Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Quantifying solvent action in oil paint using portable laser speckle imaging
    Baij, Lambert ; Buijs, Jesse ; Hermans, Joen J. ; Raven, Laura ; Iedema, Piet D. ; Keune, Katrien ; Sprakel, Joris - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    The exposure of oil paintings to organic solvents for varnish removal or to water for the removal of surface dirt can affect the chemical and physical properties of oil paint in an undesired way. Solvents can temporarily plasticise and swell the polymerised oil paint binding medium, enhancing both the thermal mobility and mechanical displacement of pigments embedded in this film. The enhancement of these microscopic motions can affect both the chemical and physical stability of the object as a whole. In order to minimise solvent exposure during cleaning, an analytical method that can quantitatively measure the microscopic motions induced by solvent uptake, is required first. In this study, we use Fourier Transform Laser Speckle Imaging (FT-LSI) and a newly developed portable FT-LSI setup as highly resolved motion detection instruments. We employ FT-LSI to probe pigment motion, with high spatiotemporal resolution, as a proxy for the destabilising effects of cleaning solvents. In this way, we can study solvent diffusion and evaporation rates and the total solvent retention time. In addition, qualitative spatial information on the spreading and homogeneity of the applied solvent is obtained. We study mobility in paint films caused by air humidity, spreading of solvents as a result of several cleaning methods and the protective capabilities of varnish. Our results show that FT-LSI is a powerful technique for the study of solvent penetration during oil paint cleaning and has a high potential for future use in the conservation studio.

    A conceptual model for simulating responses of freshwater macroinvertebrate assemblages to multiple stressors
    Vries, Jip de; Kraak, Michiel H.S. ; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. - \ 2020
    Ecological Indicators 117 (2020). - ISSN 1470-160X
    Conceptual model - Ecological water quality - Environmental constraints - Multiple scales - Multiple stress - Response simulation

    Simulating macroinvertebrate responses to multiple environmental stressors is an important tool for water quality management, by predicting ecological effects of both stressors and restoration practices. Currently, existing modelling approaches fall short in simulating the responses of macroinvertebrate assemblages to environmental constraints, lacking incorporation of the multiple spatial and temporal scales on which stressors act, including their mutual interactions and uncertainties associated with input data. In answer to these shortcomings, this study aimed to design a conceptual multiscale model for simulating responses of macroinvertebrate assemblages to multiple environmental stressors. To this purpose, we drew up model requirements, selected model building blocks and assembled these into a conceptual model, also documenting the challenges that remain to be solved. This conceptual model offers a direction for simulating responses of macroinvertebrate assemblages to multiple stressors, which in turn can be used to better focus management resources and restoration practices.

    Rapid Identification of Mycoplasma bovis Strains from Bovine Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry after Enrichment Procedure
    Bokma, Jade ; Driessche, Laura Van; Deprez, Piet ; Haesebrouck, Freddy ; Vahl, Marianne ; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Deurenberg, Ruud H. ; Pardon, Bart ; Boyen, Filip - \ 2020
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 58 (2020)6. - ISSN 0095-1137
    Bayesian latent class model - lipase activity - Mycoplasma bovirhinis - Mycoplasma bovis - Mycoplasma dispar

    Mycoplasma bovis is a leading cause of pneumonia in modern calf rearing. Fast identification is essential to ensure appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a protocol to identify M. bovis from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS and to determine the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques. BALf was obtained from 104 cattle, and the presence of M. bovis was determined in the following three ways: (i) rapid identification of M. bovis with MALDI-TOF MS (RIMM) (BALf was enriched and after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation and was analyzed using MALDI-TOF MS), (ii) triplex real-time PCR for M. bovis, Mycoplasma bovirhinis, and Mycoplasma dispar, and (iii) 10-day incubation on selective-indicative agar. The diagnostic accuracy of the three tests was determined with Bayesian latent class modeling (BLCM). After 24 h of enrichment, M. bovis was identified with MALDI-TOF MS in 3 out of 104 BALf samples. After 48 and 72 h of enrichment, 32/104 and 38/100 samples, respectively, were M. bovis positive. Lipase-positive Mycoplasma-like colonies were seen in 28 of 104 samples. Real-time PCR resulted in 28/104 positive and 12/104 doubtful results for M. bovis The BLCM showed a sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 86.6% (95% credible interval [CI], 69.4% to 97.6%) and 86.4% (CI, 76.1 to 93.8) for RIMM. For real-time PCR, Se was 94.8% (CI, 89.9 to 97.9) and Sp was 88.9% (CI, 78.0 to 97.4). For selective-indicative agar, Se and Sp were 70.5% (CI, 52.1 to 87.1) and 93.9% (CI, 85.9 to 98.4), respectively. These results suggest that rapid identification of M. bovis with MALDI-TOF MS after an enrichment procedure is a promising test for routine diagnostics in veterinary laboratories.

