Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Goed voor het klimaat, maar ook ongezond?
    Krol, Maarten - \ 2019
    Tomatenziekte aangetroffen in Westland
    Vlugt, Rene van der - \ 2019
    Preconception lifestyle and cardiovascular health in the offspring of overweight and obese women
    Elten, Tessa M. van; Beek, Cornelieke van de; Geelen, Anouk ; Gemke, Reinoud J.B.J. ; Groen, Henk ; Hoek, Annemieke ; Mol, Ben Willem ; Poppel, Mireille N.M. van; Roseboom, Tessa J. - \ 2019
    Nutrients 11 (2019)10. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Offspring anthropometry - Offspring blood pressure - Offspring pulse wave velocity - Preconception dietary intake - Preconception physical activity

    Women’s lifestyle has important implications for the development and health of their offspring. Yet little is known about the association between women’s preconception dietary intake and physical activity with cardiovascular health of the offspring. We therefore examined this association in a group of Dutch women with overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 29 kg/m2) and infertility, who participated in a 6-month randomized preconception lifestyle intervention trial, and their offspring (n = 46). Preconception dietary intake and physical activity were assessed during the 6-month intervention using a food frequency questionnaire and the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH), respectively. Offspring cardiovascular health (i.e., BMI, waist:height ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fat and fat free mass, and pulse wave velocity) was measured at age 3–6 years. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations between preconception lifestyle and offspring cardiovascular health. Higher preconception vegetable intake (per 10 g/day) was associated with lower offspring diastolic blood pressure (Z-score: −0.05 (−0.08; −0.01); p = 0.007) and higher preconception fruit intake (per 10 g/day) was associated with lower offspring pulse wave velocity (−0.05 m/s (−0.10; −0.01); p = 0.03). Against our expectations, higher preconception intake of sugary drinks was associated with a higher offspring fat free mass (0.54 kg (0.01; 1.07); p = 0.045). To conclude, preconception dietary intake is associated with offspring health.

    Preconception lifestyle intervention reduces long term energy intake in women with obesity and infertility : A randomised controlled trial
    Elten, T.M. van; Karsten, M.D.A. ; Geelen, A. ; Gemke, R.J.B.J. ; Groen, H. ; Hoek, A. ; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Roseboom, T.J. - \ 2019
    International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 16 (2019)1. - ISSN 1479-5868
    Accelerometers - Diet - Diet quality - Lifestyle intervention program - Long term follow-up - Obesity - Physical activity - Weight loss

    Background: The preconceptional period may be an optimal window of opportunity to improve lifestyle. We previously showed that a 6 month preconception lifestyle intervention among women with obesity and infertility was successful in decreasing the intake of high caloric snacks and beverages, increasing physical activity and in reducing weight in the short term. We now report the effects of the preconception lifestyle intervention on diet, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) at 5.5 years (range = 3.7-7.0 years) after the intervention. Methods: We followed women who participated in the LIFEstyle study, a multicentre RCT in which women with obesity and infertility were assigned to a six-month lifestyle intervention program or prompt infertility treatment (N = 577). Diet and physical activity 5.5 years later were assessed with an 173-item food frequency questionnaire (N = 175) and Actigraph triaxial accelerometers (N = 155), respectively. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and previously measured height (N = 179). Dietary intake, physical activity, and BMI in the intervention and control group were compared using multivariate regression models. Additionally, dietary intake, physical activity and BMI of women allocated to the intervention arm with successful weight loss during the intervention (i.e. BMI < 29 kg/m2 or ≥ 5% weight loss), unsuccessful weight loss and the control group were compared with ANCOVA. Results: Although BMI did not differ between the intervention and control group 5.5 years after the intervention (- 0.5 kg/m2 [- 2.0;1.1]; P = 0.56), the intervention group did report a lower energy intake (- 216 kcal/day [- 417;-16]; P = 0.04). Women in the intervention arm who successfully lost weight during the intervention had a significantly lower BMI at follow-up compared to women in the intervention arm who did not lose weight successfully (- 3.4 kg/m2 [- 6.3;-0.6]; P = 0.01), and they reported a significantly lower energy intake compared to the control group (- 301 kcal [- 589;-14]; P = 0.04). Macronutrient intake, diet quality, and physical activity did not differ between the intervention and control group, irrespective of successful weight loss during the intervention. Conclusions: In our study population, a preconception lifestyle intervention led to reduced energy intake 5.5 years later. Additionally, women allocated to the intervention group who were successful in losing weight during the intervention also had a lower BMI at follow-up. This shows the potential sustainable effect of a preconception lifestyle intervention. Trial registration: This trial was registered on 16 November 2008 in the Dutch trial register; clinical trial registry number NTR1530.

