issues due to environmental contaminants and biotoxines should be minimized to increase the reliability of marine bivalves as a healthy food source and to stimulate market demands. Properly designed monitoring programs are important tools to accomplish sustainable growth of marine bivalve production.
Perspectives on Bivalves Providing Regulating Services in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture
Strand, Øivind ; Jansen, Henrice M. ; Jiang, Zengjie ; Robinson, Shawn M.C. - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 209 - 230.
The concept of integrating species into one culture system originates from Asia and the Middle East. Development of integrated aquaculture involving marine bivalves is relatively new, going back to the late 1980s in China and 1990s in the Western world. In this chapter, we present four cases of integrated multi-trophic
aquaculture (IMTA) where bivalves are involved in providing regulating services: i) shrimp culture in ponds, ii) cascading pond systems, iii) open-water caged finfish culture and iv) bay-scale culture systems. The bay-scale integrated
culture system in Sanggou Bay in China represents commercial IMTA where a
range of different regulating services are provided by the bivalves. Bivalves use
degraded fragments derived from cultured kelp and organic waste products from
fish farming, and play an important role in the ecosystem processes of the bay. The provision of regulating services in shrimp and cascading ponds is evident as the system configurations allow for biogeochemical processing of waste to maximize extraction by the bivalves. The current configurations used in open-water finfish cage culture suggest that adaptation of concepts allowing for control of effluent water, producing longer contact times and increased biogeochemical processing of the waste products, will dominate future IMTA development. If global bivalve culture production is sustained, we will likely see more regulating services from bivalves in IMTA systems, as new opportunities may arise for developing novel IMTA configurations and concepts
Habitat Modification and Coastal Protection by Ecosystem-Engineering Reef-Building Bivalves
Ysebaert, Tom ; Walles, Brenda ; Haner, Judy ; Hancock, Boze - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 253 - 273.
Reef-building bivalves like oysters and mussels are conspicuous ecosystem
engineers in intertidal and subtidal coastal environments. By forming complex,
three-dimensional structures on top of the sediment surface, epibenthic bivalve
reefs exert strong bio-physical interactions, thereby influencing local hydro- and morphodynamics as well as surrounding habitats and associated species. The spatial impact of the ecosystem engineering effects of reef-building bivalves is much larger than the size of the reef. By influencing hydrodynamics oysters and mussels modify the sedimentary environment far beyond the boundaries of the reef, affecting morphological and ecological processes up to several hundreds of meters. Being key-stone species in many coastal environments, reef-building bivalves are increasingly recognized for their role in delivering important ecosystem services that serve human wellbeing. Here we focus on two services, namely the regulating service coastal protection (coastal erosion prevention, shoreline stabilization) and the supporting habitat for species service (enhancement of biodiversity and diversification of the landscape). Due to their wave dampening effects, reef-building bivalve reefs are increasingly used for shoreline protection and erosion control along eroding coastlines, as an alternative to artificial shoreline hardening. Thefacilitative interactions at long-distances of bivalve reefs provide biodiversity benefits and more specifically facilitate or protect other valuable habitats such as intertidal flats, sea grasses, saltmarshes and mangroves. Two case studies are used to demonstrate how bivalve reefs can be restored or constructed for shoreline protection and erosion control, thereby focusing on oyster reefs: (1) Oyster reefs for shoreline protection in coastal Alabama, USA, and (2) Oyster reefs as protection against tidal flat erosion, Oosterschelde, The Netherlands. It is argued that bivalve reefs should be promoted as nature-based solutions that provide biodiversity benefits and coastal protection and help in climate change mitigation and adaptation. In order to successfully restore these habitats practitioners should consider a general framework in which habitat requirements, environmental setting and long-distance interdependence between habitats are mutually considered.
Bivalve Assemblages as Hotspots for Biodiversity
Craeymeersch, J.A. ; Jansen, H.M. - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 275 - 294.
Many bivalve species occur in aggregations, and locally cover large parts
of the seafloor. Above a certain density they provide a distinct, three dimensional structure and the aggregations are called bivalve beds or reefs. These persistent aggregations form a biogenic habitat for many other species. Bivalve beds, therefore, often have, in comparison with the surrounding areas, a high biodiversity value and can be seen as hotspots for biodiversity. Bivalve have a wide global distribution, on rocky and sedimentary coasts. Different processes and mechanisms influence the presence of associated benthic fauna. This paper reviewed the main drivers that influence the biodiversity, such as the bivalve species involved, the density, the size and the age of the bed, the depth or height in the tidal zone and the substratum type. Bivalve beds not only occur naturally in many subtidal and intertidal areas around the world, but mussels and oysters are also extensively cultured. Addition of physical cultivation structures in the water column or on the bottom allows for development of substantial and diverse communities that have a structure similar to that of natural beds. Dynamics of culture populations may however differ from natural
bivalve reefs as a result of culture site and/or maintenance and operation like
harvesting of the bivalve cultures. We used the outcome of the review on the drivers for wild assemblages to evaluate trade-offs between bivalve aquaculture and biodiversity conservation. Studies comparing natural and cultured assemblages proved to allow for a better understanding of the effect of the culture strategies and, consequently, to forward sustainable bivalve cultures. This is illustrated by a case study in the Dutch Wadden Sea.
Introduction to Cultural Services
Smaal, Aad C. ; Strand, Øivind - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 315 - 316.
Cultural services of marine bivalves are of high value as they provide
well-being in many different ways. These services are more difficult to quantify but
provide a lot of qualities. Shell collectioning, shells as archives, community efforts
for bivalve restoration and gardening are some cases of cultural services. Marine
bivalves have been recognized as a carrier of a variety of cultures since pre-historic
times.
Bivalve Aquaculture Carrying Capacity : Concepts and Assessment Tools
Smaal, Aad C. ; Duren, L.A. Van - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 451 - 483.
The carrying capacity concept for bivalve aquaculture is used to assess
production potential of culture areas, and to address possible effects of the culture for the environment and for other users. Production potential is depending on physical and production carrying capacity of the ecosystem, while ecological and social carrying capacity determine to what extent the production capacity can be realized. According to current definitions, the ecological carrying capacity is the stocking or farm density of the exploited population above which unacceptable environmental impacts become apparent, and the social capacity is the level of farm development above which unacceptable social impacts are manifested. It can be disputed to what extent social and ecological capacities differ, as unacceptable impacts are social constructs. In the approach of carrying capacity, focus is often on avoiding adverse impacts of bivalve aquaculture. However, bivalve populations also have positive impacts on the ecosystem, such as stimulation of primary production through filtration and nutrient regeneration. These ecosystem services deserve more attention in proper estimation of carrying capacity and therefore we focus on both positive and
negative feedbacks by the bivalves on the ecosystem. We review tools that are available to quantify carrying capacity. This varies from simple indices to complex models. We present case studies of the use of clearance and grazing ratio’s as simple carrying capacity indices. Applications depend on specific management questions in the respective areas, the availability of data and the type of decisions that need to be made. For making decisions on bivalve aquaculture, standards, threshold values or levels of acceptable change (LAC) are used. The FAO framework for aquaculture is formulated as The Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture. It implies stakeholder involvement, and a carrying capacity management where commercial stocks attribute in a balanced way to production, ecological and social goals. Simulation models are being developed as tools to predict the integrated effect of various levels of bivalve aquaculture for specific management goals, such as improved ecosystem resilience. In practice, bivalve aquaculture management is confronted with different competing stocks of cultured, wild, restoration and invasive origin. Scenario models have been reviewed that are used for finding the balance between maximizing production capacity and optimizing ecological carrying capacity in areas with bivalve aquaculture.
Provisioning of mussel seed and its efficient use in culture
Kamermans, P. ; Capelle, J. - \ 2019
In: Goods and services of marine bivalves / Smaal, A., Ferreira, J.G., Grant, J., Petersen, J.K., Strand, O., Cham : Springer - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 27 - 49.
Mussel culture largely depends on seed and feed from the natural environment. This paper focusses on seed provisioning and efficient use of these resources in mussel production. Approaches and technologies for seed supply and efficient use of seed in mussel production are described for the different culture techniques. This includes potential interactions and conflicts with the natural environment. Three methods are used to provide seed: wild harvest, use of suspended collectors and hatchery production. Harvest of wild seed from seaweed (in New Zealand) or natural beds is still a major source for culture in some areas, costs are low but provisioning is often unreliable. Most research concerning spat collection deals with comparison of different types of suspended collectors, settlement cues and problems with biofouling. Hatchery seed is more expensive, but hatcheries provide the opportunity for selective breeding and triploid production giving the product an added value. The challenge is to bring hatchery production costs more in line with the actual sale value of mussel seed. Monitoring genetic diversity can give insight in whether collector seed or hatchery seed growth and survival is negatively affected by reduced diversity. Grow-out occurs in bottom culture, bouchot culture and off-bottom longline and raft culture. In bottom-culture, the focus is on developing better seeding techniques, predator control and optimizing culture practices such as timing of relay, substrate use and harvest. For bouchot culture, technical developments are directed to mechanical methods to increase efficiency in size grading, restocking, harvesting and processing. Innovation in growing-out techniques for longline and raft culture are directed towards the investigation of optimal stocking densities, and on material type and configuration of farms. Production efficiency increases from bottom culture to bouchot culture, to rope and raft culture and are related to the sources of mortality and differences in growth rate. Growth rate of mussels is higher in off bottom culture than in on bottom culture and higher when submerged than in intertidal. Mussels from the Perna genus are found to have a higher growth rate but a lower production efficiency than mussels from the Mytilus genus. Efficient use of seed in mussel culture should aim at a reduction of mussel losses and an increase in growth rates. Important tools are adjusting seeding densities in relation to system design, reducing seeding stress, predator control and applying thinning out or relay.
Goods and services of marine bivalves
Smaal, Aad C. ; Ferreira, Joao G. ; Grant, Jon ; Petersen, Jens K. ; Strand, Øivind - \ 2018
Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - 591 p.

