Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Rarity of monodominance in hyperdiverse Amazonian forests
Steege, Hans Ter; Henkel, Terry W. ; Helal, Nora ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Huth, Andreas ; Groeneveld, Jürgen ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Moraes de Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Baraloto, Chris ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Andrade, Ana ; Camargo, José Luís ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Laurance, William F. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Mendonça Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo ; Lima de Queiroz, Helder ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Brienen, Roel ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Draper, Freddie ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Lopes, Aline ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Neill, David ; Aguiar, Daniel Praia Portela de; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Amaral, Dário Dantas do; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Gribel, Rogerio ; Pansonato, Marcelo Petratti ; Barlow, Jos ; Berenguer, Erika ; Ferreira, Joice ; Fine, Paul V.A. ; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro ; Jimenez, Eliana M. ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Villa, Boris ; Cerón, Carlos ; Maas, Paul ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stropp, Juliana ; Thomas, Raquel ; Baker, Tim R. ; Daly, Doug ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Milliken, William ; Pennington, Toby ; Ríos Paredes, Marcos ; Fuentes, Alfredo ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Pena, José Luis Marcelo ; Peres, Carlos A. ; Silman, Miles R. ; Tello, J.S. ; Chave, Jerome ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Hilário, Renato Richard ; Phillips, Juan Fernando ; Rivas-Torres, Gonzalo ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Hildebrand, Patricio von; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Barbosa, Flávia Rodrigues ; Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos de; Sá Carpanedo, Rainiellen de; Dávila Doza, Hilda Paulette ; Fonty, Émile ; GómeZárate Z, Ricardo ; Gonzales, Therany ; Gallardo Gonzales, George Pepe ; Hoffman, Bruce ; Junqueira, André Braga ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula de; Pinto, Linder Felipe Mozombite ; Prieto, Adriana ; Jesus Rodrigues, Domingos de; Rudas, Agustín ; Ruschel, Ademir R. ; Silva, Natalino ; Vela, César I.A. ; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zent, Egleé L. ; Zent, Stanford ; Weiss Albuquerque, Bianca ; Cano, Angela ; Carrero Márquez, Yrma Andreina ; Correa, Diego F. ; Costa, Janaina Barbosa Pedrosa ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro ; Galbraith, David ; Holmgren, Milena ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Rocha, Maira ; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Tirado, Milton ; Umaña Medina, Maria Natalia ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Vilanova Torre, Emilio ; Vriesendorp, Corine ; Wang, Ophelia ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Ahuite Reategui, Manuel Augusto ; Baider, Cláudia ; Balslev, Henrik ; Cárdenas, Sasha ; Casas, Luisa Fernanda ; Farfan-Rios, William ; Ferreira, Cid ; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Mesones, Italo ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego ; Villarroel, Daniel ; Zagt, Roderick ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina ; Hernandez, Lionel ; Palacios Cuenca, Walter ; Pansini, Susamar ; Pauletto, Daniela ; Ramirez Arevalo, Freddy ; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe ; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H. ; Valenzuela Gamarra, Luis ; Levesley, Aurora ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Melgaço, Karina - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

Tropical forests are known for their high diversity. Yet, forest patches do occur in the tropics where a single tree species is dominant. Such "monodominant" forests are known from all of the main tropical regions. For Amazonia, we sampled the occurrence of monodominance in a massive, basin-wide database of forest-inventory plots from the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN). Utilizing a simple defining metric of at least half of the trees ≥ 10 cm diameter belonging to one species, we found only a few occurrences of monodominance in Amazonia, and the phenomenon was not significantly linked to previously hypothesized life history traits such wood density, seed mass, ectomycorrhizal associations, or Rhizobium nodulation. In our analysis, coppicing (the formation of sprouts at the base of the tree or on roots) was the only trait significantly linked to monodominance. While at specific locales coppicing or ectomycorrhizal associations may confer a considerable advantage to a tree species and lead to its monodominance, very few species have these traits. Mining of the ATDN dataset suggests that monodominance is quite rare in Amazonia, and may be linked primarily to edaphic factors.

