Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Fighting Sarcopenia in Ageing European Adults: The Importance of the Amount and Source of Dietary Proteins
    Montiel Rojas, Diego ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Madej, Dawid ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Jennings, Amy ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Capri, Miriam ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)12. - ISSN 2072-6643
    While an adequate protein intake is important for the maintenance of muscle mass during ageing, the amount and source of protein necessary for optimal prevention of sarcopenia remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the amount and source of dietary proteins on sarcopenia risk in a cohort of 65–79-year-old European adults within the frame of the NU-AGE study. A total of 986 participants were included in the analysis. Skeletal muscle index (SMI), assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and handgrip strength (HG) were employed to create a continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS). Total amount together with animal- and plant-derived sources of proteins were obtained from a 7-day food record. Differences in SRS were analysed across groups of total protein intake (<0.8 g/body weight (BW); 0.8–<1.0 g/BW; 1.0–<1.2 g/BW; and ≥1.2 g/BW). The association between SRS and the different sources of protein was assessed using isocaloric substitution models adjusted by demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A significant linear dose-response relationship was observed, with a lower SRS linked to higher protein intakes. Based on the isocaloric substitution modelling, a reduced SRS was observed when increasing plant protein to the detriment of animal protein, while holding total protein intake constant. Further, this result remained significant after stratifying the analysis by adherence to different levels of protein intake. Our findings suggest that older adults may benefit from increasing protein intakes above current recommendations. Besides total amount, protein source should be considered when promoting health dietary habits in older adults for the prevention of sarcopenia.
    Beneficial Role of Replacing Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Sarcopenia: Findings from the NU-AGE Cohort
    Montiel-Rojas, Diego ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Capri, Miriam ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Bialecka-Debek, Agata ; Surala, Olga ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Capel, Frederic ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)10. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Dietary fat subtypes may play an important role in the regulation of muscle mass and function during ageing. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of isocaloric macronutrient substitutions, including different fat subtypes, on sarcopenia risk in older men and women, while accounting for physical activity (PA) and metabolic risk. A total of 986 participants, aged 65–79 years, completed a 7-day food record and wore an accelerometer for a week. A continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS), including skeletal muscle mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and handgrip strength, was derived. The impact of the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) by either mono- (MUFAs) or poly-unsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids on SRS was determined using regression analysis based on the whole sample and stratified by adherence to a recommended protein intake (1.1 g/BW). Isocaloric reduction of SFAs for the benefit of PUFAs was associated with a lower SRS in the whole population, and in those with a protein intake below 1.1 g/BW, after accounting for age, smoking habits, metabolic disturbances, and adherence to PA guidelines. The present study highlighted the potential of promoting healthy diets with optimised fat subtype distribution in the prevention of sarcopenia in older adults.
    Dietary fibre may mitigate sarcopenia risk: Findings from the NU-AGE cohort of older european adults
    Montiel-Rojas, Diego ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Berendsen, Agnes ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Januszko, Olga ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 2072-6643
    C-reactive protein - Exercise - Metabolic syndrome - Muscle mass - Protein intake - Systemic inflammation

    Sarcopenia is characterised by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical function as well as related metabolic disturbances. While fibre-rich diets can influence metabolic health outcomes, the impact on skeletal muscle mass and function is yet to be determined, and the moderating effects by physical activity (PA) need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to examine links between fibre intake, skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a cohort of older adults from the NU-AGE study. In 981 older adults (71 ± 4 years, 58% female), physical function was assessed using the short-physical performance battery test and handgrip strength. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary fibre intake (FI) was assessed by 7-day food record and PA was objectively determined by accelerometery. General linear models accounting for covariates including PA level, protein intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Women above the median FI had significantly higher SMI compared to those below, which remained in fully adjusted models (24.7 ± 0.2% vs. 24.2 ± 0.1%, p = 0.011, η2p = 0.012). In men, the same association was only evident in those without MetS (above median FI: 32.4 ± 0.3% vs. below median FI: 31.3 ± 0.3%, p = 0.005, η2p = 0.035). There was no significant impact of FI on physical function outcomes. The findings from this study suggest a beneficial impact of FI on skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Importantly, this impact is independent of adherence to guidelines for protein intake and PA, which further strengthens the potential role of dietary fibre in preventing sarcopenia. Further experimental work is warranted in order to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the action of dietary fibre on the regulation of muscle mass.

    Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
    Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
    ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria

    Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.

    Changing from a Western to a Mediterranean-style diet does not affect iron or selenium status : results of the New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE) 1-year randomized clinical trial in elderly Europeans
    Jennings, Amy ; Tang, Jonathan ; Gillings, Rachel ; Perfecto, Antonio ; Dutton, John ; Speakman, Jim ; Fraser, William D. ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta ; Caumon, Elodie ; Caille, Aurélie ; Ostan, Rita ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. - \ 2020
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 111 (2020)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 98 - 109.
    elderly - Europeans - fish - iron - meat - Mediterranean-style diet - randomized controlled trial - selenium

    BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diets limit red meat consumption and increase intakes of high-phytate foods, a combination that could reduce iron status. Conversely, higher intakes of fish, a good source of selenium, could increase selenium status. OBJECTIVES: A 1-y randomized controlled trial [New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE)] was carried out in older Europeans to investigate the effects of consuming a Mediterranean-style diet on indices of inflammation and changes in nutritional status. METHODS: Selenium and iron intakes and status biomarkers were measured at baseline and after 1 y in 1294 people aged 65-79 y from 5 European countries (France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom) who had been randomly allocated either to a Mediterranean-style diet or to remain on their habitual, Western diet. RESULTS: Estimated selenium intakes increased significantly with the intervention group (P < 0.01), but were not accompanied by changes in serum selenium concentrations. Iron intakes also increased (P < 0.001), but there was no change in iron status. However, when stratified by study center, there were positive effects of the intervention on iron status for serum ferritin for participants in Italy (P = 0.04) and France (P = 0.04) and on soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) for participants in Poland (P < 0.01). Meat intake decreased and fish intake increased to a greater degree in the intervention group, relative to the controls (P < 0.01 for both), but the overall effects of the intervention on meat and fish intakes were mainly driven by data from Poland and France. Changes in serum selenium in the intervention group were associated with greater changes in serum ferritin (P = 0.01) and body iron (P = 0.01), but not sTfR (P = 0.73); there were no study center × selenium status interactions for the iron biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming a Mediterranean-style diet for 1 y had no overall effect on iron or selenium status, although there were positive effects on biomarkers of iron status in some countries. The NU-AGE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.

    A Novel Approach to Improve the Estimation of a Diet Adherence Considering Seasonality and Short Term Variability – The NU-AGE Mediterranean Diet Experience
    Giampieri, Enrico ; Ostan, Rita ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Salvioli, Stefano ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Brzozowska, Anna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Jennings, Amy ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Caumon, Elodie ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. ; Sicinska, Ewa ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-042X
    In this work we present a novel statistical approach to improve the assessment of the adherence to a 1-year nutritional intervention within the framework of the NU-AGE project. This was measured with a single adherence score based on 7-days food records, under limitations on the number of observations per subject and time frame of intervention. The results of the NU-AGE dietary intervention were summarized by variations of the NU-AGE index as described in the NU-AGE protocol. Food and nutrient intake of all participants was assessed by means of 7-days food records at recruitment and after 10 to 14 months of intervention (depending on the subject availability). Sixteen food groups and supplementations covering the dietary goals of the NU-AGE diet have been used to estimate the NU-AGE index before and after the intervention. The 7-days food record is a reliable tool to register food intakes, however, as with other tools used to assess lifestyle dietary compliance, it is affected by uncertainty in this estimation due to the possibility that the observed week is not fully representative of the entire intervention period. Also, due to logistic limitations, the effects of seasonality can never be completely removed. These variabilities, if not accounted for in the index estimation, will reduce the statistical power of the analyses. In this work we discuss a method to assess these uncertainties and thus improve the resulting NU-AGE index. The proposed method is based on Hierarchical Bayesian Models. This model explicitly includes country-specific averages of the NU-AGE index, index variation induced by the dietary intervention, and country based seasonality. This information is used to evaluate the NU-AGE index uncertainty and thus to estimate the “real” NU-AGE index for each subject, both before and after the intervention. These corrections reduce the possibility of misinterpreting measurement variability as real information, improving the power of the statistical tests that are performed with the resulting index. The results suggest that this method is able to reduce the short term and seasonal variability of the measured index in the context of multicenter dietary intervention trials. Using this method to estimate seasonality and variability would allow one to obtain better measurements from the subjects of a study, and be able to simplify the scheduling of diet assessments.