    Assessing the capacity of European regional seas to supply ecosystem services using marine status assessments
    Culhane, Fiona E. ; Frid, Christopher L.J. ; Gelabert, Eva Royo ; Piet, Gerjan ; White, Lydia ; Robinson, Leonie A. - \ 2020
    Ocean & Coastal Management 190 (2020). - ISSN 0964-5691
    Assessment framework - Biodiversity Strategy - Marine ecosystem state - Marine policy - Supply-side

    In this paper we describe work that progresses the understanding of socio-ecological systems from the perspective of exploring how the supply of ecosystem services might vary with changes in the state of ecosystem components. We developed and tested a new assessment approach (concept, framework and methodology) to assess the capacity of marine ecosystems to supply services, which could be carried out using available policy-reported assessment information on marine biodiversity and ecosystem status. The starting point was an assessment that drew on an understanding of ecosystem state-service relationships, and that was extended to incorporate operational, policy-relevant ecosystem assessment information at European regional sea scales in response to the requirements of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. The assessment consists of three key steps: (1) identifying all the instances where a marine ecosystem component can potentially contribute to the supply of a marine ecosystem service; (2) developing a critical pathway analysis to identify the major ecosystem component(s) contributing to the supply of a given service; (3) interpreting available information on the state and trends of these major contributing components with knowledge of the ecosystem state-service relationship, to assess the ecosystem's capacity for service supply and its direction of change. The assessment provides a common approach that can be applied across marine regions, and in data rich or data poor situations. This approach captures the sustainability of ecosystem service supply capacity through retaining the connection with the state of the ecosystem and can help to inform management decisions and track the effectiveness of environmental policies.

    Ontwikkeling van een quickscan ecologische kwaliteit voor langzaam stromende wateren in Zuid-Nederland op basis van macrofauna
    Verdonschot, Ralf ; Verdonschot, Piet - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Notitie Zoetwatersystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research ) - ISBN 9789463954150 - 46
    Er is een groeiende behoefte aan methoden die op een eenvoudige en snelle wijze een globale uitspraak kunnen doen over de ecologische toestand van een oppervlaktewater. Op basis van macrofaunamonsters van waterschap Brabantse Delta, de Dommel, Aa en Maas, Limburg en Rivierenland genomen in de periode 2014-2019 is daarom een quickscan ontwikkeld waarmee op basis van een beperkte set relatief gemakkelijk herkenbare indicatortaxa de kwaliteit van een langzaam stromende beek of riviertje (KRW-typen R4, R5 en R6) in drie kwaliteitsklassen kan worden ingeschat. Eerst zijn de indicatoren voor de verschillende toestanden vastgesteld en heeft een selectie en/of aanpassing van het taxonomisch niveau op basis van herkenbaarheid plaatsgevonden. Vervolgens is op basis van deze indicatorlijst de quickscan-ontwikkeling gestart. Hiervoor zijn drie benaderingswijzen getest, gebaseerd op positieve en negatieve indicatoren, indicatiewaarden en specifieke taxonomische groepen (EPT). Het bleek dat een quickscan die werkt met de som van de indicatiewaarden van specifieke taxa, die is uitgedrukt in een score van laag tot hoog, welke gedeeld wordt door het totaal aantal scorende taxa om te kunnen corrigeren voor de taxonrijkdom in het monster de beste resultaten gaf bij een vergelijking met de toestandsbepaling op basis van de KRW maatlatten. Met deze benadering, de quickscan ecologische kwaliteit (QS-EK) voor langzaam stromende wateren in Zuid-Nederland, werd circa driekwart van de monsters in dezelfde kwaliteitsklasse ingedeeld.
    Over forty years of lowland stream restoration : Lessons learned?
    Reis Oliveira, Paula C. dos; Geest, Harm G. van der; Kraak, Michiel H.S. ; Westveer, Judith J. ; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 264 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
    Catchment scale - Clean water act - Freshwater restoration - Legislation - Restoration techniques - WFD