Transition support system approach for urban food security in the future : The case of Ghana
Dijkshoorn-Dekker, Marijke ; Linderhof, Vincent ; Pinto, Vasco ; Hennen, Wil ; Oudendag, Diti ; Kuiper, Marijke ; Shutes, Lindsay - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Report / Wageningen Economic Research 2019-057a) - ISBN 9789463439602 - 43
The population of the world is becoming increasingly urbanised due to a combination of natural population growth and rural–urban migration. This will pose major challenges to feed the future population and meet the Sustainable Development Goals. Meeting these complex challenges requires an integrated approach. The transition support system (TSS) approach integrates decision support tools and stakeholder analyses for these complex issues. This study has focused attention on the application of decision support tools of the TSS approach that visualises the urgency of future food security as a proof of concept. To this end, the future food security of the city of Accra, the capital of Ghana, has been taken as a case study. The use of Global-Detector and its maps illustrated a quick way to downscale data and projections from MAGNET (Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool) and perform spatial analyses without the burden of acquiring additional data. Downscaling of macroeconomic results of future projections provides insights into future urban food security. Giventhese insights, stakeholders might urge policy or interventions. The results of the exercise are largely determined by the availability of data and maps; in particular, the more detailed information is available, the more accurate the results of our exercise will be.
Urban food security in Ghana: a policy review
Linderhof, Vincent ; Vlijm, Ricardo ; Pinto, Vasco ; Raaijmakers, Ireen ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, Marijke - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-057b) - ISBN 9789463439688 - 71
This policy review aimed (i) to investigate how urgencies such as urbanisation and climate change are recognised in the current policies of a low-income country, and (ii) to investigate how food security, and urban food security in particular, interacts with these policies. Ghana is used as an example. The policy review revealed that the agricultural, nutrition and health, spatial development and climate policies dealt with one or more aspects of food security within the food system framework. The overall conclusion is that the aspects of food security are still covered by the traditional policies: agriculture mainly deals with production, distribution and exchange of food. Nutritional value and food safety, for instance, are main concerns of the health and nutrition policy. However, Ghana is developing the Long-Term National Development Plan (LTNDP) which combines several policies. Food safety is also increasingly considered for the exchange of food from an export perspective: export requires particular food quality standards. The results of our policy review confirm that the integration of food security elements is still in an early process of development. In addition, the urban aspect of food security was hardly considered in the policies relating to food security in Ghana. This review was explored for (urban) food security in Ghana. It is likely that results for other African countries or other low-income countries in other continents would have yielded similar results.
Intercropping simulation using the SWAP model: Development of a 2x1D algorithm
Pinto, Victor Meriguetti ; Dam, Jos C. van; Jong van Lier, Quirijn de; Reichardt, Klaus - \ 2019
Agriculture 9 (2019)6. - ISSN 2077-0472
Intercropping modeling - Lateral water flux - Radiation sharing - SWAP

Intercropping is a common cultivation system in sustainable agriculture, allowing crop diversity and better soil surface exploitation. Simulation of intercropped plants with integrated soil-plant-atmosphere models is a challenging procedure due to the requirement of a second spatial dimension for calculating the soil water lateral flux. Evaluations of more straightforward approaches for intercrop modeling are, therefore, mandatory. An adaptation of the 1D model Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Plant coupled to the World Food Studies (SWAP/WOFOST) to simulate intercropping (SWAP 2x1D) based on solar radiation and water partitioning between plant strips was developed and the outcomes are presented. An application of SWAP 2x1D to maize-soybean (MS) strip intercropping was evaluated against the monocropping maize (M) and soybean (S) simulated with the 1D model SWAP/WOFOST, and a sensitivity analysis of SWAP 2x1D was carried out for the intercropping MS. SWAP 2x1D was able to simulate the radiation interception by both crops in the intercropping MS and also to determine the effect of the radiation attenuation by maize on soybean plants. Intercropped plants presented higher transpiration and resulted in lower soil evaporation when compared to their equivalent monocropping cultivation. A numerical issue involving model instability caused by the simulated lateral water flux in the soil from one strip to the other was solved. The most sensitive plant parameters were those related to the taller plant strips in the intercropping, and soil retention curve parameters were overall all significantly sensitive for the water balance simulation. This implementation of the SWAP model presents an opportunity to simulate strip intercropping with a limited number of parameters, including the partitioning of radiation by a well-validated radiation sharing model and of soil water by simulating the lateral soil water fluxes between strips in the 2x1D environment.