    Mediterranean-Style Diet Improves Systolic Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults
    Jennings, A. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Brzozowska, A. ; Sicinska, Ewa ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Meunier, N. ; Caumon, Elodie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Ostan, Rita ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Gillings, Rachel ; O'Neill, C.M. ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. ; Minihane, Anne-Marie ; Cassidy, Aedin - \ 2019
    Hypertension 73 (2019)3. - ISSN 0194-911X - p. 578 - 586.
    We aimed to determine the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet, tailored to meet dietary recommendations for older adults, on blood pressure and arterial stiffness. In 12 months, randomized controlled trial (NU-AGE [New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe]), blood pressure was measured in 1294 healthy participants, aged 65 to 79 years, recruited from 5 European centers, and arterial stiffness in a subset of 225 participants. The intervention group received individually tailored standardized dietary advice and commercially available foods to increase adherence to a Mediterranean diet. The control group continued on their habitual diet and was provided with current national dietary guidance. In the 1142 participants who completed the trial (88.2%), after 1 year the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (−5.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, −10.7 to −0.4; P=0.03), which was evident in males (−9.2 mm Hg, P=0.02) but not females (−3.1 mm
    Changes in Dietary Intake and Adherence to the NU-AGE Diet Following a One-Year Dietary Intervention among European Older Adults-Results of the NU-AGE Randomized Trial
    Berendsen, A.M. ; Rest, O. van de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Ostan, R. ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Brzozowska, A. ; Stelmaszczyk-Kusz, A. ; Jennings, A. ; Gillings, Rachel ; Cassidy, A. ; Caille, A. ; Caumon, Elodie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2018
    Nutrients 10 (2018). - ISSN 2072-6643
    Background: The Mediterranean Diet has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce inflammaging, a chronic low grade inflammatory status, and thus, to slow down the aging process. We evaluated whether a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern specifically targeting dietary recommendations of people aged over 65 years (NU-AGE diet) could be effective to shift dietary intake of older adults towards a healthful diet. Methods: Adults aged 65–80 years across five EU-centers were randomly assigned to a NU-AGE diet group or control group. The diet group followed one year of NU-AGE dietary intervention specifying consumption of 15 food groups plus the use of a vitamin D supplement. Participants in the diet group received counselling and individually tailored dietary advice, food products and a vitamin D supplement. Dietary intake was assessed by means of seven-day food records at baseline and one-year follow-up. A continuous NU-AGE index (0–160 points) was developed to assess NU-AGE diet adherence. Results: In total 1296 participants were randomized and 1141 participants completed the intervention (571 intervention, 570 control). After one year, the diet group improved mean intake of 13 out of 16 NU-AGE dietary components (p < 0.05), with a significant increase in total NU-AGE index (difference in mean change = 21.3 ± 15.9 points, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The NU-AGE dietary intervention, based on dietary recommendations for older adults, consisting of individual dietary counselling, free healthy foods and a vitamin D supplement, may be a feasible strategy to improve dietary intake in an aging European population.
    A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Body Composition Among Healthy Elderly From the European NU-AGE Study: Sex and Country Specific Features
    Santoro, Aurelia ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Ostan, Rita ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Mercatelli, Daniele ; Scurti, M. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Surala, Olga ; Jennings, Amy ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Caumon, Elodie ; Gillings, Rachel ; Kadi, Fawzi ; Capel, Frederic ; Cashman, Kevin D. ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Battista, Giuseppe ; Salvioli, Stefano ; Franceschi, Claudio - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Physiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-042X - 16 p.