    Stream restoration efforts have increased, but the success rate is still rather low. The underlying reasons for these unsuccessful restoration efforts remain inconclusive and need urgent clarification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate over 40 years of stream restoration to fuel future perspectives. To this purpose we evaluated the influence of policy goals on stream restoration efforts, biophysical restoration objectives, restoration measures applied including the scale of application and monitoring efforts. Information was obtained from five stream restoration surveys that were held among the regional water authorities in the Netherlands over the last 40 years and from an analysis of the international scientific publications on stream restoration spanning the same time period. Our study showed that there was a considerable increase in stream restoration efforts, especially motivated by environmental legislation. However, proper monitoring of the effectiveness of the measures was often lacking. Furthermore, a mismatch between restoration goals and restoration measures was observed. Measures are still mainly focused on hydromorphological techniques, while biological goals remain underexposed and therefore need to be better targeted. Moreover, restoration practices occur mainly on small scales, despite the widely recognized relevance of tackling multiple stressors acting over large scales for stream ecosystem recovery. In order to increase the success rate of restoration projects, it is recommended to improve the design of the accompanying monitoring programmes, allowing to evaluate, over longer time periods, if the measures taken led to the desired results. Secondly, we advise to diagnose the dominant stressors and plan restoration measures at the appropriate scale of these stressors, generally the catchment scale.

    Freshwater ecoacoustics: Listening to the ecological status of multi-stressed lowland waters
    Lee, Gea H. van der; Desjonquères, Camille ; Sueur, Jérôme ; Kraak, Michiel H.S. ; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. - \ 2020
    Ecological Indicators 113 (2020). - ISSN 1470-160X
    Dissolved oxygen dynamics - Invertebrates - Passive acoustic monitoring - Water quality assessment

    A major challenge in water quality assessment is to identify suitable indicators to monitor and assess the effects of anthropogenic stressors on the ecological status of freshwater ecosystems. Passive acoustic monitoring is a novel approach that could potentially be used to detect invertebrate species and ecological processes such as dissolved oxygen dynamics in freshwater environments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate to what extent sounds can be used for water quality assessment. We performed a field study to relate acoustic indices to the intensity of several stressors, the invertebrate community composition and the dissolved oxygen dynamics in 20 temperate lowland streams and drainage ditches impacted to a varying degree by agricultural activities and discharges from waste water treatment plants. Our results showed that the recorded acoustic patterns were primarily associated with the fluctuation in dissolved oxygen saturation, while specific frequency bands could be related to the sound-producing invertebrate community. We observed that acoustic indices do not allow to detect the adverse effects of anthropogenic stressors on the invertebrate community composition, presumably due to the prevalence of Heteroptera which are relatively insensitive to stressors, but make a lot of sounds. A strong relation between acoustic indices and oxygen fluctuation indicate that passive acoustic monitoring may be used to estimate metabolism in water bodies. We suggest that the next step in freshwater ecoacoustics will be to precisely characterise each source of sound emitted during the processes of primary production, respiration and re-aeration, in order to distinguish these parameters. This may overcome some of the challenges encountered in the estimation of metabolism from diel dissolved oxygen curves.

