Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Data from: Disturbance regulates the density–body mass relationship of soil fauna
Langevelde, Frank van; Comor, Vincent ; Bie, Steven ; Prins, Herbert ; Thakur, Madhav P. - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
Theory on the density-body mass (DBM) relationship predicts that the density of animal species decreases by the power of −0.75 per unit increase in their body mass, or by the power of −1 when taxa across trophic levels are studied. This relationship is, however, largely debated as the slope often deviates from the theoretical predictions. Here, we tested the ability of the DBM relationship to reflect changes in the structure of communities subjected to an anthropogenic disturbance. The slope would become less steep if smaller animals were more impacted by the disturbance than the larger ones, whereas the slope would become steeper if larger animals were more affected than the smaller ones. We tested the changes in the DBM relationship by sampling soil fauna, i.e. nematodes, Collembola and larger arthropods, from a semi-arid grassland before and after spraying diesel fuel as disturbance. We applied three different treatments: a control, a light disturbance and an intense disturbance. We found that the slopes of the DBM relationships before the disturbance were around −1 as predicted by theory. The slope became more positive (i.e. less steep) just after the disturbance, especially after the intense disturbance as smaller fauna suffered the most and early colonizers had larger body mass. Interestingly, we observed that the slopes converged back to −1 in two months post-disturbance. Our findings show that the response of soil fauna communities to anthropogenic disturbances could explain the large variation in observed slopes of the DBM relationships. We experimentally demonstrate that an animal community, when disturbed, shows a temporal pattern of DBM relationships ranging from deviations from the predicted slope to convergence to the predicted slope with time. We recommend that deviations in the DBM relationships after disturbances can provide insights in the trajectory community recovery, and hence could be used for biomonitoring.
Comparison of different invasive and non-invasive methods to characterize intestinal microbiota throughout a production cycle of broiler chickens
Kers, Jannigje G. ; Fischer, Egil A.J. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Velkers, Francisca C. - \ 2019
Microorganisms 7 (2019)10. - ISSN 2076-2607
16S rRNA - Avian - Gut - Methods - Microbiome - Poultry

In the short life of broiler chickens, their intestinal microbiota undergoes many changes. To study underlying biological mechanisms and factors that influence the intestinal microbiota development, longitudinal data from flocks and individual birds is needed. However, post-mortem collection of samples hampers longitudinal data collection. In this study, invasively collected cecal and ileal content, cloacal swabs collected from the same bird, and boot sock samples and cecal droppings from the litter of the broilers’ poultry house, were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 14 and 35 post-hatch. The different sample types were evaluated on their applicability and reliability to characterize the broiler intestinal microbiota. The microbiota of 247 samples was assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Analyses of α and β measures showed a similar development of microbiota composition of cecal droppings compared to cecal content. Furthermore, the composition of cecal content samples was comparable to that of the boot socks until day 14 post-hatch. This study shows that the value of non-invasive sample types varies at different ages and depends on the goal of the microbiota characterization. Specifically, cecal droppings and boot socks may be useful alternatives for cecal samples to determine intestinal microbiota composition longitudinally.

Two-step accelerating freezing protocol yields a better motility, membranes and DNA integrities of thawed ram sperm than three-steps freezing protocols
Galarza, Diego A. ; López-Sebastián, Antonio ; Woelders, Henri ; Blesbois, Elizabeth ; Santiago-Moreno, Julián - \ 2019
Cryobiology (2019). - ISSN 0011-2240
Cooling - DNA integrity - Ram - Semen cryopreservation - Semen quality