Europäische Landschaften im Wandel : Implikationen für eine integrierte Politik und das Landschaftsmanagement
Primdahl, Jørgen ; Pinto-Correia, Teresa ; Pedroli, Bas - \ 2019
EuroChoices (2019). - ISSN 1478-0917

European rural landscapes are in transition due to macro changes in climate, agriculture and public policy, combined with various forms of urbanisation. These changes are affecting the resource basis of agriculture, the socio-cultural identity of rural communities, and are challenging the policy regimes affecting European landscapes. Therefore, they demand new forms of landscape governance if the diversity and quality of the landscapes are to be protected and further developed in the future. New analytical tools supported by revised conceptual frameworks are needed to assist identification and assessment of future development options. This article is based on a book published earlier this year. It presents and discusses the current patterns of change and their implications for policy. Three major policy challenges are identified: integration of agricultural and environmental policies; pro-active approaches to landscape change to cope with non-agricultural demands including recreation and nature conservation; and stakeholder involvement in policy design and implementation including farmers and other primary managers, public agencies at all levels and local communities in various forms. Key points are illustrated in a case study involving the development of a landscape strategy in the Karby parish in northwest Denmark.

Towards a general framework for the assessment of interactive effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems : Results from the Making Aquatic Ecosystems Great Again (MAEGA) workshop
Brink, Paul J. Van den; Bracewell, Sally A. ; Bush, Alex ; Chariton, Anthony ; Choung, Catherine B. ; Compson, Zacchaeus G. ; Dafforn, Katherine A. ; Korbel, Kathryn ; Lapen, David R. ; Mayer-Pinto, Mariana ; Monk, Wendy A. ; O'Brien, Allyson L. ; Rideout, Natalie K. ; Schäfer, Ralf B. ; Sumon, Kizar A. ; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Baird, Donald J. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 684 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 722 - 726.
Aquatic ecosystems - Ecological models - Ecological risk assessment framework - Multiple stressors - Workshop

A workshop was held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, in September 2017 to collate data and literature on three aquatic ecosystem types (agricultural drainage ditches, urban floodplains, and urban estuaries), and develop a general framework for the assessment of multiple stressors on the structure and functioning of these systems. An assessment framework considering multiple stressors is crucial for our understanding of ecosystem responses within a multiply stressed environment, and to inform appropriate environmental management strategies. The framework consists of two components: (i) problem identification and (ii) impact assessment. Both assessments together proceed through the following steps: 1) ecosystem selection; 2) identification of stressors and quantification of their intensity; 3) identification of receptors or sensitive groups for each stressor; 4) identification of stressor-response relationships and their potential interactions; 5) construction of an ecological model that includes relevant functional groups and endpoints; 6) prediction of impacts of multiple stressors, 7) confirmation of these predictions with experimental and monitoring data, and 8) potential adjustment of the ecological model. Steps 7 and 8 allow the assessment to be adaptive and can be repeated until a satisfactory match between model predictions and experimental and monitoring data has been obtained. This paper is the preface of the MAEGA (Making Aquatic Ecosystems Great Again) special section that includes three associated papers which are also published in this volume, which present applications of the framework for each of the three aquatic systems.

A comprehensive investigation of the behaviour of phenolic compounds in legumes during domestic cooking and in vitro digestion
Giusti, Federica ; Capuano, Edoardo ; Sagratini, Gianni ; Pellegrini, Nicoletta - \ 2019
Food Chemistry 285 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 458 - 467.
Anthocyanins - Bioaccessibility - In-vitro digestion - Legumes - Phenolic compounds

Legumes represent staple foods rich in phenolic compounds, which are often consumed after soaking and boiling. This study determines the fate of phenolic compounds from six legumes varieties belonging to the species Lens culinaris Medik., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Cicer arietinum L. after soaking, boiling and digestion. To this purpose, a new HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated. Results show that the cooking process strongly reduces the content in free and bound phenolic compounds and that the processing water is a valuable source of phenolics. Bioaccessibility of phenolics from the legume matrix was investigated separately in the coat and the cotyledons of three chosen varieties (black beans, black lentils and pinto beans) by means of a standardized in vitro digestion protocol. Results showed that only a fraction of the phenolic compounds is bioaccessible, which may have implications for human health.

