CaCl2 supplementation of hydrophobised whey proteins : Assessment of protein particles and consequent emulsions
Wang, Jun ; Figueiredo Furtado, Guilherme de; Monthean, Nathalie ; Dupont, Didier ; Pédrono, Frédérique ; Madadlou, Ashkan - \ 2020
International Dairy Journal 110 (2020). - ISSN 0958-6946
Hydrophobised whey protein particles were prepared through successive acetylation and heat treatment practices, and the particle characteristics were modulated by CaCl2 supplementation. Then, the usefulness of the hydrophobised protein particles for emulsification of a docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil was compared with that of heat-denatured whey protein. Addition of CaCl2 into hydrophobised whey protein resulted in smaller protein particles and lower ζ-potential and interfacial tension values. It also decreased the creaming stability of the consequent emulsions. It was argued that besides Ca2+-protein charge interactions, Cl– anions bind to the hydrophobised particles, and the Pickering stabilisation of oil does not rely on interfacial tension reduction. Compared with heat-denatured whey protein, hydrophobised whey protein afforded a lower protection to oil against oxidation; the peroxide value of the oil emulsified using hydrophobised protein was higher during storage.
Tailor it up! How we are rolling towards designing the functionality of emulsions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract
Troise, Antonio Dario ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Madadlou, Ashkan - \ 2020
Current Opinion in Food Science 31 (2020). - ISSN 2214-7993 - p. 126 - 135.
There is a growing interest to design food emulsions with tailored digestibility-functionality during their journey in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. In the present paper, we outline the current technology and provide some outlooks for future perspectives. Oil-in-water (O/W), water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W), and water-in-water (W/W) emulsions confer several compartments to partition a wide array of biopolymers and small molecules for governing digestibility and triggering specific functionalities. Pickering stabilization of O/W emulsions enables to lower digestion and target enterocytes through decorating the particles with specific ligands. Moreover, the internal lipid phase can be structured to decline lipolysis. In W/O/W emulsions, the hydrophilic emulsifier type and oil viscosity determine the lipolysis and proteolysis extents/rates. Digestibility of biopolymers such as starch can be tuned using W/W emulsions. These latter emulsions also enable encapsulation of water-soluble vitamins and enzymes, and protection of probiotics in the stomach.
Pickering particles as interfacial reservoirs of antioxidants
Schröder, Anja ; Laguerre, Mickaël ; Sprakel, Joris ; Schroën, Karin ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. - \ 2020
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 575 (2020). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 489 - 498.
Biobased particle - Encapsulation - Fat crystal - Interface - Lipid oxidation - Lipophilic antioxidant - Natural bioactive - Pickering emulsion - α-tocopherol
Hypothesis: Emulsions are common structures encapsulating lipophilic bioactive molecules, both in biological systems and in manufactured products. Protecting these functional molecules from oxidation is essential; Nature excels at doing so by placing antioxidants at the oil-water interface, where oxidative reactions primarily occur. We imagined a novel approach to boost the activity of antioxidants in designer emulsions by employing Pickering particles that act both as physical emulsion stabilizers and as interfacial reservoirs of antioxidants. Experiments: α-Tocopherol or carnosic acid, two model lipophilic antioxidants, were entrapped in colloidal lipid particles (CLPs) that were next used to physically stabilize sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (“concept” Pickering emulsions). We first assessed the physical properties and stability of the CLPs and of the Pickering emulsions. We then monitored the oxidative stability of the concept emulsions upon incubation, and compared it to that of control emulsions of similar structure, yet with the antioxidant present in the oil droplet interior. Findings: Both tested antioxidants are largely more effective when loaded within Pickering particles than when solubilized in the oil droplet interior, thus confirming the importance of the interfacial localization of antioxidants. This approach revisits the paradigm for lipid oxidation prevention in emulsions and offers potential for many applications.