    Diet and physical activity in pregnancy and offspring's cardiovascular health: A systematic review
    Elten, T.M. Van; Karsten, M.D.A. ; Poppel, M.N.M. Van; Geelen, A. ; Limpens, J. ; Roseboom, T.J. ; Gemke, R.J.B.J. - \ 2019
    Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 10 (2019)3. - ISSN 2040-1744 - p. 286 - 298.
    maternal diet - maternal physical activity - offspring's blood pressure - offspring's vascular health

    There is increasing evidence linking maternal diet and physical activity before and during pregnancy with offspring's cardiovascular health. Although many studies examined this association, the evidence has not been reviewed systematically. We therefore undertook a systematic review to synthesize evidence examining the association of maternal diet and physical activity before and during pregnancy with offspring's blood pressure and vascular health. We systematically searched the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to June 30, 2017. Eligibility screening, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 19 articles were included comprising three randomized controlled trials and 16 observational studies. Of the studies that examined the association of interest, 60% (three out of five studies) showed that high maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with higher offspring's blood pressure. Maternal protein intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with offspring carotid intima-media thickness in two out of two studies. No consistent findings for maternal fatty acid intake were found. There were too few studies to draw conclusions on energy intake, fibre intake, protein/carbohydrate ratio, specific foods, dietary patterns and maternal physical activity. Heterogeneity in exposure and outcome assessment hampered pooling. Also, owing to the observational nature of most studies, causality cannot be established. Harmonization of valid exposure and outcome measurements, and the development of core outcome sets are needed to enable more robust conclusions.

    Determinants of successful lifestyle change during a 6-month preconception lifestyle intervention in women with obesity and infertility
    Karsten, Matty D.A. ; Oers, Anne M. van; Groen, Henk ; Mutsaerts, Meike A.Q. ; Poppel, Mireille N.M. van; Geelen, Anouk ; Beek, Cornelieke van de; Painter, Rebecca C. ; Mol, Ben W.J. ; Roseboom, Tessa J. ; Hoek, Annemieke ; Burggraaff, J.M. ; Kuchenbecker, W.K.H. ; Perquin, D.A.M. ; Koks, C.A.M. ; Golde, R. van; Kaaijk, E.M. ; Schierbeek, J.M. ; Oosterhuis, G.J.E. ; Broekmans, F.J. ; Vogel, N.E.A. ; Lambalk, C.B. ; Veen, F. van der; Klijn, N.F. ; Mercelina, P.E.A.M. ; Kasteren, Y.M. van; Nap, A.W. ; Mulder, R.J.A.B. ; Gondrie, E.T.C.M. ; Bruin, J.P. de - \ 2019
    European Journal of Nutrition 58 (2019)6. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 2463 - 2475.
    Determinants - Lifestyle intervention - Obesity - Preconception