Combined Effect of Light and Temperature on the Production of Saxitoxins in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Strains
Mesquita, Marcella C.B. ; Lürling, Miquel ; Dorr, Fabiane ; Pinto, Ernani ; Marinho, Marcelo M. - \ 2019
Toxins 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 2072-6651 - 15 p.
cyanobacteria - cyanotoxins - intraspecific variability - saxitoxins

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacterium that can tolerate a wide range of light and temperature. Due to climatic changes, the interaction between light and temperature is studied in aquatic systems, but no study has addressed the effect of both variables on the saxitoxins production. This study evaluated the combined effect of light and temperature on saxitoxins production and cellular quota in C. raciborskii. Experiments were performed with three C. raciborskii strains in batch cultures under six light intensities (10, 40, 60, 100, 150, and 500 μmol of photons m-2 s-1) and four temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30 °C). The growth of C. raciborskii strains was limited at lower temperatures and the maximum growth rates were obtained under higher light combined with temperatures equal or above 20 °C, depending on the strain. In general, growth was highest at 30 °C at the lower light intensities and equally high at 25 °C and 30 °C under higher light. Highest saxitoxins concentration and cell-quota occurred at 25 °C under high light intensities, but were much lower at 30 °C. Hence, increased temperatures combined with sufficient light will lead to higher C. raciborskii biomass, but blooms could become less toxic in tropical regions.

Quality of dietary fat intake and body weight and obesity in a mediterranean population : Secondary analyses within the PREDIMED trial
Beulen, Yvette ; Martínez-González, Miguel A. ; Rest, Ondine van de; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi ; Sorlí, José V. ; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique ; Fiol, Miquel ; Estruch, Ramón ; Santos-Lozano, José M. ; Schröder, Helmut ; Alonso-Gómez, Angel ; Serra-Majem, Luis ; Pintó, Xavier ; Ros, Emilio ; Becerra-Tomas, Nerea ; González, José I. ; Fitó, Montserrat ; Martínez, J.A. ; Gea, Alfredo - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2072-6643
Body weight - Cohort study - Fat - Obesity - Substitution models

A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the PREDIMED trial, with yearly repeated validated food-frequency questionnaires, and anthropometric outcomes (median follow-up: 4.8 years). The effects of replacing dietary fat subtypes for one another, proteins or carbohydrates were estimated using generalized estimating equations substitution models. Replacement of 5% energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in weight changes of −0.38 kg (95% Confidece Iinterval (CI): −0.69, −0.07), and −0.51 kg (95% CI: −0.81, −0.20), respectively. Replacing proteins with MUFA or PUFA decreased the odds of becoming obese. Estimates for the daily substitution of one portion of red meat with white meat, oily fish or white fish showed weight changes up to −0.87 kg. Increasing the intake of unsaturated fatty acids at the expense of SFA, proteins, and carbohydrates showed beneficial effects on body weight and obesity. It may therefore be desirable to encourage high-quality fat diets like the Mediterranean diet instead of restricting total fat intake.

Governance arrangements and adaptive decision-making in rice farming systems in Northern Ghana
Nyamekye, Andy Bonaventure ; Dewulf, Art ; Slobbe, Erik Van; Termeer, Katrien ; Pinto, Cristina - \ 2018
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 86-87 (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 39 - 50.
Adaptive decision-making - Adaptive governance - Environmental virtual observatories - Governance arrangements

Climate variability has consequences on water availability in rice farming systems. In Ghana, rice farmers in the Northern Savannah are amongst the most vulnerable to long periods of drought and erratic rainfall conditions. Within the Kumbungu district, farmers engaged in both rain-fed and irrigated rice farming are no exception. Coping with uncertain water availability conditions requires adaptive decision-making for sustained productivity in rice cropping. From an adaptive governance perspective, the extent to which formal and traditional governance arrangements enable adaptive decisions amongst rice farmers remains a key question. Using an exploratory research design, the study investigates three key questions; what water-dependent decisions rice farmers take and how these are adaptive to changing water availability conditions; what formal and informal governance arrangements rice cropping decisions are embedded in; and how existing governance arrangements enable or constrain adaptive decision-making. Rice farmers in twelve communities around the Bontanga Irrigation Scheme in the Kumbungu District in the Northern region were engaged through individual interviews and focus group discussions. The study reveals that farmers take six major water-dependent decisions throughout the cropping season; decision to or not to plant rice, land preparation, planting, weed control, fertilizer application and harvesting. Farmer decisions are most adaptive to water availability conditions during planting and fertilizer application. Both formal and traditional governance arrangements influence the extent to which farmers are able to adapt to changes in water availability conditions. The paper also reflects on the potential of hydro-climatic information and the place of Environmental Virtual Observatories (EVOs) in adaptive governance and decision-making.