Corncob cellulose nanosphere as an eco-friendly detergent
Liu, Bin ; Li, Tao ; Wang, Wenya ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Yuan, Qipeng ; Lei, Xingen ; Cohen Stuart, Martien A. ; Li, Dan ; Bao, Cheng ; Bai, Jie ; Yu, Zhengquan ; Ren, Fazheng ; Li, Yuan - \ 2020
Nature Sustainability (2020). - ISSN 2398-9629
The daily use of synthetic detergents at a global scale is responsible for substantial environmental impacts but managerial and policy strategies to address them are largely inadequate. More sustainable and eco-friendly detergents are an appealing solution to reduce environmental impacts. Here, we developed a detergent based on cellulose nanospheres (CNSs) from agricultural waste corncob, an overlooked abundant and cheap natural source that is often discarded. Compared with conventional surfactants, CNSs stabilize at oil–water interfaces and form Pickering emulsions with enhanced stability and antiredeposition properties. CNSs show higher cleaning efficiency in removing stains from various surfaces compared with powder and liquid commercial detergents. In contrast to high toxicity of commercial detergents, CNSs are non-toxic to several mammalian cell lines, zebrafish and hydroponic lettuce. Overall, our results demonstrated the feasibility of using agriculturally derived waste CNSs as a safer, more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to commercial synthetic detergents.
Combined physical and oxidative stability of food Pickering emulsions
Schröder, Anja - \ 2020
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.G.P.H. Schroën, co-promotor(en): C.C. Berton-Carabin; J.H.B. Sprakel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951968 - 251
Many food products contain lipid droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase (e.g., milk, mayonnaise), thus are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. Food emulsions may be subjected to destabilization, both from a physical and a chemical perspective. Physical destabilization is generally prevented by the use of conventional emulsifiers such as surfactants and proteins. Chemical destabilization, in particular lipid oxidation, is a major concern in food products, especially when healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids are present, and this degradation is usually mitigated by the use of synthetic antioxidants, often in large amounts.
The use of alternative ingredients for the formulation of food emulsions has been emerging, for example solid particles (so-called Pickering particles, that are very popular nowadays) that irreversibly adsorb to the interface and therewith provide high physical stability; or natural antioxidants such as tocopherols and rosemary extracts, which are attractive in the current clean-label trend to prevent lipid oxidation. The efficiency of these natural antioxidants is unfortunately often not optimal, which can be explained by their tendency to locate into the oil or water phase, whereas lipid oxidation is initiated at the oil-water interface, and thus is the place where antioxidants should be located to optimally exert their protective effect.
The objective of this project was to develop food emulsions with a new and controlled architecture directed at yielding both excellent physical and oxidative stability. In these emulsions the oil droplets were covered by food-grade Pickering particles that exert a double role: they act as physical stabilizers, and as a reservoir for antioxidant molecules located close to the oil-water interface, therewith preventing the first lipid oxidation events, which is expected to drastically enhance antioxidant activity.
The first part of this thesis focused on the preparation and characterization of a new food-grade lipid-based Pickering particles, referred to as colloidal lipid particles (CLPs). We prepared both surfactant-covered and protein-covered CLPs, and found that the type of emulsifier largely determined their morphology: protein-covered CLPs were roughly spherical, whereas surfactant-covered CLPs looked more lath-like (Chapters 3 and 6). We also showed that the lipid material alters the crystal polymorphism and subsequent CLP structure, which consequently influenced their performance as emulsion stabilizers (Chapter 3). For instance, surfactant-covered CLPs containing only high melting point lipids showed highly ordered crystalline structures, and formed jammed, cohesive interfacial layers once adsorbed onto oil droplets, whereas the ones containing a fraction of low melting point lipids showed less ordered crystalline structures and formed thin and bridged layers.
Since protein-covered CLPs were particularly resilient to subsequent emulsification processes, these particles were used to study the formation of emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device and their stability to short-term coalescence (Chapter 4). We found a non-monotonic dependency of the droplet stability on the particle concentration: at low surface coverage, CLPs had a destabilizing effect as incompletely covered surfaces led to droplet-droplet bridging and subsequent coalescence, whereas at higher surface coverage, particles formed an effective barrier against droplet coalescence, resulting in physically stable emulsions over the time scales probed.