The aim of this open access book is to review and analyse the goods and services of bivalve shellfish. How they are defined, what determines the ecological functions that are the basis for the goods and services, what controversies in the use of goods and services exist, and what is needed for sustainable exploitation of bivalves from the perspective of the various stakeholders. The book is focused on the goods and services, and not on impacts of shellfish aquaculture on the benthic environment, or on threats like biotoxins; neither is it a shellfish culture handbook although it can be used in evaluating shellfish culture. The reviews and analysis are based on case studies that exemplify the concept, and show the strengths and weaknesses of the current applications. The multi-authored reviews cover ecological, economic and social aspects of bivalve goods and services. The book provides new insights for scientists, students, shellfish producers, policy advisors, nature conservationists and decision makers. This book is open access under the CC BY license.

Correction to: Goods and services of Marine Bivalves
Smaal, Aad C. ; Ferreira, Joao G. ; Grant, Jon ; Petersen, Jens K. ; Strand, Øivind - \ 2018
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. E1 - E1.

Correction to: A. C. Smaal et al. (eds.), Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96776-9. This book was inadvertently published with an incorrect copyright year '2018' within the book references. This has now been amended throughout the book to the correct copyright year '2019'.

Preface
Smaal, Aad C. ; Ferreira, Joao G. ; Grant, Jon ; Petersen, Jens K. ; Strand, Øivind - \ 2018
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. ix - xi.
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