Simultaneous production of antioxidants and starch from the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana
Petruk, Ganna ; Gifuni, Imma ; Illiano, Anna ; Roxo, Mariana ; Pinto, Gabriella ; Amoresano, Angela ; Marzocchella, Antonio ; Piccoli, Renata ; Wink, Michael ; Olivieri, Giuseppe ; Monti, Daria M. - \ 2018
Algal Research 34 (2018). - ISSN 2211-9264 - p. 164 - 174.
Antioxidants - C. elegans - Chlorella sorokiniana - Eukaryotic cells - Microalgae

In recent years, microalgae have gained considerable importance as potential source of biofuels and bioplastics. However, these markets are still developing, as the high costs of cultivation ask for exploiting microalgae into new areas and with a biorefinery approach towards a multicomponent cascade extraction process. Here, a sequential processing strategy was used to extract starch with high yield from Chlorella sorokiniana under biocompatible conditions. The extract residue was then tested as a potential source of antioxidants. We found a strong protective activity of the extract residue towards oxidative stress in vitro on human colon cancer cells and in vivo on Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, by inhibiting ROS production and activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor pathway. A pool of molecules from three different classes (fatty acids, photosynthetic pigments and carotenoids) was identified as responsible for the antioxidant activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the obtainment, from a “waste” fraction, of high value products endowed with antioxidant activity tested in cell-based models and in vivo.

Dynamics of post-harvest pathogens Neofabraea spp. and Cadophora spp. in plant residues in Dutch apple and pear orchards
Köhl, J. ; Wenneker, M. ; Haas, B.H. de; Anbergen, R.H.N. ; Goossen-van de Geijn, H.M. ; Pinto, F.A.M.F. ; Kastelein, P. - \ 2018
Plant Pathology 67 (2018)6. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 1264 - 1277.
Post-harvest diseases of apple and pear cause significant losses.
Neofabraea spp. and Cadophora spp. infect fruits during the growing season and remain quiescent until disease symptoms occur after several months in storage. Epidemiological knowledge of these diseases is limited. TaqMan PCR assays were developed for quantification of N. alba, N. perennans, C. malorum and C. luteo-olivacea in environmental samples. Various host tissues, dead weeds and grasses, soil and applied composts were collected in 10 apple and 10 pear orchards in May 2012. Neofabraea alba was detected in 73% of samples from apple orchards and 48% from pear orchards. Neofabraea perennans was present in a few samples. Cado- phora luteo-olivacea was detected in 99% of samples from apple orchards and 93% from pear orchards, whilst C. malo-rum was not detected in any sample. In apple orchards, highest concentrations of N. alba
were found in apple leaf litter, cankers and mummies, and of C. luteo-olivacea in apple leaf litter, mummies and dead weeds. In pear orchards, N. alba and C. luteo-olivacea were found in highest concentrations in pear leaf litter and in dead weeds. Substrate colonization varied considerably between orchards. The temporal dynamics of pathogens was followed in four apple orchards and four
pear orchards. In apple orchards the colonization by pathogens decreased from April until August and increased from September until December. This pattern was less pronounced in pear. Knowledge on population dynamics is essential for
the development of preventative measures to reduce risks of fruit infections during the growing season.
European landscapes in transition : Implications for policy and practice
Pinto-Correia, Teresa ; Primdahl, Jørgen ; Pedroli, Bas - \ 2018
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Studies in Landscape Ecology ) - ISBN 9781107070691 - 286 p.
European rural landscapes as we experience them today are the result of ongoing processes and interactions between nature and society. These are changing fast: the future landscapes will be different from those we know currently. Written for academics, policy-makers and practitioners, this book is the first to explore the complex histories of rural landscapes in Europe as a basis for their sound governance in future. Tensions between the needs of agricultural spaces driven by economic incentives and a variety of non-agricultural functions are explored to demonstrate current challenges and the shortfalls in the policies that address them. Using inspiring case studies that highlight the roles of regional agents and communities, the authors go further than the usual analyses to illustrate the importance of local context. Written by experts currently working to revitalise the rural landscapes of Europe, the text concludes with suggestions for improving landscape policy and planning practice.
Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