As a next step, we investigated lipid oxidation in Pickering emulsions stabilized by protein-based CLPs that did not contain antioxidants (Chapter 5). We showed that these Pickering emulsions had a similar oxidative stability as conventional protein-stabilized emulsions for a similar composition of the oil droplets. Yet, when in both emulsions the same amount of solid lipids was present (either as stabilizing CLPs, or within the oil droplet core), a Pickering emulsion had a higher physicochemical stability. This shows that the location of crystallizable lipids influences lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions, and thus needs to be carefully considered in emulsion design.
CLPs that did contain the lipophilic antioxidant α-tocopherol are presented in Chapter 6. The chemical stability of α-tocopherol was negatively influenced by lipid crystallization that probably promoted the localization of α-tocopherol close to the particle surface, which was further enhanced by emulsifiers that actively induce lipid crystallization. When applied as Pickering stabilizers in O/W emulsions (Chapter 7), lipid oxidation was reduced compared to control emulsions with the same composition and structure, but where the antioxidant was present in the core of the oil droplets. This confirmed that the interfacial localization of the antioxidant is crucial to prevent lipid oxidation in emulsions, and that the two main instability issues (i.e., physical and chemical instability) of emulsions can be mitigated through one single approach.
After establishing the proof of concept with the CLPs, we used biobased particles (that may contain antioxidants) from various natural sources to stabilize O/W emulsions (Chapter 8). Emulsions stabilized by matcha tea powder or spinach leaf powder were both highly physically and oxidatively stable, which shows that the double functionality that we achieved using purposely built particles (CLPs) can also be achieved with naturally occurring particles.
In the general discussion of the thesis (Chapter 9) we describe that the dual functionality of CLPs can also be reached using other food components, which makes this approach a generic one. We expect that the system could be further improved, for example, by increasing the residence time of antioxidants at the interface. To do so, we probably need to link the time scale at which the relevant oxidation events occur with those during which the antioxidant actually resides at the interface. Follow-up research on entrapment of antioxidants within particles is needed to reach long residence times at the interface while not compromising the ability of antioxidants to exert their chemical activity. To conclude: through our approach the highly-stable food emulsions of the future may come within reach.
Nonlinear interfacial rheology and atomic force microscopy of air-water interfaces stabilized by whey protein beads and their constituents
Yang, Jack ; Thielen, Ilonka ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. ; Linden, Erik van der; Sagis, Leonard M.C. - \ 2020
Food Hydrocolloids 101 (2020). - ISSN 0268-005X
Air-water interface - Atomic force microscopy - Interfacial rheology - Lissajous plot - Microgel - Protein bead
In recent years, food-grade Pickering particles have gained considerable interest, because of their ability to form stable emulsions and foams. Such Pickering stabilizers are often produced by aggregation of proteins, which typically results in a mixture of cross-linked particles and unbound proteins (smaller constituents). This study focuses on the possible contribution to the interfacial behaviour of these smaller constituents in whey protein isolate (WPI) bead suspensions, which are produced by cold-gelation of WPI aggregates. To understand the interfacial properties of the total mixture, we have studied the involved structures and interactions hierarchically, from native WPI, to aggregates, and finally gel beads. Air-water interfaces were subjected to large amplitude oscillatory dilatation (LAOD) and shear (LAOS) using a drop tensiometer and a double wall ring geometry. The non-linear responses were analysed using Lissajous plots. The plots of native WPI- and aggregates-stabilized interfaces showed a rheological behaviour of a viscoelastic solid, while bead-stabilized interfaces tended to have a weaker and more fluid-like behaviour. The interfacial microstructure was analysed by imaging Langmuir-Blodgett films of the protein systems using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The native WPI and aggregate films had a highly heterogeneous structure in which the proteins form a dense clustered network. The beads are randomly distributed throughout the film, separated by large areas, where smaller proteinaceous material is present. This smaller and surface-active material present in the bead suspensions plays an important role in interface stabilization, and could also largely influence the macroscopic properties of interface-dominated systems.