The present study compares a protocol that mimics freezing of ram semen in static nitrogen vapor with two protocols with an initial low cooling rate in the first step, followed by higher cooling rates where ice nucleation occurs. Semen ejaculates, obtained from twelve adults rams, were diluted with TEST-based extender and frozen with either Protocol 1 (three-step decelerating cooling): from +5 °C to −35 °C (40 °C/min), from −35 °C to −65 °C (17 °C/min), and then from −65 °C to −85 °C (3 °C/min); or Protocol 2 (three-step accelerating cooling): from +5 °C to −5 °C (4 °C/min), from −5 °C to −110 °C (25 °C/min), and then from −110 °C to −140 °C (35 °C/min); or Protocol 3 (two-step accelerating cooling), from +5 °C to −10 °C (5 °C/min), and then from −10 °C to −130 °C (60 °C/min). Post-thaw sperm quality was reduced for all protocols (p < .05) compared with fresh semen. Post-thaw percentages of sperm motility characteristics and sperm with intact plasma membrane, intact acrosome, and intact mitochondrial membrane were greater using Protocol 3 than Protocol 2 (p < .05) and Protocol 1 (p < .01). In addition, the post-thaw percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA was lower (p < .05) using Protocol 3 compared with Protocol 1. The present results indicate that a cooling rate of 60 °C/min around and after the time point of ice nucleation provided better post thaw survival and function of ram sperm than lower (and/or decelerating) cooling rates.

Effect of three types of liquid compost combined with Avicennia marina leaves on growth and survival of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon)
Ariyati, Restiana Wisnu ; Rejeki, Sri ; Widowati, Lestari L. ; Elfitasari, Tita ; Bosma, Roel H. - \ 2019
International Aquatic Research (2019). - ISSN 2008-4935
Aquaculture - Fertilizer - LEISA - Mangrove - Shrimp

The sustainability of prawn farming in brackish water ponds is controversial because of low yields and a history of mangrove clearing. Low yields are due largely to insufficient preparation of pond bottoms. Mangrove trees are often planted on pond bunds as window dressing. This study examines the effect of three types of liquid compost from vegetable, fruit, and both vegetable and fruit in tanks to which whole or chopped Avicennia marina leaves have been added to mimic local pond conditions. In a split-plot design, 28 square tanks were each stocked with one hundred 15-day-old post-larvae tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon). Four tanks were used as controls and 24 were assigned to the treatments, 12 with whole and 12 with chopped leaves. Of the treatment tanks, 4 received liquid compost from vegetable, 4 received fruit, and 4 received mixed vegetable and fruit. Shrimp were weighed at the start, halfway point, and the end of the 50-day trial, and fed at 5% of the estimated total weight; survival was counted at the end. The survival rates of treatments and controls (65–76%) were not significantly different. Shrimp in water with vegetable compost grew significantly faster (2.7% day−1) than in both treatments with fruit (2.5% day−1), while all treatments were associated with significantly faster growth than were the controls (2.0% day−1). The lower growth rate of shrimp fed fruit compost may have been due to dinoflagellates, which are known to negatively affect shrimp. Shrimp in tanks with chopped mangrove leaves grew slightly better than shrimp in tanks with whole mangrove leaves.

A Review on the Potential and Limitations of Recyclable Thermosets for Structural Applications
Post, Wouter ; Susa, Arijana ; Blaauw, Rolf ; Molenveld, Karin ; Knoop, Rutger J.I. - \ 2019
Polymer Reviews (2019). - ISSN 1558-3724
circular economy - dynamic covalent cross-links - polymer matrix - recycling - Thermoset

The outstanding performance of conventional thermosets arising from their covalently cross-linked networks directly results in a limited recyclability. The available commercial or close-to-commercial techniques facing this challenge can be divided into mechanical, thermal, and chemical processing. However, these methods typically require a high energy input and do not take the recycling of the thermoset matrix itself into account. Rather, they focus on retrieving the more valuable fibers, fillers, or substrates. To increase the circularity of thermoset products, many academic studies report potential solutions which require a reduced energy input by using degradable linkages or dynamic covalent bonds. However, the majority of these studies have limited potential for industrial implementation. This review aims to bridge the gap between the industrial and academic developments by focusing on those which are most relevant from a technological, sustainable and economic point of view. An overview is given of currently used approaches for the recycling of thermoset materials, the development of novel inherently recyclable thermosets and examples of possible applications that could reach the market in the near future.