    Body composition (BC) is an emerging important factor for the characterization of metabolic status. The assessment of BC has been studied in various populations and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, endocrine diseases as well as physiological and paraphysiological conditions such as growth and aging processes, and physical training. A gold standard technique for the assessment of human BC at molecular level is represented by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is able to precisely assess the body mass (and areal bone mineral density-aBMD) on a regional and whole-body basis. For the first time, within the framework of the NU-AGE project, BC has been assessed by means of a whole-body DXA scan in 1121 sex-balanced free-living, apparently healthy older adults aged 65–79 years enrolled in 5 European countries (Italy, France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Poland). The aim of this analysis is to provide a complete profile of BC in healthy elderly participants from five European countries and to investigate country- and sex-related differences by state-of-the-art DXA technology. To compare BC data collected in different centers, specific indexes and ratios have been used. Non-parametric statistical tests showed sex-specific significant differences in certain BC parameters. In particular, women have higher fat mass (FM) (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 67%, p < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Lean Mass index: by -18%, p < 2.2e-16) than men. On the other hand, men have higher android FM than women (Android/gynoid FM ratio: by 56%, p < 2.2e-16). Interesting differences also emerged among countries. Polish elderly have higher FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 52%, p < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by -23%, p < 2.2e-16) than elderly from the other four countries. At variance, French elderly show lower FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by -34%, p < 2.2e-16) and higher lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by 18%, p < 2.2e-16). Moreover, five BC profiles in women and six in men have been identified by a cluster analysis based on BC parameters. Finally, these data can serve as reference for normative average and variability of BC in the elderly populations across Europe.
    A Mediterranean-like dietary pattern with Vitamin D3 (10 μg/d) supplements reduced the rate of bone loss in older Europeans with osteoporosis at baseline : Results of a 1-y randomized controlled trial
    Jennings, Amy ; Cashman, Kevin D. ; Gillings, Rachel ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Tang, Jonathan ; Fraser, William ; Dowling, Kirsten G. ; Hull, George L.J. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Wierzbicka, Elzbieta ; Ostan, Rita ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Caumon, Elodie ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. - \ 2018
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 108 (2018)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 633 - 640.
    bone - Mediterranean diet - older adults - Osteoporosis - Vitamin D supplementation

    Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but evidence for a beneficial effect on bone health is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern [NU-AGE (New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe)] on indexes of inflammation with a number of secondary endpoints, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone and collagen degradation in a 1-y multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT; NU-AGE) in elderly Europeans. Design: An RCT was undertaken across 5 European centers. Subjects in the intervention group consumed the NU-AGE diet for 1 y by receiving individually tailored dietary advice, coupled with supplies of foods including whole-grain pasta, olive oil, and a vitamin D3 supplement (10 μg/d). Participants in the control group were provided with leaflets on healthy eating available in their country. Results: A total of 1294 participants (mean ± SD age: 70.9 ±4.0 y; 44% male) were recruited to the study and 1142 completed the 1-y trial. The Mediterranean-like dietary pattern had no effect on BMD (site-specific or whole-body); the inclusion of compliance to the intervention in the statistical model did not change the findings. There was also no effect of the intervention on the urinary biomarkers free pyridinoline or free deoxypyridinoline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased and parathyroid hormone decreased (P < 0.001) in the MD compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis of individuals with osteoporosis at baseline (site-specific BMD T-score ≤ -2.5 SDs) showed that the MD attenuated the expected decline in femoral neck BMD (n = 24 and 30 in MD and control groups, respectively; P = 0.04) but had no effect on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD. Conclusions: A 1-y intervention of the Mediterranean-like diet together with vitamin D3 supplements (10 μg/d) had no effect on BMD in the normal age-related range, but it significantly reduced the rate of loss of bone at the femoral neck in individuals with osteoporosis. The NU-AGE trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.

    Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Correlation Between Daily Nutrient Intake Assessed by 7-Day Food Records and Biomarkers of Dietary Intake Among Participants of the NU-AGE Study
    Ostan, Rita ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Lanzarini, Catia ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Januszko, Olga ; Jennings, Amy ; Lyon, Noëlle ; Caumon, Elodie ; Gillings, Rachel ; Sicinska, Ewa ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Capri, Miriam ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Physiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-042X
    Methods for measuring diet composition and quantifying nutrient intake with sufficient validity are essential to study the association between nutrition and health outcomes and risk of diseases. 7-day food records provides a quantification of food actually and currently consumed and is interesting for its use in intervention studies to monitor diet in a short-term period and to guide participants toward changing their intakes. The objective of this study is to analyze the correlation/association between the daily intake of selected nutrients (collected by a 7-day food records plus a mineral/vitamin supplementation questionnaire) and estimates of energy expenditure as well as blood and urine biomarkers of dietary intakes in 1,140 healthy elderly subjects (65–79 years) at baseline of the NU-AGE intervention study (NCT01754012, clinicaltrials.gov). The results show that: the daily intake of energy correlated significantly with predicted total energy expenditure (pTEE) (ρ = 0.459, p < 0.001, and q < 0.001); protein intake correlated significantly with the ratio of 24 h urinary urea to creatinine excretion (ρ = 0.143 for total protein intake, ρ = 0.296 for animal protein intake, and ρ = 0.359 for protein intake/body weight, p < 0.001 and q < 0.001 for each correlation); vitamin B12 and folate intakes correlated significantly with their serum concentrations (ρ = 0.151 and ρ = 0.363, respectively; p < 0.001 and q < 0.001 for each correlation); sodium and potassium intakes correlated significantly with their 24 h urinary excretion (ρ = 0.298 and ρ = 0.123, respectively; p < 0.001 and q < 0.001 for each correlation); vitamin B12 and folate intakes were negatively associated with plasma homocysteine measure (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively); stratifying subjects by gender, the correlations between energy intake and pTEE and between potassium intake and its 24 h urinary excretion lost their significance in women. Even if the plasma and urinary levels of these nutrients depend on several factors, the significant correlations between daily reported intake of nutrients (protein, vitamin B12, folate, and sodium) and their blood/urinary markers confirmed that the 7-day food records (plus a supplementation questionnaire) provides reliable data to evaluate short-term current dietary intake in European elderly subjects and it can be exploited to guide and monitor NU-AGE participants through the shift of their diet according NU-AGE recommendations.
    Short Telomere Length Is Related to Limitations in Physical Function in Elderly European Adults
    Montiel Rojas, Diego ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Ponsot, Elodie ; Brummer, Robert J. ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Berendsen, Agnes ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Madej, Dawid ; Caumon, Elodie ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Physiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-042X
    The present study aims to explore the potential influence of leucocyte telomere length (LTL) on both a single indicator and a composite construct of physical functioning in a large European population of elderly men and women across diverse geographical locations. A total of 1,221 adults (65–79 years) were recruited from five European countries within the framework of NU-AGE study. The physical functioning construct was based on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Handgrip strength was used as a single indicator of muscle function and LTL was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Women had significantly longer (p < 0.05) LTL than men. Participants in Poland had significantly shorter LTL than in the other study centers, whereas participants in the Netherlands had significantly longer LTL than most of the other centers (p < 0.01). An analysis of LTL as a continuous outcome against physical functioning by using linear models revealed inconsistent findings. In contrast, based on an analysis of contrasting telomere lengths (first vs. fifth quintile of LTL), a significant odds ratio (OR) of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1 – 2.6; p < 0.05) of having functional limitation was observed in those belonging to the first LTL quintile compared to the fifth. Interestingly, having the shortest LTL was still related to a higher likelihood of having physical limitation when compared to all remaining quintiles (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 – 2.1; p < 0.05), even after adjustment by study center, age, sex, and overweight status. Collectively, our findings suggest that short LTL is an independent risk factor that accounts for functional decline in elderly European populations. The influence of LTL on functional limitation seems driven by the detrimental effect of having short telomeres rather than reflecting a linear dose-response relationship.
    Are Nutrition-Related Knowledge and Attitudes Reflected in Lifestyle and Health Among Elderly People? A Study Across Five European Countries
    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta ; Kollajtis-Dolowy, Anna ; Santoro, A. ; Ostan, R. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Jennings, A. ; Meunier, N. ; Marseglia, Anna ; Caumon, E. ; Gillings, Rachel ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Franceschi, Claudio ; Hieke, Sophie ; Pietruszka, B. - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Physiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-042X - 13 p.
