Genome Improvement and Genetic Map Construction for Aethionema arabicum, the First Divergent Branch in the Brassicaceae Family.
Nguyen, T.P. ; Mülich, Cornelia ; Mohammadin, Setareh ; Bergh, E. van den; Platts, A.E. ; Haas, Fabian B. ; Rensing, Stefan A. ; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2019
Genes, Genomes and Genomics 9 (2019)11. - ISSN 1749-0383 - p. 3521 - 3530.
The genus Aethionema is a sister-group to the core-group of the Brassicaceae family that includes Arabidopsis thaliana and the Brassica crops. Thus, Aethionema is phylogenetically well-placed for the investigation and understanding of genome and trait evolution across the family. We aimed to improve the quality of the reference genome draft version of the annual species Aethionema arabicum. Second, we constructed the first Ae. arabicum genetic map. The improved reference genome and genetic map enabled the development of each other. We started with the initially published genome (version 2.5). PacBio and MinION sequencing together with genetic map v2.5 were incorporated to produce the new reference genome v3.0. The improved genome contains 203 MB of sequence, with approximately 94% of the assembly made up of called (non-gap) bases, assembled into 2,883 scaffolds (with only 6% of the genome made up of non-called bases (Ns)). The N50 (10.3 MB) represents an 80-fold increase over the initial genome release. We generated a Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population that was derived from two ecotypes: Cyprus and Turkey (the reference genotype. Using a Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) approach, we generated a high-density genetic map with 749 (v2.5) and then 632 SNPs (v3.0) was generated. The genetic map and reference genome were integrated, thus greatly improving the scaffolding of the reference genome into 11 linkage groups. We show that long-read sequencing data and genetics are complementary, resulting in an improved genome assembly in Ae. arabicum. They will facilitate comparative genetic mapping work for the Brassicaceae family and are also valuable resources to investigate wide range of life history traits in Aethionema.
Scenarios of Land Use and Land Cover Change and Their Multiple Impacts on Natural Capital in Tanzania
Capitani, Claudia ; Soesbergen, Arnout van; Mukama, Kusaga ; Malugu, Isaac ; Mbilinyi, Boniface ; Chamuya, Nurdin ; Kempen, Bas ; Malimbwi, Rogers ; Mant, Rebecca ; Munishi, Panteleo ; Njana, Marco Andrew ; Ortmann, Antonia ; Platts, Philip J. ; Runsten, Lisen ; Sassen, Marieke ; Sayo, Philippina ; Shirima, Deo ; Zahabu, Elikamu ; Burgess, Neil D. ; Marchant, Rob - \ 2019
Environmental Conservation 46 (2019)1. - ISSN 0376-8929 - p. 17 - 24.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus the conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) requires information on land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs) and carbon emission trends from the past to the present and into the future. Here, we use the results of participatory scenario development in Tanzania to assess the potential interacting impacts on carbon stock, biodiversity and water yield of alternative scenarios where REDD+ is or is not effectively implemented by 2025, a green economy (GE) scenario and a business as usual (BAU) scenario, respectively. Under the BAU scenario, LULCCs will cause 296 million tonnes of carbon (MtC) national stock loss by 2025, reduce the extent of suitable habitats for endemic and rare species (mainly in encroached protected mountain forests) and change water yields. In the GE scenario, national stock loss decreases to 133 MtC. In this scenario, consistent LULCC impacts occur within small forest patches with high carbon density, water catchment capacity and biodiversity richness. Opportunities for maximizing carbon emission reductions nationally are largely related to sustainable woodland management, but also contain trade-offs with biodiversity conservation and changes in water availability.