Inhibition of oil digestion in Pickering emulsions stabilized by oxidized cellulose nanofibrils for low-calorie food design
Liu, Bin ; Zhu, Yanli ; Tian, Jingnan ; Guan, Tong ; Li, Dan ; Bao, Cheng ; Norde, Willem ; Wen, Pengcheng ; Li, Yuan - \ 2019
RSC Advances : An international journal to further the chemical sciences 9 (2019)26. - ISSN 2046-2069 - p. 14966 - 14973.
Celluloses are renewable and biodegradable natural resources. The application of celluloses as oil-in-water Pickering emulsifiers is still quite limited. In this paper, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with oxidation degrees (DOs) of 52.8% and 92.7% (DO50 and DO90) were obtained from TEMPO-mediate oxidation for microcrystalline cellulose (MC). The production of carboxyl groups of CNFs were confirmed by FT-IR and 13C solid-NMR. CNF-stabilized O/W Pickering emulsion showed excellent colloidal stability compared with un-oxidized cellulose by Turbiscan stability analysis. Additionally, CNF-stabilized Pickering emulsions showed stable colloidal properties in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Most importantly, in vitro fatty acid release kinetics under SIF showed that CNFs have strong inhibitory lipid digestion behavior. Our results suggest that the oxidation modification not only improves their emulsification activity but also promotes their application in oil digestion inhibition, providing inspiration for designing and developing low-calorie food products.
The delivery of sensitive food bioactive ingredients : Absorption mechanisms, influencing factors, encapsulation techniques and evaluation models
Bao, Cheng ; Jiang, Ping ; Chai, Jingjing ; Jiang, Yumeng ; Li, Dan ; Bao, Weier ; Liu, Bingxue ; Liu, Bin ; Norde, Willem ; Li, Yuan - \ 2019
Food Research International 120 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 130 - 140.
Barriers - Bioaccessibility - Bioactive compounds - Bioavailability - Digestion absorption models - Encapsulation - Intestinal - Intestine-specific delivery
Food-sourced bioactive compounds have drawn much attention due to their health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes and cardiovascular disease-preventing functions. However, the poor solubility, low stability and limited bioavailability of sensitive bioactive compounds greatly limited their application in food industry. Therefore, numbers of carriers were developed for improving their dispersibility, stability and bioavailability. This review addresses the digestion and absorption mechanisms of bioactive compounds in epithelial cells based on several well-known in vitro and in vivo models. Factors such as environmental stimuli, stomach conditions and mucus barrier influencing the utilization efficacy of the bioactive compounds are discussed. Delivery systems with enhanced utilization efficacy, such as complex coacervates, cross-linked polysaccharides, self-assembled micro−/nano-particles and Pickering emulsions are compared. It is a comprehensive multidisciplinary review which provides useful guidelines for application of bioactive compounds in food industry.
Erratum to “Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking”
Wu, Jiande ; Shi, Mengxuan ; Li, Wei ; Zhao, Luhai ; Wang, Ze ; Yan, Xinzhong ; Norde, Willem ; Li, Yuan - \ 2019
Colloids and Surfaces. B: Biointerfaces 181 (2019). - ISSN 0927-7765 - 1 p.
The publisher regrets that minor errors occurred in the above paper. The errors relate to the Fig. 1C. Below is the correct Fig. 1C.
Self-assembled egg yolk peptide micellar nanoparticles as a versatile emulsifier for food-grade oil-in-water pickering nanoemulsions
Du, Zhenya ; Li, Qing ; Li, Junguang ; Su, Enyi ; Liu, Xiao ; Wan, Zhili ; Yang, Xiaoquan - \ 2019
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 67 (2019)42. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 11728 - 11740.