Partial replacement of glucose by galactose in the post-weaning diet improves parameters of hepatic health
Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Stelt, Inge van der; Schols, Henk ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 73 (2019). - ISSN 0955-2863
Galactose - Inflammation - Liver health - Post-weaning diet - SAA3 - Transcriptomics

Replacing part of glucose with galactose in the post-weaning diet beneficially affects later life metabolic health in female mice. The liver is the main site of galactose metabolism, but the direct effects of this dietary intervention on the liver in the post-weaning period are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate this. Weanling female mice (C57BL/6JRccHsd) were fed a starch containing diet with glucose (32 en%) monosaccharide (GLU), or a diet with glucose and galactose (1:1 both 16 en%) (GLU+GAL). Body weight, body composition, and food intake were determined weekly. After 3 weeks, mice were sacrificed, and serum and liver tissues were collected. Global hepatic mRNA expression was analyzed and hepatic triglyceride (TG) and glycogen contents were determined by enzymatic assays. Body weight and body composition were similar in both groups, despite higher food intake in mice on GLU+GAL diet. Hepatic TG content was lower in GLU+GAL-fed than GLU-fed females, while glycogen levels were unaffected. Analysis of global expression patterns of hepatic mRNA showed that mainly inflammation-related pathways were affected by the diet, which were predominantly downregulated in GLU+GAL-fed females compared to GLU-fed females. This reduction in inflammation in GLU+GAL-fed females was also reflected by decreased serum concentrations of acute phase protein Serum amyloid A 3. In conclusion, replacing part of glucose with galactose in the post-weaning diet reduces hepatic TG content and hepatic inflammation.

Defining resilient pigs after a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) challenge using activity and feeding data from accelerometers
Zande, L.E. Van Der; Dunkelberger, J.R. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Mathur, P.K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, M.C. ; Eggert, J.M. ; Little, E.A. ; Dee, S.A. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2019
In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 471 - 475.
Accelerometers - Behaviour - Pig - PRRS - Resilience - RMSE

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious viral disease in pigs. PRRS causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory infections in growing pigs. To improve pig health and minimise economic losses, resilient pigs are preferred within the herd. Resilient pigs still become infected, yet are able to recover following infection, showing less variation in activity and feeding. In this study, 232 commercial crossbred pigs were equipped with individual accelerometer ear tags to monitor the number of active, feeding, and hyperactive events per individual per hour. At eight weeks of age, pigs were inoculated with PRRS virus 1-7-4. Data from accelerometers were collected 23 days prior to challenge and 42 days post-infection (dpi). Expected levels of activity, feeding, and hyperactivity were estimated by regressing behavioural traits on observed datapoints prior to challenge. This regression line was extended to 42 dpi. Then, deviations from the regression line were quantified as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for each individual during the following time periods: pre-challenge, 0-13 dpi, and 13-42 dpi. All traits decreased and RMSE increased post-challenge. These results are consistant with clinical signs of PRRS, including lethargy and loss of appetite. In addition, association of these traits with survival was also investigated. RMSE prior to PRRS-infection was not predictive of survival after infection. However, RMSE of feeding and activity during the peak challenge period (0-13 dpi) was predictive of survival, where pigs with less deviation in behaviour were more resilient to the PRRS challenge.

Legal pluralism in post-conflict Sierra Leone
Naso, Pedro ; Bulte, Erwin ; Swanson, Tim - \ 2019
European Journal of Political Economy (2019). - ISSN 0176-2680
Africa - Civil war - Enforcement externalities - Legal dualism

We examine the interaction between two legal systems in post-conflict Sierra Leone. To do that, we measure the impact of competition between state and non-state legal authorities on the number of disputes and on the amount of fines charged per dispute. Our results suggest a potential negative externality between regimes for civil disputes that is, an increase in the cost of apprehending a person and a reduction in the amount of fines per dispute collected when two regimes operate in the same village. This indicates that a potential benefit to the local people from multiple competing regimes is a reduction on expected authoritative expropriation.