Marine and coastal cultural ecosystem services: Knowledge gaps and research priorities
Rodrigues Garcia, João ; Conides, Alexis J. ; Rodriguez Rivero, Susana ; Raicevich, Saša ; Pita, Pablo ; Kleisner, Kristin M. ; Pita, Cristina ; Lopes, Priscila F.M. ; Roldán Alonso, Virginia ; Ramos, Sandra S. ; Klaoudatos, Dimitris ; Outeiro, Luís ; Armstrong, Claire ; Teneva, Lida ; Stefanski, Stephanie ; Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne ; Kruse, Marion ; Lillebø, Ana I. ; Bennett, Elena M. ; Belgrano, Andrea ; Murillas, Arantza ; Pinto Sousa, Isabel ; Burkhard, Benjamin ; Villasante, Sebastián - \ 2017
Wadden Sea Ecosystem 2 (2017). - ISSN 0946-896X
Co-production - Drivers of change - Global assessment - Human wellbeing - Integrated valuation - Non-material benefits - Social-ecological systems - Synergies - Systematic review - Trade-offs - Value pluralism

Cultural ecosystem services (CES) reflect peoples’ physical and cognitive interactions with nature and are increasingly recognised for providing non-material benefits to human societies. Whereas coasts, seas, and oceans sustain a great proportion of the human population, CES provided by these ecosystems have remained largely unexplored. Therefore, our aims were (1) to analyse the state of research on marine and coastal CES, (2) to identify knowledge gaps, and (3) to pinpoint research priorities and the way forward. To accomplish these objectives, we did a systematic review of the scientific literature and synthesised a subset of 72 peer-reviewed publications. Results show that research on marine and coastal CES is scarce compared to other ecosystem service categories. It is primarily focused on local and regional sociocultural or economic assessments of coastal ecosystems from Western Europe and North America. Such research bias narrows the understanding of social-ecological interactions to a western cultural setting, undermining the role of other worldviews in the understanding of a wide range of interactions between cultural practices and ecosystems worldwide. Additionally, we have identified clusters of cooccurring drivers of change affecting marine and coastal habitats and their CES. Our systematic review highlights knowledge gaps in: (1) the lack of integrated valuation assessments; (2) linking the contribution of CES benefits to human wellbeing; (3) assessing more subjective and intangible CES classes; (4) identifying the role of openocean and deep-sea areas in providing CES; and (5) understanding the role of non-natural capital in the co-production of marine and coastal CES. Research priorities should be aimed at filling these knowledge gaps. Overcoming such challenges can result in increased appreciation of marine and coastal CES, and more balanced decision-supporting mechanisms that will ultimately contribute to more sustainable interactions between humans and marine ecosystems.

Moderate salinity improves stomatal functioning in rose plants grown at high relative air humidity
Carvalho, Dália R.A. ; Vasconcelos, Marta W. ; Lee, Sang ; Vreugdenhil, Dick ; Heuvelink, Ep ; Pinto de Carvalho, Susana - \ 2017
Environmental and Experimental Botany 143 (2017). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 1 - 9.
Abscisic acid - Rosa × hybrida - Salt stress - Stomatal physiology - Vapor pressure deficit - Water loss
Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) show hampered stomatal closure in response to closing stimuli. We hypothesized that a moderate salinity during growth could trigger a stress response and stimulate stomatal functioning due to an increased leaf abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]). Cut rose ‘Prophyta’ was grown at moderate (63%) or high (89%) RH combined with three electrical conductivities (EC) in the nutrient solution (2, 4 and 6 dS m−1; adding NaCl). High RH resulted in higher pore area per leaf area in intact leaves, and higher stomatal conductance (gs) both in leaves subjected to desiccation and to light/dark transition, as compared to moderate RH. Increasing EC in high RH-grown plants lead to higher stomatal density but it enhanced stomatal closure in response to leaflet desiccation. This enhanced stomatal functioning was associated with increased [ABA] and [ABA + metabolites]. Nonetheless, plants grown at EC6 showed a significantly lower chlorophyll content, total plant dry weight and total leaf area. This negative effect on plant growth is related to ionic stress as the sodium and chloride concentrations increased in plants grown at EC6 compared to EC2 (up to 111- and 14-fold, respectively). This is the first study on the interactive effects of RH and salinity on stomatal functioning and anatomy during leaf development. It is shown that, when these two environmental factors that influence stomatal responsiveness in an opposite way are combined, moderate EC is able to improve stomatal responsiveness to leaflet desiccation in high RH-grown plants due to increased leaf [ABA].
The efficiency of combined coagulant and ballast to remove harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a tropical shallow system
Miranda, Marcela ; Noyma, Natália ; Pacheco, Felipe S. ; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Pinto, Ernani ; Santos, Suzan ; Soares, Maria Fernanda A. ; Huszar, Vera L. ; Lurling, Miguel ; Marinho, Marcelo M. - \ 2017
Harmful Algae 65 (2017). - ISSN 1568-9883 - p. 27 - 39.
Chitosan - Cyanobacteria mitigation - Cylindrospermopsis - Eutrophication control - Microcystis