    Background: Nutrition-related knowledge (NRK) and nutrition-related attitudes (NRAs) are necessary for dietary changes toward healthier dietary patterns. In turn, healthier dietary patterns can be beneficial in maintaining health of older adults. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether NRK and NRAs were associated with lifestyle and health features among older adults (65+ years) from five European countries (France, Italy, Poland, the Netherlands and United Kingdom). Methods: Within the European project NU-AGE, 1,144 healthy elderly volunteers (65–79 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: intervention (NU-AGE diet) or control. After 1-year of follow-up, both NRK and NRAs were assessed during exit interviews, in combination with a number of lifestyle and health variables (e.g., physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, BMI, self-assessed health status). Multivariable linear regression models were used in data analysis. Results: In the NU-AGE study sample, good NRK was associated with lower BMI and higher physical activity. More positive NRAs were related to lower BMI and self-reported very good or good appetite. Moreover, both NRK and NRAs were associated with some socio-economic determinants, like financial situation, age, education, living area (for NRK), and country (for NRAs). Participants in the intervention group showed a better NRK (β = 0.367 [95% CI: 0.117; 0.617], p = 0.004) and more positive NRAs (β = 0.838 [95% CI: 0.318; 1.358], p = 0.002) than those in the control group. Higher self-evaluated knowledge was also significantly related to more positive NRAs (p < 0.001). The most popular sources of nutrition information were food labels, books and magazines on health, the dietitian and the doctor's office, although their importance varied significantly among countries, and, to a lesser extent, between women and men and between intervention and control group. Conclusion: Higher NRK and NRA scores were associated with lower BMI and higher physical activity level. Therefore, a good nutrition-related knowledge and positive nutrition-related attitudes can strongly and positively influence the health status and quality of life among the older population. These results offer a great opportunity for policy makers to implement educational programs in order to counteract the epidemic of obesity and to improve the health span of European population.
    Effect of the NU-AGE Diet on Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults : A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Marseglia, Anna ; Xu, W. ; Fratiglioni, Laura ; Fabbri, Cristina ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Bialecka-Debek, Agata ; Jennings, A. ; Gillings, Rachel ; Meunier, N. ; Caumon, E. ; Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Santoro, A. ; Franceschi, Claudio - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Physiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-042X
    Background: Findings from animal and epidemiological research support the potential neuroprotective benefits from healthy diets. However, to establish diet-neuroprotective causal relations, evidence from dietary intervention studies is needed. NU-AGE is the first multicenter intervention assessing whether a diet targeting health in aging can counteract the age-related physiological changes in different organs, including the brain. In this study, we specifically investigated the effects of NU-AGE’s dietary intervention on age-related cognitive decline.
    Materials and Methods: NU-AGE randomized trial (NCT01754012, clinicaltrials.gov) included 1279 relatively healthy older-adults, aged 65–79 years, from five European centers. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: “control” (n = 638), following a habitual diet; and, “intervention” (n = 641), given individually tailored dietary advice (NU-AGE diet). Adherence to the NU-AGE diet was measured over follow-up, and categorized into tertiles (low, moderate, high). Cognitive function was ascertained at baseline and at 1-year follow-up with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD)-Neuropsychological Battery and five additional domain-specific single cognitive tests. The raw scores from the CERAD subtests [excluding the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)] and the single tests were standardized into Z-scores. Global cognition (measured with MMSE and CERAD-total score), and five cognitive domains (perceptual speed, executive function, episodic
    memory, verbal abilities, and constructional praxis) were created. Cognitive changes as a function of the intervention were analyzed with multivariable mixed-effects models.
    Results: After the 1-year follow-up, 571 (89.1%) controls and 573 (89.8%) from
    the intervention group participated in the post-intervention assessment. Both control and intervention groups showed improvements in global cognition and in all cognitive domains after 1 year, but differences in cognitive changes between the two groups were not statistically significant. However, participants with higher adherence to the NU-AGE diet showed statistically significant improvements in global cognition [b 0.20 (95%CI 0.004, 0.39), p-value = 0.046] and episodic memory [b 0.15 (95%CI 0.02, 0.28), p-value = 0.025] after 1 year, compared to those adults with lower adherence.
    Discussion: High adherence to the culturally adapted, individually tailored, NU-AGE diet could slow down age-related cognitive decline, helping to prevent cognitive impairment and dementia.
    Effect Of The NU-AGE Individually Tailored Diet On Cognitive Function: A Randomized Control Trial
    Marseglia, Anna ; Xu, Weili ; Santoro, A. ; Scurti, M. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Jennings, A. ; Meunier, N. ; Caumon, E. ; Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Brzozowska, A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Franceschi, C. - \ 2017
    Nouvelles strategies alimentaires pour un vieillissement optimisé des seniors européens – Projet européen FP7 NU-AGE
    Meunier, N. ; Caumon, E. ; Lyon, N. ; Caille, A. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Santoro, A. ; Franceschi, C. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Brzozowska, A.M. ; Jennings, A. ; Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Cano, N. - \ 2014
    Reprint of: A parallel randomized trial on the effect of a healthful diet on inflammageing and its consequences in European elderly people: Design of the NU-AGE dietary intervention study
    Berendsen, A.M. ; Santoro, A. ; Pini, E. ; Cevenini, E. ; Ostan, R. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Rolf, K. ; Cano, N. ; Caille, A. ; Lyon-Belgy, N. ; Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Franceschi, C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 136-137 (2014). - ISSN 0047-6374 - p. 14 - 21.