    Monitoring effecten zandsuppletie Leuvenumse beek 2019
    Verdonschot, Ralf ; Verdonschot, Piet - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Notitie Zoetwatersystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research ) - ISBN 9789463953481 - 47
    In de Leuvenumse beek wordt vanaf 2014 het suppleren van zand als beekherstelmaatregel toegepast door Waterschap Vallei en Veluwe en Natuurmonumenten. Omdat over deze relatief nieuwe maatregel nog niet veel kennis voorhanden is, worden sindsdien de hydromorfologische en biologische ontwikkelingen gevolgd. In 2019 zijn metingen verricht aan het dwarsprofiel van de beek en de geleidbaarheid van het water. Het dwarsprofiel van de beek is ingemeten om zo de veranderingen in bodemhoogte in beeld te krijgen die in gang zijn gezet door het uitvoeren van de maatregelen. Deze metingen lopen al vanaf 2014. Net zoals 2018 was 2019 een droog jaar dat gekenmerkt werd door lage afvoeren in het projectgebied. Ter hoogte van de A28 stond de beek voor het tweede jaar op rij langdurig droog. Metingen aan de dwarsprofieltransecten lieten nog steeds een duidelijke bodemophoging zien ten opzichte van 2014. Wel waren pleksgewijs kleine veranderingen opgetreden, vooral in de vorm van verbreding en afvlakking van de bedding en verondieping. Erosie en sedimentatieprocessen van een grotere omvang worden pas weer verwacht als de afvoer van de beek aanzienlijk toeneemt. Met behulp van continu-dataloggers is geprobeerd inzicht te krijgen in de effecten van de maatregelen op de stofstromen die vanuit bovenstrooms het projectgebied bereiken, waarbij geleidbaarheid als indicator is gebruikt om pieken van stoffen en de uitdoving hiervan te meten in een situatie met en zonder overstromingsvlaktes langs de beek. De geleidbaarheidsmetingen lieten zien dat piekafvoeren een toename van de geleidbaarheid tot gevolg hadden, wat een indicatie is van de toevoer van stoffen van bovenstrooms door in- en afspoeling van aanliggende gronden. Verder was het effect van een calamiteit in de vorm van een mestlozing duidelijk terug te zien als een piek in de geleidbaarheid. De toename van geleidbaarheid bleek niet af te zwakken over een traject van 1.7 kilometer, ook niet na passage van de overstromingsvlaktes langs de beek wat aangeeft dat daar geen sterke interactie lijkt op te treden door bijvoorbeeld binding aan organisch materiaal. Dit wil zeggen dat wat er van bovenstrooms wordt aangevoerd doordringt in het bostraject. Hoe deze invloed doorwerkt op de ecologische waarden in de beek is niet duidelijk. Een groot nadeel van het gebruik van de geleidbaarheid is namelijk dat het onbekend blijft welke stoffen verantwoordelijk zijn voor de gemeten toename. Hiervoor moet in meer detail en met een hoge meetfrequentie de waterchemie bestudeerd worden rond een afvoerpiek.
    Persist or perish: critical life stages determine the sensitivity of invertebrates to disturbances
    Lee, Gea H. van der; Kraak, Michiel H.S. ; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. - \ 2020
    Aquatic Sciences 82 (2020)2. - ISSN 1015-1621
    Agapetus fuscipes - Bioassessment - Discharge - Life cycle - Lowland streams

    A large proportion of studies assessing the impact of disturbances on the invertebrate community composition focus on a single life stage, assuming that those are an adequate indicator of environmental conditions. The effect of a specific disturbance may, however, depend on the life stage of the exposed organism. Therefore, we focused on the effect of spates on the caddisfly Agapetus fuscipes CURTIS (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) during different larval stages. A 2 year field study was performed in which we measured the discharge dynamics and population development of A. fuscipes in four lowland streams in The Netherlands. A stage-structured population model (i.e. StagePop) was used to test the impact of peak discharge on the different life stages, as larval instars 1–4 were not effectively sampled in the field. Four different mortality rates in response to spates were simulated, including a constant low, a constant high, a decreasing and an increasing impact per larval stage. This way, we were able to show a potential association between spates and population declines, where the stage-population model including decreasing impact by spates with increasing larval life stage most accurately described the population development of the larval instars 5–8. Focusing only on late instars could thus potentially result in underestimation of the effects of spates on this species. In conclusion, determination of responses of critical life stages to specific disturbances may help to identify the causes of the presence and absence of species, and thereby aid more effective management and restoration of degraded aquatic systems.