    Purpose: To identify demographic, (bio)physical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of successful lifestyle change and program completion by performing a secondary analysis of the intervention arm of a randomized-controlled trial, investigating a preconception lifestyle intervention. Methods: The 6-month lifestyle intervention consisted of dietary counseling, physical activity, and behavioral modification, and was aimed at 5–10% weight loss. We operationalized successful lifestyle change as successful weight loss (≥ 5% weight/BMI ≤ 29 kg/m2), weight loss in kilograms, a reduction in energy intake, and an increase in physical activity during the intervention program. We performed logistic and mixed-effect regression analyses to identify baseline factors that were associated with successful change or program completion. Results: Women with higher external eating behavior scores had higher odds of successful weight loss (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05–1.16). Women with the previous dietetic support lost 0.94 kg less during the intervention period (95% CI 0.01–1.87 kg). Women with higher self-efficacy reduced energy intake more than women with lower self-efficacy (p < 0.01). Women with an older partner had an increased energy intake (6 kcal/year older, 95% CI 3–13). A high stage of change towards physical activity was associated with a higher number of daily steps (p = 0.03). A high stage of change towards weight loss was associated with completion of the intervention (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Determinants of lifestyle change and program completion were: higher external eating behavior, not having received previous dietetic support, high stage of change. This knowledge can be used to identify women likely to benefit from lifestyle interventions and develop new interventions for women requiring alternative support. Trial registration: The LIFEstyle study was registered at the Dutch trial registry (NTR 1530; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1530).

    Effects of a preconception lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women on diet and physical activity; A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
    Elteni, Tessa M. Van; Karsten, Matty D.A. ; Geelen, Anouk ; Oers, Anne M. van; Poppel, Mireille N.M. van; Groen, Henk ; Gemke, Reinoud J.B.J. ; Mol, Ben Willem ; Mutsaerts, Meike A.Q. ; Roseboom, Tessa J. ; Hoek, Annemieke - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)11. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Background Lifestyle changes are notoriously difficult. Since women who intend to become pregnant are more susceptible to lifestyle advice, interventions during this time window might be more effective than interventions during any other period in life. We here report the effects of the first large preconception lifestyle intervention RCT on diet and physical activity in obese infertile women. Methods In total, 577 women were randomized between a six-month lifestyle intervention program (intervention group; N = 290) or prompt infertility treatment (control group; N = 287). Self-reported dietary behaviors and physical activity were assessed at baseline, three, six and twelve months after randomization. Mixed models were used to analyze differences between groups. Results Compared to the control group, the intervention group reduced their intake of sugary drinks at three months (-0.5 glasses/day [95% C.I. = -0.9;-0.2]), of savory snacks at three (-2.4 handful/week [-3.4;-1.4]) and at six months (-1.4 handful/week [-2.6;-0.2]), and of sweet snacks at three (-2.2 portion/week [-3.3;-1.0]) and twelve months after randomization (-1.9 portion/week [-3.5;-0.4]). Also, the intervention group was more moderate to vigorous physically active at three months after randomization compared to the control group (169.0 minutes/ week [6.0; 332.1]). Conclusion Our study showed that obese infertile women who followed a six-month preconception lifestyle intervention program decreased their intake of high caloric snacks and beverages, and increased their physical activity. These changes in lifestyle may not only improve women's health but their offspring's health too.

    Women, their Offspring and iMproving lifestyle for Better cardiovascular health of both (WOMB project) : a protocol of the follow-up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial
    Beek, Cornelieke van de; Hoek, Annemieke ; Painter, Rebecca C. ; Gemke, Reinoud J.B.J. ; Poppel, Mireille N.M. van; Geelen, Anouk ; Groen, Henk ; Willem Mol, Ben ; Roseboom, Tessa J. - \ 2018
    BMJ Open 8 (2018). - ISSN 2044-6055
    maternal medicine - preventive medicine - reproductive medicine

    INTRODUCTION: Women, their Offspring and iMproving lifestyle for Better cardiovascular health of both (WOMB) project is the follow-up of the LIFEstyle study, a randomised controlled trial in obese infertile women, and investigates the effects of a preconception lifestyle intervention on later health of women (WOMB women) and their children (WOMB kids).