Influência do ambiente de armazenamento na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br
Silva, Girlânio Holanda da; Toledo, Mariana Zampar ; Teixeira, Renake Nogueira ; Rossi, Rubiana Falopa ; Nakagawa, João - \ 2019
Journal of seed science 41 (2019)3. - ISSN 2317-1537 - p. 286 - 292.
Conservation - Germination - Physiological quality

Millet is a species of the grass family used in cattle pastures, for hay, for silage, and in soil cover in no-tillage systems. However, studies on seed production and post-harvest techniques for this species have not been sufficiently developed, considering the demand for and potential of this crop. The objective of this study was to monitor the physiological quality of millet seeds stored in porous packaging. Millet seeds were stored under four ambient conditions (natural laboratory environment, dry chamber, refrigerator, and freezer). Physiological quality was evaluated by germination and vigor tests before and during storage each year, up to six years for the dry chamber and natural laboratory environment, and up to 12 years for the refrigerator and freezer. Analysis of variance was conducted on the data, which were in 4 × 6 and 2 × 12 (environment and storage period) factorial arrangements. The means of the environments were compared by the Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05) and the storage periods by regression analysis. The germination capacity of millet seeds is best conserved in a refrigerator and freezer, and they remain viable for up to twelve years of storage under these conditions.

Dietary fibre enrichment of supplemental feed modulates the development of the intestinal tract in suckling piglets
Hees, H.M.J. Van; Davids, M. ; Maes, D. ; Millet, S. ; Possemiers, S. ; Hartog, L.A. Den; Kempen, T.A.T.G. Van; Janssens, G.P.J. - \ 2019
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 1674-9782
Dietary fibre - Gut maturation - Gut microbiota - Suckling piglets

Background: Commercial pre-weaning diets are formulated to be highly digestible and nutrient-dense and contain low levels of dietary fibre. In contrast, pigs in a natural setting are manipulating fibre-rich plant material from a young age. Moreover, dietary fibre affects gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development and health in older pigs. We hypothesised that supplemental diets that contain vegetal fibres are accelerating GIT development in suckling piglets in terms of size and functionality. From d 2 of life, sow-suckled piglets had access to a low fibre diet (CON), a diet with a fermentable long-chain arabinoxylan (lc-AXOS), a diet with a largely non-fermentable purified cellulose (CELL), or a diet containing both fibres. During the initial 2 weeks, the control diet was a high-density milk replacer, followed by a dry and highly digestible creep meal. Upon weaning at 25 d, 15 piglets from each treatment group, identified as eaters and originating from six or seven litters, were sacrificed for post-mortem examination of GIT morphology, small intestinal permeability and metabolic profile of the digesta. The microbiota composition of the mid-colon was evaluated in a sub-set of ten piglets. Results: No major statistical interactions between the fibre sources were observed. Piglets consumed the fibre-containing milk supplements and creep diets well. Stomach size and small intestinal permeability was not affected. Large intestinal fill was increased with lc-AXOS only, while relative large intestinal weight was increased with both fibre sources (P < 0.050). Also, CELL decreased ileal pH and tended to increase ileal DM content compared to CON (P < 0.050). Moreover, the concentration of volatile fatty acids was increased in the caecum (P < 0.100) and mid-colon (P < 0.050) by addition of CELL. lc-AXOS only stimulated caecal propionate (P < 0.050). The microbiota composition showed a high individual variation and limited dietary impact. Nonetheless, CELL induced minor shifts in specific genera, with notable reductions of Escherichia-Shigella. Conclusions: Adding dietary fibres to the supplemental diet of suckling piglets altered large intestinal morphology but not small intestinal permeability. Moreover, dietary fibre showed effects on fermentation and modest changes of microbial populations in the hindgut, with more prominent effects from the low-fermentable cellulose.