Egg yolk peptides - Food-grade pickering nanoemulsions - Nanomicelles - Particulate emulsifiers - Self-assembly
Pickering emulsions stabilized by food-grade particles have garnered increasing interest in recent years due to their promising applications in bio-related fields such as foods, cosmetics, and drug delivery. However, it remains a big challenge to formulate nanoscale Pickering emulsions from these edible particles. Herein, we show that a new Pickering nanoemulsion that is stable, monodisperse and controllable can be produced by employing the spherical micellar nanoparticles (EYPN), self- A ssembled from the food-derived, amphiphilic egg yolk peptides, as an edible particulate emulsifier. As natural peptide-based nanoparticles, the EYPN have small particle size, intermediate wettability, high surface activity, and deformability at the interface, which enable the formation of stable Pickering nanodroplets with a mean DLS diameter below 200 nm and a PDI below 0.2. This nanoparticle system is versatile for different oil phases with various polarities and demonstrates easy control of nanodroplet size through tuning the microfluidization conditions and/or the ratio of EYPN to oil phase. These food-grade Pickering nanoemulsions, obtained when the internal phase is an edible vegetable oil, have superior stability during long-term storage and spray-drying, based on the irreversible and compact adsorption of intact EYPN at the nanodroplet surface. This is the first finding of a natural edible nano-Pickering emulsifier that can be used solely to make stable food Pickering nanoemulsions with the qualities of simplicity, versatility, low cost, and the possibility of controllable and mass production, which make them viable for many sustainable applications.
The behaviour of sunflower oleosomes at the interfaces
Karefyllakis, Dimitris ; Jan Van Der Goot, Atze ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. - \ 2019
Soft Matter 15 (2019)23. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 4639 - 4646.
Oleosomes are particles equipped with a sophisticated membrane, comprising a continuous monolayer of phospholipids and hydrophobic proteins, which covers the triglyceride core and grants them extreme physical and chemical stability. The noteworthy qualities of oleosomes have attracted strong interest for their incorporation in emulsion formulations; however, little is known about their emulsifying properties and their behaviour on interfaces. For these reasons, oleosomes were isolated from sunflower seeds (96.2 wt% oil, 3.1 wt% protein) and used as an emulsifier for the stabilization of O/W and W/O interfaces. In both cases, oleosomes showed high interfacial and emulsifying activity. Individual oleosome particles had a broad size distribution from 0.4 to 10.0 μm and it was observed that the membrane of the larger oleosomes (>1-5 μm) was disrupted and its fractions participated in the newly formed interface. Oleosomes with a smaller diameter (<1 μm) seemed to have survived the applied mild emulsification step as a great number of them could be observed both in the bulk of the emulsions and on the interface of the emulsion droplets. This phenomenon was more pronounced for the W/O interface where oleosomes were absorbed intact in a manner similar to a Pickering mechanism. However, when the triglycerides were removed from the core of oleosomes in order to focus more on the effect of the membrane, the remaining material formed sub-micron spherical particles, which clearly acted as Pickering stabilisers. These findings showcase the intriguing behaviour of oleosomes upon emulsification, especially the crucial role of their membrane. The study demonstrates relevance for applications where immiscible liquid phases are present.
New directions in earth system governance research
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Inoue, C. ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Gerlak, Andrea K. ; Ishii, Atsushi ; Patterson, James ; Pickering, Jonathan ; Scobie, M. ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, J. ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael ; Djalante, Riyante ; Dryzek, John ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renée ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, R. - \ 2019
Earth System Governance 1 (2019). - ISSN 2589-8116 - 18 p.
Governance - Research networks - Earth system - Transformation
The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
|Nonlinear surface rheology and interfacial microstructure imaging of WPI particles and their constituents
Yang, Jack - \ 2019
protein pickering stabilizer - air/water interface - microstructure - surface rheology - Lissajous plots - atomic microscopy
Global climate governance between hard and soft law : Can the Paris agreement's 'Crème Brûleé' approach enhance ecological reflexivity?
Pickering, Jonathan ; McGee, Jeffrey S. ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I. ; Wenta, Joseph - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Law 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 0952-8873 - p. 1 - 28.
Climate change - ecological reflexivity - legalisation - Paris Agreement - soft law - UNFCCC
In the face of global environmental concerns, legal institutions must cultivate a reflexive capacity to monitor global ecological shifts and to reconfigure their practices accordingly. But, it remains unclear whether harder or softer legal norms are more capable of enhancing such ecological reflexivity. This article traces variations in harder and softer norms in two aspects of the evolution of the global climate change regime-national contributions to mitigation and review mechanisms- A nd their implications for ecological reflexivity. We find the regime's reflexivity has increased moderately and slowly over time but without a consistent shift towards harder or softer norms. The Paris Agreement's innovative approach, combining harder procedural commitments with softer substantive provisions (a 'crème brûleé'), has potential to encourage flexible responses to changing conditions within a stable, long-term architecture. However, the Agreement's softer, transparency-based compliance framework provides limited assurance that countries will make and fulfill ambitious commitments.