    Multiple pressures and their combined effects in Europe's seas
    Korpinen, Samuli ; Klancnik, Katja ; Peterlin, Monika ; Nurmi, Marco ; Laamanen, Leena ; Zupancic, Gasper ; Murray, Ciaran ; Harvey, Therese ; Andersen, Jesper H. ; Zenetos, Argyro ; Stein, Ulf ; Tunesi, Leonardo ; Abhold, Katrina ; Piet, G.J. ; Kallenbach, Emilie ; Agnesi, Sabrina ; Bolman, B.C. ; Vaughan, David ; Reker, J. ; Gelabert, Eva Royo - \ 2020
    European Topic Centre on Inland, Coastal and Marine waters (Report / ETC/ICM 4/2019) - ISBN 9783944280653 - 164 p.
    This report presents for the first time in Europe an overview of anthropogenic pressures and their combined effects in Europe’s seas. The assessment covers the period of 2011-2016 but also presents how human activities and pressures at sea have changed over a longer time horizon. Practically the entire European marine area is under multiple pressures – such as hazardous substances, fish stock exploitation, climate change, underwater noise, non-indigenous species, seafloor damage, marine litter and nutrient enrichment. Shelf areas and coastal zone are affected by physical disturbance of seabed, eutrophication and non-indigenous species. The highest potential combined effects are found along coastal areas of the North Sea, Southern Baltic Sea, Adriatic and Western Mediterranean. The good news from this assessment is that many of the dangerous trends seem to have reversed. We have shown that the nutrient levels, hazardous substances, northern fish stocks and tuna stocks in the open seas show improvement. However, extensive pressures from several human activities still threaten the marine ecosystem, such as disturbance of seabed, and no trend reversal was seen in this assessment.
    Responses of macroinvertebrate communities to land use specific sediment food and habitat characteristics in lowland streams
    Reis Oliveira, Paula C. dos; Kraak, Michiel H.S. ; Pena-Ortiz, Michelle ; Geest, Harm G. van der; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 703 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    C/N ratio - Fatty acids - Food resource - GLM - Macroinvertebrate indices - Substrate cover

    The input of land use specific organic matter into lowland streams may impact sediment characteristics in terms of food resources and habitat structure, resulting in differences in macroinvertebrate community composition. Therefore, we investigated to what extent land use specific sediment food and habitat characteristics structure macroinvertebrate communities. To this purpose linear multiple regression models were constructed, in which macroinvertebrate biotic indices were considered as response variables and sediment characteristics as predictor variables, analysed in 20 stream stretches running through five different land use types. Sediment characteristics and macroinvertebrate community composition were land use specific. The carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, woody debris substrate cover and the origin of fatty acids influenced macroinvertebrate community composition. Shannon-Wiener diversity was better explained by fatty acids origin, such as in grassland streams, where a higher relative content of plant derived fatty acids related to a higher macroinvertebrate diversity. In cropland and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) streams with a low C/N ratio and dominated by microbial derived fatty acids, higher abundances of Oligochaeta and Chironomus sp. were observed. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness was positively related to woody debris substrate cover, which only occurred in forest streams. Hence, macroinvertebrate community composition was influenced by the origin of the organic material, being either allochthonous or autochthonous and when autochthonous being either autotrophic or heterotrophic. It is therefore concluded that sediment food and habitat characteristics are key ecological filters.

    Micro-livestock in smallholder farming systems: the role, challenges and opportunities for cavies in South Kivu, eastern DR Congo
    Klapwijk, Charlotte J. ; Schut, Marc ; Asten, Piet J.A. van; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Giller, Ken E. ; Descheemaeker, Katrien - \ 2020
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 52 (2020). - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 1167 - 1177.
    Cavia porcellus - DR Congo - Micro-livestock - Smallholder livelihoods