Effect on BMI of a multi-component treatment with E-modules for 3–8-year-old obese children
Hoek, Esther Van; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Bouwman, Laura I. ; Verburgt, Wilma H. ; Jager, Wilco De; Schipper, Henk S. ; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M. ; Janse, Arieke J. - \ 2019
Child and Adolescent Obesity 2 (2019)1. - ISSN 2574-254X - p. 79 - 95.
Introduction: Childhood obesity has serious health risks including the development of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and mortality later in life. The critical growth period from 3 to 7 years provides a window of opportunity for interventions. The goal of this study is to evaluate a one year, multidisciplinary, low-intensity treatment program for young obese children, complemented with web-based modules, called “AanTafel!”, on body composition, cardiometabolic risk profile, quality of life (HRQoL), eating behavior and physical activity.
Methods: In the pre-post-test design all measures were taken at baseline, 4 months, at the end of treatment and 3 years after baseline.
Results: Thirteen boys and 27 girls with median BMI z-score of, respectively, 4.2 and 3.3 aged 3 to 8 started “AanTafel!”. Eighty percent (n = 32) completed treatment. BMI z-score decreased with 0.45 (end of treatment) and sustained after 3 years. At the start, 16.7% of the children had all four components of metabolic syndrome which decreased to 0%. HDL cholesterol significantly increased. Concentrations of the markers IL18, e-selectin, and sICAM significantly decreased indicating a reduction of inflammation.
Conclusion: “AanTafel!” is effective in improving health of obese young children. The reduction of overweight is clinically relevant and sustained after 3 years
Can cooperatives function as a primary model for organization in the postgrowth world?
Wijers, G.D.M. - \ 2019
- 20 p.
Transformation; Postgrowth economy; Institutional infrastructure; Community-driven
The central question in this paper is: In what ways can cooperatives function as a primary model for organization in a postgrowth world? This question is addressed in two dimensions. First, what are the internal and external challenges to the cooperative organization as an inclusive social business model? The inquiry here distinguishes between cooperatives as either emancipatory or context-dependent organizations. Second, what is, in practice, the role of the institutional context in cooperative business strategy formulation? This section discusses the dichotomy between cooperatives as community-based or market-driven organizations. Findings provide insights into the social dynamics that tie together community-driven ideals, economic ambitions, institutional infrastructures and the cooperative model. The discussion on the cooperative potential allow for profound reflections on a postgrowth future. Conclusions are presented based on the paradox that a larger role of governments may be a major determinant of post economic growth success.
The effects of decomposing mangrove leaf litter and its tannins on water quality and the growth and survival of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) post-larvae
Rejeki, Sri ; Middeljans, Marcel ; Widowati, Lestari L. ; Ariyati, Restiana W. ; Elfitasari, Tita ; Bosma, Roel H. - \ 2019
Biodiversitas 20 (2019)9. - ISSN 1412-033X - p. 2750 - 2757.
Ammonia-N - Avicennia marina - Penaeus monodon - Rhizophora apiculata - Tannin

Shrimp farming in Demak, Indonesia is often practiced in silvo-aquaculture systems in which mangrove trees are planted on pond bunds. As such, mangrove leaves and its substrates may have impact on penaeid shrimp production. In this area, mangrove re-growth proceeded with Avicennia marina while planting is mostly done with Rhizophora apiculata. We compared the effects of decomposing fresh leaves of A. marina and R. apiculata on water quality and on the performance of Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). A hundred of PL21 (postlarvae aged 21 days with weight of 0.28 g) were stocked in each of 30 aerated tanks containing 800 liters of brackish water (salinity of 21 ppt) for 37 days. Five treatments with three replicates for each mangrove species were assigned by adding into the tanks of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 g L-1 of air-dried leave, 0.125 of g L-1 minced leave and 0.125 g L-1 of leachate of minced leaves. The PLs were fed 3 times daily with pellets at 10 % of initial total body weight. Water quality parameters were recorded daily. Tannin, H2S and NH3-N concentrations were measured every ten days. Prawn’s body weight (BW) was measured and specific growth rate (SGR, % day-1) and survival rate (SR, %) were calculated after the end of experiment. Results were analyzed with ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation. The results showed that tannin in decomposing mangrove leaf litter up to a concentration of 0.5 mg g-1 did not have a significant effect on water quality and on the growth and survival of P. monodon PL. However, increasing leaf litter concentrations showed an increase in NH3-N concentration due to organic matter degradation. The accumulation of NH3-N may have caused the slow growth of shrimp PL in A. marina treatment. Shrimp PL in leaf litter leachates treatment has a higher growth rate than those PL in regular leaf litter in relation to nutritional value. Survival and growth varied from 62 ±14 to 70 ± 8% and 3.1±2.1 to 5.5±1.2% day-1, respectively. Although decomposing mangrove leaves of A. marina and R. apiculata had no toxic effects on P. monodon PL up to a concentration of 1.25 g L-1, but causing severe mortality for shrimp in tanks without water exchange. As a conclusion, the present of mangrove leaves in brackish water ponds with insufficient water exchange can be harmful to shrimps. However, if the water exchange is good, decomposed mangrove leaves can become organic fertilizer that beneficial for the growth of natural food for the shrimps.