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Obese infertile women, aged between 18 and 39 years, were recruited in 23 Dutch fertility clinics between June 2009 and June 2012. The 284 women allocated to the intervention group received a 6-month structured lifestyle programme. The 280 women in the control group received infertility care as usual. 4 to 7 years after inclusion in the trial, all women (n=564) and children conceived during the trial (24 months after randomisation) (n=305 singletons and age 3-5 years) will be approached to participate in this follow-up study (starting in 2015). The main focus of outcome will be cardiovascular health, but the dataset comprises a wide range of physical and mental health measures, diet and physical activity measures, child growth and development measures, biological samples and genetic and epigenetic information. The follow-up assessment consists of three stages that take place between 2016 and 2018, and includes (online) questionnaires, accelerometry and physical and behavioural measurements in a mobile research vehicle. A subsample of 100 women and 100 children are planned for cardiac ultrasound measurements.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol of this follow-up study is approved by the local medical ethics committee (University Medical Centre Groningen). Study findings of the WOMB project will be widely disseminated to the scientific community, healthcare professionals, policy makers, future parents and general public.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The original LIFEstyle study is registered at The Netherlands Trial Registry (number 1530).

    One week treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra leads to a sustained improvement in insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus
    Asseldonk, E.J.P. van; Poppel, P.C.M. van; Ballak, D.B. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Netea, M.G. ; Tack, C.J. - \ 2015
    Clinical Immunology 160 (2015)2. - ISSN 1521-6616 - p. 155 - 162.
    Adipose tissue - Anakinra - Inflammation - Insulin sensitivity - Interleukin 1 - Type 1 diabetes