    Livestock play multiple roles for smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Mixed crop-livestock systems are common in South Kivu, eastern DR Congo, but herd sizes are small and numbers of large livestock (i.e. cattle) have declined, due to high population density, recent conflicts and extreme poverty. Over half of the farmers keep cavies, a type of micro-livestock fitting the circumstances of smallholders and a valuable asset especially for the poorest households. To characterize cavy husbandry practices, detailed monthly on-farm data on cavy numbers, weights, herd dynamics and feeding practices were collected over 15 months and from households in two contrasting sites in South Kivu. Cavy herds contained on average 10 animals and strongly varied in size over time and between households. The main reasons for keeping cavies were meat consumption, especially for children, and the opportunity to generate petty cash. A large difference was observed in adult cavy live weights between the sites (an average of 0.6 and 1.0 kg per animal in Kabamba and Lurhala, respectively) and attributed to differences in cavy husbandry and genetics. In both sites, quantities of fresh fodder on offer were larger than fodder demand by 50–100%, but no correlation was found between amount of fodder on offer and cavy weight. Farmers faced several constraints to cavy production, including substantial declines in cavy herd size due to predation or theft and a lack of knowledge regarding breeding and feeding. Hence, the introduction of cages to limit mortality and fodder cultivation to improve feed quality were opportunities for improving cavy production. Overall, micro-livestock present a promising entry-point for development initiatives, also outside DR Congo, because of their potential to decrease poverty and improve human nutrition.

    Limitations of trait-based approaches for stressor assessment: The case of freshwater invertebrates and climate drivers
    Hamilton, Anna T. ; Schäfer, Ralf B. ; Pyne, Matthew I. ; Chessman, Bruce ; Kakouei, Karan ; Boersma, Kate S. ; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. ; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Mims, Meryl ; Khamis, Kieran ; Bierwagen, Britta ; Stamp, Jen - \ 2020
    Global Change Biology 26 (2020)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 364 - 379.
    bioassessment - climate stressor responses - freshwater invertebrates - invertebrate traits - stressor assessment - trait-based assessment

    The appeal of trait-based approaches for assessing environmental vulnerabilities arises from the potential insight they provide into the mechanisms underlying the changes in populations and community structure. Traits can provide ecologically based explanations for observed responses to environmental changes, along with predictive power gained by developing relationships between traits and environmental variables. Despite these potential benefits, questions remain regarding the utility and limitations of these approaches, which we explore focusing on the following questions: (a) How reliable are predictions of biotic responses to changing conditions based on single trait–environment relationships? (b) What factors constrain detection of single trait–environment relationships, and how can they be addressed? (c) Can we use information on meta-community processes to reveal conditions when assumptions underlying trait-based studies are not met? We address these questions by reviewing published literature on aquatic invertebrate communities from stream ecosystems. Our findings help to define factors that influence the successful application of trait-based approaches in addressing the complex, multifaceted effects of changing climate conditions on hydrologic and thermal regimes in stream ecosystems. Key conclusions are that observed relationships between traits and environmental stressors are often inconsistent with predefined hypotheses derived from current trait-based thinking, particularly related to single trait–environment relationships. Factors that can influence findings of trait-based assessments include intercorrelations of among traits and among environmental variables, spatial scale, strength of biotic interactions, intensity of habitat disturbance, degree of abiotic stress, and methods of trait characterization. Several recommendations are made for practice and further study to address these concerns, including using phylogenetic relatedness to address intercorrelation. With proper consideration of these issues, trait-based assessment of organismal vulnerability to environmental changes can become a useful tool to conserve threatened populations into the future.