    cardiovascular risk-factors - mediterranean diet - vitamin-d - metabolic syndrome - older-adults - nutritional-status - blood-pressure - fatty-acids - weight-loss - life-style
    Background The proportion of European elderly is expected to increase to 30% in 2060. Combining dietary components may modulate many processes involved in ageing. So, it is likely that a healthful diet approach might have greater favourable impact on age-related decline than individual dietary components. This paper describes the design of a healthful diet intervention on inflammageing and its consequences in the elderly. Methods The NU-AGE study is a parallel randomized one-year trial in 1250 apparently healthy, independently living European participants aged 65–80 years. Participants are randomised into either the diet group or control group. Participants in the diet group received dietary advice aimed at meeting the nutritional requirements of the ageing population. Special attention was paid to nutrients that may be inadequate or limiting in diets of elderly, such as vitamin D, vitamin B12, and calcium. C-reactive protein is measured as primary outcome. Discussion The NU-AGE study is the first dietary intervention investigating the effect of a healthful diet providing targeted nutritional recommendations for optimal health and quality of life in apparently healthy European elderly. Results of this intervention will provide evidence on the effect of a healthful diet on the prevention of age related decline.
    A parallel randomized trial on the effect of a healthful diet on inflammageing and its consequences in European elderly people: Design of the NU-AGE dietary intervention study
    Berendsen, A.M. ; Santoro, A. ; Pini, E. ; Cevenini, E. ; Ostan, R. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Rolf, K. ; Cano, R. ; Caille, A. ; Lyon-Belgy, N. ; Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Franceschi, C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 134 (2013)11-12. - ISSN 0047-6374 - p. 523 - 530.
    cardiovascular risk-factors - mediterranean diet - vitamin-d - metabolic syndrome - older-adults - nutritional-status - blood-pressure - fatty-acids - weight-loss - life-style
    Background The proportion of European elderly is expected to increase to 30% in 2060. Combining dietary components may modulate many processes involved in ageing. So, it is likely that a healthful diet approach might have greater favourable impact on age-related decline than individual dietary components. This paper describes the design of a healthful diet intervention on inflammageing and its consequences in the elderly. Methods The NU-AGE study is a parallel randomized one-year trial in 1250 apparently healthy, independently living European participants aged 65–80 years. Participants are randomised into either the diet group or control group. Participants in the diet group received dietary advice aimed at meeting the nutritional requirements of the ageing population. Special attention was paid to nutrients that may be inadequate or limiting in diets of elderly, such as vitamin D, vitamin B12, and calcium. C-reactive protein is measured as primary outcome. Discussion The NU-AGE study is the first dietary intervention investigating the effect of a healthful diet providing targeted nutritional recommendations for optimal health and quality of life in apparently healthy European elderly. Results of this intervention will provide evidence on the effect of a healthful diet on the prevention of age related decline.
    A randomized trial on the effect of a full dietary intervention on ageing in European elderly people: the Nu-Age study
    Berendsen, A.M. ; Santoro, A. ; Pini, E. ; Cevenini, E. ; Ostan, R. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Rolf, K. ; Cano, N. ; Caille, A. ; Lyon-Belgy, N. ; Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Franceschi, C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
    Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, and bone health in adults and elderly people: a systematic review with meta-analyses
    Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Doets, E.L. ; Szczecinkska, A. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Duffy, M.E. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Veer, P. van 't; Brzozowska, A.M. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
    Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2013 (2013). - ISSN 2090-0724 - 19 p.
    Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with fractures and bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-seven eligible cross-sectional () and prospective () observational studies and one RCT were identified. Meta-analysis on four prospective studies including 7475 people showed a modest decrease in fracture risk of 4% per 50¿pmol/L increase in vitamin B12 levels, which was borderline significant (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.00). Meta-analysis of eight studies including 11511 people showed an increased fracture risk of 4% per µmol/L increase in homocysteine concentration (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.07). We could not draw a conclusion regarding folate levels and fracture risk, as too few studies investigated this association. Meta-analyses regarding vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and BMD were possible in female populations only and showed no associations. Results from studies regarding BMD that could not be included in the meta-analyses were not univocal.
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