Risk of pneumonia among residents living near goat and poultry farms during 2014-2016
Post, Pim M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Huss, Anke ; Petie, Ronald ; Boender, Gert Jan ; Baliatsas, Christos ; Lebret, Erik ; Heederik, Dick ; Hagenaars, Thomas J. ; IJzermans, Joris C. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)10. - ISSN 1932-6203

In the Netherlands, an association was found between the prevalence of pneumonia and living near goat and poultry farms in 2007-2013. This association then led to regulatory decisions to restrict the building of new goat farms and to reduce emissions of poultry farms. Confirmation of these results, however, is required because the period of previous analyses overlapped a Q-fever epidemic in 2007-2010. To confirm the association, we performed a population-based study during 2014-2016 based on general practitioner (GP) data. Electronic medical records of 90,183 persons were used to analyze the association between pneumonia and the population living in the proximity (within 500-2000 m distance) of goat and poultry farms. Data were analyzed with three types of logistic regression (with and without GP practice as a random intercept and with stratified analyses per GP practice) and a kernel model to discern the influence of different statistical methods on the outcomes. In all regression analyses involving adults, a statistically significant association between pneumonia and residence within 500 meters of goat farms was found (odds ratio [OR] range over all analyses types: 1.33-1.60), with a decreasing OR for increasing distances. In kernel analyses (including all ages), a population-attributable risk between 6.0 and 7.8% was found for a distance of 2000 meters in 2014-2016. The associations were consistent across all years and robust for mutual adjustment for proximity to other animals and for several other sensitivity analyses. However, associations with proximity to poultry farms are not supported by the present study. As the causes of the elevated pneumonia incidence in persons living close to goat farms remain unknown, further research into potential mechanisms is required for adequate prevention.

Everyday realities of reintegration: experiences of Maoist ‘verified’ women ex-combatants in the aftermath of war in Nepal
K.C, Luna - \ 2019
Conflict, Security and Development 19 (2019)5. - ISSN 1467-8802 - p. 453 - 474.
demobilisation and reintegration - disarmament - gender equality - Maoist armed conflict - Nepal - post-conflict settings - Verified women ex-combatant

Global studies of women’s experiences in the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) process have explored its implications for women in the post-war period. Scholars have also already pointed out that ex-combatants in Nepal are facing difficulties in the reintegration period. This paper examines in particular the consequences of the DDR process for so-called Maoist ‘verified’ women ex-combatants, those who were formally acknowledged as former Maoist combatants and have experienced the entire DDR process. The paper asks how they experienced this process and how it shaped their post-conflict options. The paper first problematises the idea of a ‘return to normalcy’ and, second, shows how female ex-combatants suffered multiple forms of marginalisation as they sought to give new shape to their lives. I argue that this is in part due to the lack of a gender-inclusive framework in the DDR policy in Nepal and the failure to take into account the voices of women ex-combatants.

Microarray from roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 and knock-down UPL3, infected and non-infected with Heterodera schachtii
Sterken, M.G. - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
E-MTAB-7968 - Arabidopsis thaliana
In this experiment we evaluate the transcriptional response to beet cyst nematode infection in wild-type (Col-0) and a upl3 knocked-down Arabidopsis thaliana. The data indicates that the upl3 knock-down alone does not induce a strong transcriptional regulation in the plant. However, the interaction of the mutation and infection by H. schachtii results in a strong transcriptional differential regulation, likely involving the plant’s immune responses. Samples were taken from whole root systems of 14 day-old seedlings (0 days post-infection) and mock or H. schahtii-infected 21 day-old seedlings (7 days post-infection). Each sample contained at least 18 plants and 4 biological replicates of each sample were collected.
Microarray of five Caenorhabiditis elegans genotypes with or without a human alpha-synuclein transgene in the genetic background
Sterken, M.G. - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
E-MTAB-6960 - Caenorhabditis elegans
Previous studies in Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the human alpha-synuclein protein, have shown that protein aggregation and some aetiologies of Parkinsons disease can be recapitulated in this model nematode. However, it is known that the genetic background is important in how the disease progresses in humans. This study sought to address this topic in the model nematode C. elegans. In this study we measured gene expression in C. elegans nematodes with different genetic backgrounds (JU511, JU1926, JU1931, and JU1941) with an introgression of and N2 region with the alpha-synuclein protein in chromosome IV. We measured expression in the wild-type strains and strains with the transgene. Each strain was measured in three biological replica's at an age of 48 hours post synchronization by bleaching.
Modeling the impact of dam removal on channel evolution and sediment delivery in a multiple dam setting
Poeppl, R.E. ; Coulthard, T. ; Keesstra, S.D. ; Keiler, M. - \ 2019
International Journal of Sediment Research 34 (2019)6. - ISSN 1001-6279 - p. 537 - 549.
Complexity - Landscape evolution modeling - Legacy effects - Reservoir and river management - River engineering - Sediment pulses