Can we prevent lipid oxidation in emulsions by using fat-based Pickering particles?
Schroder, A.J. ; Sprakel, J.H.B. ; Boerkamp, W. ; Schroen, C.G.P.H. ; Berton-Carabin, C.C. - \ 2019
Food Research International 120 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 352 - 363.
Interest has recently been rising in the development of food-compatible Pickering emulsions, i.e., particle-stabilized emulsions, and various biobased particles have been demonstrated as useful for such a purpose. Most of the related work has focused on the physical stability of the emulsions, but whether such particles can be advantageous in terms of chemical stability, and in particular, with regard to lipid oxidation, is largely unexplored. Recently, we found that colloidal lipid particles (CLPs) are efficient Pickering stabilizers, and the objective of the present study was to investigate the oxidative stability of emulsions stabilized with those particles. Three types of sunflower oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were considered: Pickering emulsions stabilized with colloidal lipid particles (CLPs) made of high melting point (HMP) fat (tripalmitin or palm stearin), adsorbed onto the liquid oil droplets; and, as references, two conventional sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsions, of which one contained only liquid oil, and the other liquid oil mixed with HMP fat as the core of the emulsion droplets. In the presence of iron, the latter oxidized faster than conventional liquid oil and Pickering emulsions, resulting in 2- to 3-fold higher amounts of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products. This may be due to intra-droplet HMP fat pushing oxidizable lipids towards the oil-water interface, which would promote lipid oxidation. This shows that the localization of solid fat in O/W emulsions affects lipid oxidation. We also found that CLP-stabilized Pickering emulsions had similar oxidation rates as conventional sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsions containing only liquid oil. This suggests that the potential of such Pickering particles to prevent lipid oxidation is limited. This could be because diffusion of small pro-oxidant molecules is not hindered by Pickering particles, as they cannot form an interfacial barrier that is structurally homogeneous at such a small scale.
Engineered food microstructure for enhanced quality and stability
Scholten, Elke - \ 2018
In: Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability / Devashastin, S., Elsevier - ISBN 9780081017661 - p. 59 - 79.
Emulsion - Emulsion-filled gels - Food breakdown - Food structure - Pickering stabilization - Proteins - Sensory perception
Developing foods with enhanced stability and quality is not straightforward. To change the properties of foods in a controlled manner, knowledge on how certain ingredients affect the structure of the food and how certain interactions can be used to alter the structure of the food on a mesoscopic level is required. To provide functionality to food systems such as emulsions and emulsion-filled gels, knowledge of both bulk and interfacial properties is required, as both the continuous phase and the dispersed phase have an influence on the behavior of these systems under certain environmental conditions. These properties have an influence on foods when stored, consumed, and digested. Structure design can thus be used to not only enhance stability and alter sensory perception during breakdown of the food in the mouth, but also the digestion process in later stages of the gastrointestinal tract. In this chapter, we give an overview of different structural building blocks that can be used to change both interfacial and bulk properties, and examples are given how such characteristics can affect the digestion process and sensory perception of foods.
|Lipid Oxidation in Pickering emulsions: The Effect of the Emulsion’s Physical Structure
Schroder, Anja - \ 2018
|Tailored Microstructure of Colloidal Lipid Particles for Pickering Emulsions with Tunable Properties
Schroder, A.J. ; Sprakel, J.H.B. ; Berton-Carabin, C.C. - \ 2018
|Coalescence stability of Pickering emulsions produced with lipid particles: A microfluidic study
Schroder, A.J. ; Sprakel, J.H.B. ; Schroen, C.G.P.H. ; Berton-Carabin, C.C. - \ 2018
|Which Pickering particle to pick?
Schroen, Karin - \ 2018