Tropical forest canopies and their relationships with climate and disturbance: results from a global dataset of consistent field-based measurements
Pfeifer, Marion ; Gonsamo, Alemu ; Woodgate, William ; Cayuela, Luis ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Ledo, Alicia ; Paine, Timothy C.E. ; Marchant, Rob ; Burt, Andrew ; Calders, Kim ; Courtney-mustaphi, Colin ; Cuni-sanchez, Aida ; Deere, Nicolas J. ; Denu, Dereje ; Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Hayward, Robin ; Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Macía, Manuel J. ; Olivier, Pieter I. ; Pellikka, Petri ; Seki, Hamidu ; Shirima, Deo ; Trevithick, Rebecca ; Wedeux, Beatrice ; Wheeler, Charlotte ; Munishi, Pantaleo K.T. ; Martin, Thomas ; Mustari, Abdul ; Platts, Philip J. - \ 2018
Forest Ecosystems 5 (2018). - ISSN 2095-6355 - 14 p.
Background: Canopy structure, defined by leaf area index (LAI), fractional vegetation cover (FCover) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), regulates a wide range of forest functions and ecosystem services. Spatially consistent field-measurements of canopy structure are however lacking, particularly for the tropics. Methods: Here, we introduce the Global LAI database: a global dataset of field-based canopy structure measurements spanning tropical forests in four continents (Africa, Asia, Australia and the Americas). We use these measurements to test for climate dependencies within and across continents, and to test for the potential of anthropogenic disturbance and forest protection to modulate those dependences. Results: Using data collected from 887 tropical forest plots, we show that maximum water deficit, defined across the most arid months of the year, is an important predictor of canopy structure, with all three canopy attributes declining significantly with increasing water deficit. Canopy attributes also increase with minimum temperature, and with the protection of forests according to both active (within protected areas) and passive measures (through topography). Once protection and continent effects are accounted for, other anthropogenic measures (e.g. human population) do not improve the model. Conclusions: We conclude that canopy structure in the tropics is primarily a consequence of forest adaptation to the maximum water deficits historically experienced within a given region. Climate change, and in particular changes in drought regimes may thus affect forest structure and function, but forest protection may offer some resilience against this effect.
Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013 : Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013
Khalil, Ibrahim ; Colombara, Danny V. ; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein ; Troeger, Christopher ; Daoud, Farah ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Bcheraoui, Charbel El; Rao, Puja C. ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Charara, Raghid ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Akanda, Ali Shafqat ; Akseer, Nadia ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Ali, Raghib ; AlMazroa, Mohammad A. ; Alomari, Mahmoud A. ; Salem Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alsowaidi, Shirina ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Ammar, Walid ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Asghar, Rana Jawad ; Atique, Suleman ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Bacha, Umar ; Badawi, Alaa ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bekele, Tolesa ; Bensenor, Isabela M. ; Betsu, Balem Demtsu ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Abdulhak, Aref A. Bin; Butt, Zahid A. ; Danawi, Hadi ; Dubey, Manisha ; Endries, Aman Yesuf ; Faghmous, Imad M.D.A. ; Farid, Talha ; Farvid, Maryam S. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed Mohammad ; Fischer, Florian ; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph Robert ; Gibney, Katherine B. ; Mohamed Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem ; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo ; Gugnani, Harish Chander ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Hedayati, Mohammad T. ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Husseini, Abdullatif ; Jahanmehr, Nader ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Beyene, Tariku ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Khader, Yousef Saleh ; Khan, Abdur Rahman ; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad ; Khan, Gulfaraz ; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer ; Kinfu, Yohannes ; Kissoon, Niranjan ; Koyanagi, Ai ; Lal, Aparna ; Abdul Latif, Asma Abdul ; Lunevicius, Raimundas ; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mehari, Alem ; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B. ; Melaku, Yohannes Adama ; Memish, Ziad A. ; Mendoza, Walter ; Misganaw, Awoke ; Ibrahim Mohamed, Layla Abdalla ; Nachega, Jean B. ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nisar, Muhammad Imran ; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame ; Platts-Mills, James A. ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Ur Rahman, Sajjad ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Rana, Saleem M. ; Ranabhat, Chhabi L. ; Rao, Sowmya R. ; Refaat, Amany H. ; Riddle, Mark ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Ruhago, George Mugambage ; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad ; Sanabria, Juan R. ; Sawhney, Monika ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Setegn, Tesfaye ; Sliwa, Karen ; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T. ; Sykes, Bryan L. ; Tavakkoli, Mohammad ; Tedla, Bemnet Amare ; Terkawi, Abdullah S. ; Ukwaja, Kingsley ; Uthman, Olalekan A. ; Westerman, Ronny ; Wubshet, Mamo ; Yenesew, Muluken A. ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al; Wang, Haidong ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Vos, Theo ; Lopez, Alan D. ; Murray, Christopher J.L. ; Mokdad, Ali H. - \ 2016
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95 (2016)6. - ISSN 0002-9637 - p. 1319 - 1329.
Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low-and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.
The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications
Edger, P.P. ; Heidel-Fischer, H.M. ; Bekaert, K.M. ; Rota, J. ; Glockner, G. ; Platts, A.E. ; Heckel, D.G. ; Der, J.P. ; Wafula, E.K. ; Tang, M. ; Hofberger, J.A. ; Smithson, A. ; Hall, J.C. ; Blanchette, M. ; Bureau, T.E. ; Wright, S.I. ; dePamphilis, C.W. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Conant, G.C. ; Barker, M.S. ; Wahlberg, N. ; Vogel, H. ; Pires, J.C. ; Wheat, C.W. - \ 2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (2015)27. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8362 - 8366.
evolutionaire genetica - co-evolutie - diversificatie - brassica - pieridae - papilionidae - glucosinolaten - fylogenie - evolutionary genetics - coevolution - diversification - brassica - pieridae - papilionidae - glucosinolates - phylogeny - diversity - defense - cytochrome-p450 - polymorphism - arabidopsis - metabolism - expression - speciation
Coevolutionary interactions are thought to have spurred the evolution of key innovations and driven the diversification of much of life on Earth. However, the genetic and evolutionary basis of the innovations that facilitate such interactions remains poorly understood. We examined the coevolutionary interactions between plants (Brassicales) and butterflies (Pieridae), and uncovered evidence for an escalating evolutionary arms-race. Although gradual changes in trait complexity appear to have been facilitated by allelic turnover, key innovations are associated with gene and genome duplications. Furthermore, we show that the origins of both chemical defenses and of molecular counter adaptations were associated with shifts in diversification rates during the arms-race. These findings provide an important connection between the origins of biodiversity, coevolution, and the role of gene and genome duplications as a substrate for novel traits.
An atlas of over 90.000 conserved noncoding sequences provides insight into crucifer regulatory regions
Haudry, A. ; Platts, A.E. ; Vello, E. ; Hoen, D.R. ; Leclerq, M. ; Williamson, R.J. ; Forczek, E. ; Joly-Lopez, Z. ; Steffen, J.G. ; Hazzouri, K.M. ; Dewar, K. ; Stinchcombe, J.R. ; Schoen, D.J. ; Wang, X. ; Schmutz, J. ; Town, C.D. ; Edger, P.P. ; Pires, J.C. ; Schumaker, K.S. ; Jarvis, D.E. ; Mandakova, T. ; Lysak, M. ; Bergh, E. van den; Schranz, M.E. ; Harrison, P.M. - \ 2013
Nature Genetics 45 (2013). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 891 - 898.
arabidopsis-thaliana - human genome - dna elements - ultraconserved elements - brassica-oleracea - gene-expression - evolution - drosophila - size - annotation
Despite the central importance of noncoding DNA to gene regulation and evolution, understanding of the extent of selection on plant noncoding DNA remains limited compared to that of other organisms. Here we report sequencing of genomes from three Brassicaceae species (Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and Aethionema arabicum) and their joint analysis with six previously sequenced crucifer genomes. Conservation across orthologous bases suggests that at least 17% of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome is under selection, with nearly one-quarter of the sequence under selection lying outside of coding regions. Much of this sequence can be localized to approximately 90,000 conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) that show evidence of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Population genomics analyses of two crucifer species, A. thaliana and Capsella grandiflora, confirm that most of the identified CNSs are evolving under medium to strong purifying selection. Overall, these CNSs highlight both similarities and several key differences between the regulatory DNA of plants and other species.