    Inflammation associated with obesity is involved in the development of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment with the Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra would improve insulin sensitivity.In an open label proof-of-concept study, we included overweight patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes with an HbA1c level over 7.5%. Selecting insulin resistant patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes allowed us to study the effects of anakinra on insulin sensitivity. Patients were treated with 100. mg anakinra daily for one week. Insulin sensitivity, insulin need and blood glucose profiles were measured before, after one week and after four weeks of follow-up.Fourteen patients completed the study. One week of anakinra treatment led to an improvement of insulin sensitivity, an effect that was sustained for four weeks. Similarly, glucose profiles, HbA1c levels and insulin needs improved.In conclusion, one week of treatment with anakinra improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Hight infant mortality in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century North-Brabant: Did religion play a role?
    Walhout, E. ; Poppel, F. van; Mandemakers, J.J. - \ 2014
    High infant mortality in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century North-Brabant: Did religion play a role?
    Walhout, E. ; Poppel, F. van; Mandemakers, J.J. - \ 2014
    A single locus confers tolerance to continuous light and allows substantial yield increase in tomato
    Vélez Ramírez, A.I. ; Ieperen, W. van; Vreugdenhil, D. ; Poppel, P.M.J.A. van; Heuvelink, E. ; Millenaar, F.F. - \ 2014
    Nature Communications 5 (2014). - ISSN 2041-1723
    differential expression analysis - photosystem-ii - lycopersicon-esculentum - greenhouse tomato - dependent phosphorylation - chlorophyll fluorescence - arabidopsis-thaliana - gene-expression - air humidity - plants
    An important constraint for plant biomass production is the natural day length. Artificial light allows for longer photoperiods, but tomato plants develop a detrimental leaf injury when grown under continuous light—a still poorly understood phenomenon discovered in the 1920s. Here, we report a dominant locus on chromosome 7 of wild tomato species that confers continuous light tolerance. Genetic evidence, RNAseq data, silencing experiments and sequence analysis all point to the type III light harvesting ¿chlorophyll a/b binding protein 13 (¿CAB-13) gene as a major factor responsible for the tolerance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this protein is thought to have a regulatory role balancing light harvesting by photosystems I and II. Introgressing the tolerance into modern tomato hybrid lines, results in up to 20% yield increase, showing that limitations for crop productivity, caused by the adaptation of plants to the terrestrial 24-h day/night cycle, can be overcome.
    Postpartum behaviour as predictor of weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum
    Althuizen, E. ; Poppel, M.N.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Mechelen, W. van - \ 2011
    BMC Public Health 11 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 7 p.
    food-frequency questionnaire - physical-activity - brazilian women - obesity - retention - gain - reproducibility - association - cholesterol - childbirth
    Background - Postpartum weight retention affects many women and increases the risk of becoming overweight. The research objective was to study modifiable factors contributing to weight change at one year postpartum. Methods - In this prospective cohort, postpartum behavior, such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and intake of total energy, total fat and saturated fatty acids of 118 Dutch women were assessed in 2003/2004 by self-report at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Mean postpartum scores were computed for the behavioral measures. In linear regression models it was determined which factors were associated with average weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum. Furthermore, factors associated with substantial postpartum weight retention (= 5 kg) were also studied in logistic regression models. Results - At one year postpartum, the average weight of participants had increased by 0.9 kg (SD 4.4). Moreover, 20% of the women retained = 5 kg. Women who perceived themselves more physically active than others were almost ten times less likely to retain = 5 kg than women who perceived themselves equally active (OR = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.02 - 0.66). Exceeding the guideline for saturated fatty acid intake (OR = 3.40, 95%CI: 1.04 - 11.11), total gestational weight gain (OR = 1.14/kg, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.27), and not having completed post high school education (OR = 5.13, 95%CI: 1.66 - 15.90) increased the odds of retaining = 5 kg. Conclusions - Since one in five women had substantial weight retention postpartum, effective interventions for the prevention of weight retention are much needed. Future studies should evaluate whether interventions focusing on the identified modifiable postpartum factors are successful in reducing weight retention after childbirth.