We tested the hypothesis that a combination of coagulant and ballast could be efficient for removal of positively buoyant harmful cyanobacteria in shallow tropical waterbodies, and will not promote the release of cyanotoxins. This laboratory study examined the efficacy of coagulants [polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and chitosan (made of shrimp shells)] alone, and combined with ballast (lanthanum modified bentonite, red soil or gravel) to remove the natural populations of cyanobacteria collected from a shallow eutrophic urban reservoir with alternating blooms of Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis. PAC combined with ballast was effective in settling blooms dominated by Microcystis or Cylindrospermopsis. Contrary to our expectation, chitosan combined with ballast was only effective in settling Cylindrospermopsis-dominated blooms at low pH, whereas at pH ≥ 8 no effective flocculation and settling could be evoked. Chitosan also had a detrimental effect on Cylindrospermopsis causing the release of saxitoxins. In contrast, no detrimental effect on Microcystis was observed and all coagulant-ballast treatments were effective in not only settling the Microcystis dominated bloom, but also lowering dissolved microcystin concentrations. Our data show that the best procedure for biomass reduction also depends on the dominant species.

Participatory Scenario-Building for Brazilian Climate Policy : The IES-Brasil Project Experience
Costa Pinto Oliviera, B. da; Heffer, C. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2016
Development (Basingstoke) 59 (2016)3-4. - ISSN 1011-6370 - p. 314 - 320.
This article reflects on experiences with IES-Brasil project to generate credible, legitimate and useful knowledge for domestic and international climate policy. It offers insight into how a participatory scenario building project was given shape in Brazil and how it sought to generate credible, legitimate and useful results. The article concludes by drawing some lessons that IES-Brasil can offer for climate policy and knowledge creation ‘post-Paris’.
Review of approaches and datasets to categorise and map Public Goods and Ecosystem Services at EU level : Deliverable 2.1. EU-Horizon 2020 project PEGASUS, project ID: 633814
Paracchini, M.L. ; Barredo, J.I. ; Rega, Carlo ; Caudullo, G. ; Perez-Soba, M. ; Cormont, A. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Miguel Ayala, L. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Guiomar, Nuno ; Cruz, David ; Pinto-Correia, Teresa ; Allen, Ben ; Underwood, Evelyn - \ 2016
PEGASUS - 148 p.
Survival of Stenocarpella spp. in maize debris and soil suppressiveness to maize ear rot pathogens
Moretti Ferreira Pinto, Felipe ; Novaes Medeiros, H. ; Biazzotto Correia Porto, V. ; Silva Siqueira, C. da; Cruz Machado, J. da; Köhl, J. ; Vasconcelos de Medeiros, Flavio - \ 2016
In: Preceedings of the Meeting „Biocontrol and Microbial Ecology" at Berlin (Germany), September 12-15, 2016.. - IOBC-WPRS (IOBC-WPRS Bulletin ) - ISBN 9789290673019 - p. 155 - 159.
Stenocarpella species (S. maydis and S. macrospora) overwinter saprophytically in maize stubble but little is known about the factors that contribute to its survival and to the induction of suppressiveness of pathogen colonization. We aimed at determining the role of crop rotation on the survival of the pathogen and induction of specific or broad spectrum disease suppressivity. Maize fields cultivated with soybean crop rotation or maize monoculture were randomly sampled for Stenocarpella sp. detection. Stalks were sampled, DNA extracted and the pathogen quantified through qPCR. Soil from the same sampled sites was tested for suppressivity to F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and S. maydis. The crop rotation consistently contributed to the lowest Stenocarpella sp. quantification in maize stalks and also to the highest number of soils with suppressiveness to F. graminearum and F. verticillioides compared to the maize monoculture. The obtained data not only endorsed the importance of soybean crop rotation for broad spectrum control of stalk and ear rot causing pathogens but also pointed out the most promising fields to look for biocontrol agents once the suppressiveness is of biological nature.
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