Dam removal can generate geomorphic disturbances, including channel bed and bank erosion and associated abrupt/pulsed release and downstream transfer of reservoir sediment, but the type and rate of geomorphic response often are hard to predict. The situation gets even more complex in systems which have been impacted by multiple dams and a long and complex engineering history. In previous studies one-dimensional (1-D) models were used to predict aspects of post-removal channel change. However, these models do not consider two-dimensional (2-D) effects of dam removal such as bank erosion processes and lateral migration. In the current study the impacts of multiple dams and their removal on channel evolution and sediment delivery were modeled by using a 2-D landscape evolution model (CAESAR-Lisflood) focusing on the following aspects: patterns, rates, and processes of geomorphic change and associated sediment delivery on annual to decadal timescales. The current modeling study revealed that geomorphic response to dam removal (i.e., channel evolution and associated rates of sediment delivery) in multiple dam settings is variable and complex in space and time. Complexity in geomorphic system response is related to differences in dam size, the proximity of upstream dams, related buffering effects and associated rates of upstream sediment supply, and emerging feedback processes as well as to the presence of channel stabilization measures. Modeled types and rates of geomorphic adjustment, using the 2-D landscape evolution model CAESAR-Lisflood, are similar to those reported in previous studies. Moreover, the use of a 2-D method showed some advantages compared to 1-D models, generating spatially varying patterns of erosion and deposition before and after dam removal that provide morphologies that are more readily comparable to field data as well as features like the lateral re-working of past reservoir deposits which further enables the maintenance of sediment delivery downstream.

Post-weaning metabolic programming by dietary monosaccharides
Bouwman, Lianne M.S. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Keijer, co-promotor(en): E.M. van Schothorst; A. Oosting. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950251 - 169
Urinary Taurine Excretion and Risk of Late Graft Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients
Post, Adrian ; Said, Yusof ; Gomes-Neto, Antonio W. ; Krogt, Jennifer van der; Blaauw, Pim de; Berger, Stefan P. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Borgonjen, Karin ; Berg, Else van den; Goor, Harry van; Rimbach, Gerald ; Kema, Ido P. ; Tsikas, Dimitrios ; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
graft survival - renal transplant recipients - taurine - taurine excretion

Taurine is a sulfur containing nutrient that has been shown to protect against oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology leading to late graft failure after renal transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether high urinary taurine excretion, reflecting high taurine intake, is associated with low risk for development of late graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Urinary taurine excretion was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 678 stable RTR. Prospective associations were assessed using Cox regression analyses. Graft failure was defined as the start of dialysis or re-transplantation. In RTR (58% male, 53 ± 13 years old, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m2), urinary taurine excretion (533 (210-946) µmol/24 h) was significantly associated with serum free sulfhydryl groups (β = 0.126; P = 0.001). During median follow-up for 5.3 (4.5-6.0) years, 83 (12%) patients developed graft failure. In Cox regression analyses, urinary taurine excretion was inversely associated with graft failure (hazard ratio: 0.74 (0.67-0.82); P < 0.001). This association remained significant independent of potential confounders. High urinary taurine excretion is associated with low risk of late graft failure in RTR. Therefore, increasing taurine intake may potentially support graft survival in RTR. Further studies are warranted to determine the underlying mechanisms and the potential of taurine supplementation.

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