    Intradermal testing of horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in the Netherlands using an extract of native Culicoides species
    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. ; Poppel, M. van; Raat, I.J. de; Boom, R. van den; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2009
    Veterinary Dermatology 20 (2009)5-6. - ISSN 0959-4493 - p. 607 - 614.
    sweet itch - icelandic horses - british-columbia - summer eczema - challenge - ceratopogonidae - dermatitis - permethrin - diptera - norway
    Intradermal tests using a Culicoides nubeculosus extract have proven unreliable for diagnosis of equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an extract derived from the Dutch species C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris. Thirteen pairs of horses were tested, each pair consisting of one horse with IBH and the other a healthy control. Each horse was injected intradermally with 0.1 mL of three concentrations of Culicoides whole body extract (1 : 1000 w/v, 1 : 10,000 w/v and 1 : 25,000 w/v), histamine solution (0.01 mg/mL, positive control) and phosphate-buffered saline (negative control). Skin responses were evaluated after 30 min and at 1, 4 and 24 h. At all time points the absolute wheal diameter elicited by Culicoides extract 1 : 1000 w/v was significantly larger (P <0.01) in the IBH horses than in the control horses. Using the 1 : 10,000 w/v extract the difference was significant at 1, 4 and 24 h and using the 1 : 25,000 w/v extract only at 24 h. The relative wheal diameter was greater in IBH than in control horses at all concentrations and time points except at 0.5 h for the 1 : 10,000 w/v and 1 : 25,000 w/v concentrations. At the 1 : 1000 w/v concentration, the sensitivity and specificity was 92% using the relative wheal diameter. These results indicate that intradermal testing using 1 : 1000 w/v concentration Culicoides extracts relevant to the locality provides useful support for a clinical diagnosis of equine insect hypersensitivity
    Het Phytophthora infestans-avirulentiegen PiAvr4 en zijn tegenhanger in aardappel, het resistentiegen R4
    Poppel, P.M.J.A. van - \ 2009
    Gewasbescherming 40 (2009)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 250 - 253.
    aardappelen - phytophthora infestans - genen - ziekteresistentie - resistentiemechanismen - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - potatoes - phytophthora infestans - genes - disease resistance - resistance mechanisms - scientific research
    Om te weten welke mechanismen ten grondslag liggen aan het verlies van resistentie van aardappelrassen tegen Phytophthora infestans is het van groot belang om inzicht te krijgen in effectoren die het pathogeen produceert. Bij Wageningen Universiteit is (promotie)onderzoek gedaan naar de identificatie van een P. infestans-Avr-gen, in het bijzonder de avirulentie- en effector-activiteit, de domeinstructuur en de subcellulaire lokalisatie van het Avr-eiwit, en de specificiteit van het bijbehorende aardappel-R-gen
    Differential recognition of Phytophthora infestans races in potato R4 breeding lines
    Poppel, P.M.J.A. van; Huigen, D.J. ; Govers, F. - \ 2009
    Phytopathology 99 (2009)10. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 1150 - 1155.
    blight resistance - disease resistance - avirulence genes - downy mildew - virulence - effector - inheritance - markers - locus - specificities
    Introgression breeding has resulted in several potato lines that are resistant to late blight, a devastating plant disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. The traditional differential set consists of potato lines with 11 late blight resistance specificities, referred to as R1 to R11. With the exception of the R4 locus, all the resistance loci in these lines have been genetically mapped or positioned in resistance (R) gene clusters. In this study, we show that potato lines that are defined to carry R4 do not necessarily recognize the same P. infestans strains. Field isolates appeared to be avirulent on either the R4 differential developed by Mastenbroek or the one developed by Black but not on both. Previously, we identified the avirulence gene PiAvr4, which is a member of the RXLR effector family. In planta expression of PiAvr4 revealed that recognition of PiAvr4 is strictly confined to the Mastenbroek R4 differential. Segregation of the trait in two independent F1 progenies showed that late blight resistance in this differential is determined by a single dominant gene, now referred to as R4Ma.
    Recognition of Phytophthora infestans Avr4 by potato R4 is triggered by C-terminal domains comprising W motifs
    Poppel, P.M.J.A. van; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Sliwka, J. ; Govers, F. - \ 2009
    Molecular Plant Pathology 10 (2009)5. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 611 - 620.
    sojae-effector avr1b - avirulence gene - downy mildew - cell-death - arabidopsis - resistance - proteins - expression - origin - blight