    Hortifootprint: Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules for Horticulture in the making
    Vieira, Marisa ; Blonk, Hans ; Briet, Piet ; Helmes, Roel ; Ponsioen, Tommie ; Linden, Rick van der; Empel, Daan van; Verweij-Novikova, I. - \ 2019
    - 1 p.
    Het Markermeer: een molen zonder wieken, hoe maken we daar een robuust ecosysteem van?
    Verdonschot, Piet - \ 2019
    Samen met partner EMS Films is een reeks Natuurcolleges gemaakt. In deze Natuurcolleges behandelen verschillende wetenschappers, vertegenwoordigers uit het bedrijfsleven en NGO’s een onderwerp uit het LIFE IP Deltanatuur programma.
    NIRS application as a screening tool for heat treatment of manure
    Derikx, Piet ; Heskamp, Henri - \ 2019
    Experimentele Luchtdruk wing als vangsttechniek voor platvis
    Molenaar, Pieke - \ 2019
    Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C132/19) - 12
    Met het volledig verbieden van de pulstechniek wordt er binnen de Nederlandse visserijsector gekeken naar een alternatief voor elektrische (puls) of mechanische (wekker kettingen) stimulering om platvis te vangen. Een mogelijkheid werd gezien in het stimuleren van platvis door middel van perslucht. Om de werking en effectiviteit van dit idee te testen is door texelaar Piet Standaard een aqua dynamische luchtdruk wing ontwikkeld die de lucht richting de grond blaast. Om de werking van het innovatieve ontwerp te testen is er gekozen om een eerste experiment te doen met een schaalmodel in het Visserij Innovatie Centrum zuidwest Nederland (VIC). De uitgevoerde proeven met tong en schol laten zien dat in deze opstelling een zeer beperkt aantal vissen reageert op de luchtbellen. Ook dient de opstelling zeer dicht boven de bodem langs te gaan (8 cm) om effectief de luchtbellen onder snelheid de bodem te laten raken. De huidige opstelling lijkt nog geen alternatief voor wekkerkettingen of puls te bieden gezien de beperkte effectiviteit waarmee tong en schol gestimuleerd worden om de bodem te verlaten. Verder ontwikkeling en verbetering is noodzakelijk om tot een rendabele visserijmethode te komen.
    A nature-based future for the Netherlands in 2120
    Baptist, Martin ; Hattum, Tim van; Reinhard, Stijn ; Buuren, Michaël van; Rooij, Bertram de; Hu, Xiaolu ; Rooij, Sabine van; Polman, Nico ; Burg, Sander van den; Piet, Gerjan ; Ysebaert, Tom ; Walles, Brenda ; Veraart, Jeroen ; Wamelink, Wieger ; Bregman, Bram ; Bos, Bram ; Selnes, Trond - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 19
    Een natuurlijkere toekomst voor Nederland in 2120
    Baptist, Martin ; Hattum, Tim van; Reinhard, Stein ; Buuren, Michaël van; Rooij, Bertram de; Hu, Xiaolu ; Rooij, Sabine van; Polman, Nico ; Burg, Sander van den; Piet, Gerjan ; Ysebaert, Tom ; Walles, Brenda ; Veraart, Jeroen ; Wamelink, Wieger ; Bregman, Bram ; Bos, Bram ; Selnes, Trond - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 19
    Nederland staat voor grote opgaven: de energietransitie, verduurzaming van de landbouw, herstel van de biodiversiteit, verstedelijking en klimaatadaptatie. Al deze opgaven hebben gevolgen voor de ruimtelijke inrichting van ons land. Het is onvermijdelijk dat Nederland er over honderd jaar anders uit zal zien. Grote veranderingen zijn nodig om opgewassen te zijn tegen een stijgende zeespiegel, perioden van extreem weer, een toenemende vraag naar voedselproductie en een noodzaak om de uitstoot van broeikasgassen terug te dringen.Deze opgaven vragen om een nieuw verhaal voor Nederland. Een verhaal waarin dit dichtbevolkte land zich ontwikkelt tot een gidsland waar natuur, duurzame economie, leefbaarheid en veiligheid voorop staan. Een verhaal gebaseerd op ‘nature based solutions’ waarin opgaven voor klimaat en biodiversiteit hand in hand gaan.Wageningen University & Research heeft dit verhaal geschreven gebaseerd op expertkennis: een toekomstvisie voor Nederland in 2120, waarin natuur en natuurlijke processen een hoofdrol spelen. Een visie die bedoeld is om te inspireren. Het schetst een toekomst waarin economische ontwikkeling en een natuur-inclusieve samenleving hand in hand gaan. De toekomstvisie houdt rekening met de bijzondere kenmerken van verschillende deelgebieden in Nederland. Door middel van kaarten en doorsnedes laten we op hoofdlijnen zien wat er per gebied mogelijk is op het gebied van ruimtelijke inrichting. Dit toekomstbeeld schetst een denkrichting gebaseerd op de uitkomsten van diverse ontwerp- en discussiesessies met onderzoekers. Er is behoefte aan nadere uitwerking en onderbouwing. Samen met stakeholders gaan we deze visie verder ontwikkelen, onderbouwen en vertalen naar handelingsperspectief voor het hier en nu.
    Towards versatile, antibiotic-specific carbohydrate-formulations for decreasing antibiotics-use and side-effects
    Buwalda, Piet ; Silva Lagos, L. - \ 2019
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