    Oomycete RXLR-dEER effector proteins are rapidly evolving proteins with the selective pressure targeted predominantly at their C-terminal ends. The majority of RXLR-dEER proteins have recognizable motifs of 21-30 amino acids in the C-terminal domain that are named after conserved amino acid residues at fixed positions within the respective motifs. In this article, it is reported that the Phytophthora infestans RXLR-dEER protein Avr4 contains three W motifs and one Y motif in its C-terminal domain. Agroinfection assays using constructs encoding modified forms of PiAvr4 have shown that the region containing the W2 motif, in combination with either the W1 or W3 motif, triggers a necrotic response in potato plants carrying the resistance gene R4. By mining the superfamily of avirulence homologues (Avh) deduced from three sequenced Phytophthora genomes, several Avh proteins were identified as homologues of PiAvr4: six in P. infestans, one in P. ramorum and seven in P. sojae. One very close homologue of PiAvr4 was cloned from the sibling species, P. mirabilis. This species is not pathogenic on potato but, similar to PiAvr4, PmirAvh4 triggered a necrotic response on potato clones carrying R4, but not on clones lacking R4. Genes encoding RXLR-dEER effectors are often located in regions showing genome rearrangements. Alignment of the genomic region harbouring PiAvr4 with syntenic regions in P. sojae and P. ramorum revealed that PiAvr4 is located on a 100-kb indel block and is surrounded by transposable elements.
    Recognition of Phytophthora infestans RXLR-dEER effectors by resistance proteins is triggered by C-terminal domains comprising W motifs
    Govers, F. ; Bouwmeester, K. ; Jun Guo, J. ; Poppel, P.M.J.A. van; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Weide, R. - \ 2009
    In: Book of Abstracts 25th Fungal Genetics Conference, Pacific Grove, California, USA, 17-22 March 2009. - - p. 49 - 49.
    The Phytophthora infestans avirulence genes PiAvr1 and PiAvr4 encode RXLR-dEER effector proteins and belong to a family of oomycete avirulence homologs (Avh). Avh proteins are rapidly evolving but nevertheless, the majority has recognizable C-terminal motifs (Jiang et al. 2008 PNAS). PiAvr4 was isolated by positional cloning. Loss of avirulence on R4 potato is caused by frame shift mutations resulting in truncated PiAvr4 proteins (van Poppel et al. 2008 MPMI). The genomic region harboring PiAvr4 shows conserved synteny with Phytophthora sojae and P. ramorum but PiAvr4 itself is located on a 100 kb indel that breaks the conserved synteny, and is surrounded by transposons. In the C-terminus PiAvr4 has three W motifs and one Y motif. W2 in combination with either W1 or W3 triggers necrosis in potato plants carrying resistance gene R4. PiAvr1 was isolated by anchoring Avr1-associated markers on the genome sequence. This lead to a 800 kb region with seven Avh genes, one of which is PiAvr1, the counterpart of resistance gene R1. Also PiAvr1 has W and Y motifs. Domain swapping revealed which motifs determine avirulence on R1 potato. Analysis of the role of PiAvr1 and PiAvr4 in virulence is in progress.
    Recognition of Phytophthora infestans RXLR-dEER effectors by resistance proteins is triggered by C-terminal domains comprising W motifs
    Govers, F. ; Bouwmeester, K. ; Jun Guo, J. ; Poppel, P.M.J.A. van; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Weide, R. - \ 2009
    In: Book of Abstracts 8th Annual Meeting Oomycete Molecular Genetics Network Meeting, Pacific Grove, California, USA, 15-17 March 2009. - - p. 7 - 7.
    The Phytophthora infestans avirulence genes PiAvr1 and PiAvr4 encode RXLR-dEER effector proteins and belong to a family of oomycete avirulence homologs (Avh). Avh proteins are rapidly evolving but nevertheless, the majority has recognizable C-terminal motifs (Jiang et al. 2008 PNAS). PiAvr4 was isolated by positional cloning. Loss of avirulence on R4 potato is caused by frame shift mutations resulting in truncated PiAvr4 proteins (van Poppel et al. 2008 MPMI). The genomic region harboring PiAvr4 shows conserved synteny with Phytophthora sojae and P. ramorum but PiAvr4 itself is located on a 100 kb indel that breaks the conserved synteny, and is surrounded by transposons. In the C-terminus PiAvr4 has three W motifs and one Y motif. W2 in combination with either W1 or W3 triggers necrosis in potato plants carrying resistance gene R4. PiAvr1 was isolated by anchoring Avr1-associated markers on the genome sequence. This lead to a 800 kb region with seven Avh genes, one of which is PiAvr1, the counterpart of resistance gene R1. Also PiAvr1 has W and Y motifs. Domain swapping revealed which motifs determine avirulence on R1 potato. Analysis of the role of PiAvr1 and PiAvr4 in virulence is in progress.
    Voeding, levensstijl en chemopreventie
    Kok, D.E.G. ; Afman, L.A. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2009
    In: Handboek Prostaat-aandoeningen / Boon, T.A., Bosch, J.L.H.R., van Poppel, H.P.A.M., Witjes, J.A., Utrecht : de Tijdstroom - ISBN 9789058981370 - p. 204 - 217.
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