Records 1 - 20 / 3328
Insects for peace
Barragán-Fonseca, Katherine Y. ; Barragán-Fonseca, Karol B. ; Verschoor, Gerard ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2020
Current Opinion in Insect Science 40 (2020). - ISSN 2214-5745 - p. 85 - 93.
Insects such as the black soldier fly (BSF) are a nutritious feed component for livestock with high protein levels. BSF can be reared on a wide range of organic residual streams. This allows for local production within a circular agriculture, decoupling livestock production from import of expensive feed components, such as fishmeal or soymeal. Rearing of BSF can be done by smallholder farmers, thus contributing to their livelihood, economic sustainability and social status. Smallholder farmers contribute importantly to food security, which is a prerequisite for a stable society. In armed conflicts, smallholder farmers are usually the first to suffer. In countries recovering from conflict, agricultural development should focus on restoring food production by smallholder farmers, improving their socio-economic position, thereby contributing to sustainable development goals 2 (zero hunger) and 16 (peace and justice). Here, we focus on these SDGs with an example of reintegration of ex-combatants as smallholder insect producers in post-conflict Colombia.
Effects of Early and Current Environmental Enrichment on Behavior and Growth in Pigs
Luo, Lu ; Reimert, Inonge ; Middelkoop, Anouschka ; Kemp, Bas ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
behavior - early life - environmental enrichment - feed intake - growth - pigs
Enriched environments are known to beneficially affect the behavior of pigs, as compared with barren pens. The influence of enrichment may, however, depend on pigs' early life housing experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early and later life environmental enrichment on behavior and growth in pigs with different coping styles. Pigs were housed in either barren pens or in larger pens enriched with rooting substrates from birth, and half of them experienced a housing switch, i.e., a loss or gain of enrichment, at 7 weeks of age, creating four treatment groups. Home pen behavior and body weight were recorded until 19 weeks of age. Pigs were classified as reactive or proactive based on a backtest at 2 weeks of age. Enrichment increased time spent exploring, chewing, and play and decreased oral manipulation of penmates and pen-directed exploring and chewing. Behavior of pigs that switched from barren to enriched pens or vice versa reflected not only their actual environment, but also their early life housing. As early and later life enrichment affected most behaviors in opposite directions, effects of enrichment, or lack thereof, after the switch were more pronounced in pigs that had experienced a different early life condition. For instance, pigs experiencing an upgrade from barren to enriched pens seemed to “catch-up” by showing more exploration and play. Conversely, pigs exposed to a downgrade displayed more oral manipulation of penmates than ones kept barren throughout, which particularly held for pigs with a reactive coping style. Effects of early life and current housing on several other behaviors depended on coping style too. Pigs housed in enriched conditions appeared better able to cope with weaning than barren housed pigs, as they gained more weight and had higher feed intake post-weaning. Barren housed pigs had a lower body weight than enriched pigs just before the switch, after which growth was mainly determined by actual housing, with enriched kept pigs having a higher feed intake and body weight. Thus, not only current housing conditions, but also a (mis)match with the early life environment may affect behavior and growth of pigs.
Synthesis and characterization of a supported Pd complex on carbon nanofibers for the selective decarbonylation of stearic acid to 1-heptadecene : The importance of subnanometric Pd dispersion
Ochoa, Elba ; Henao, Wilson ; Fuertes, Sara ; Torres, Daniel ; Haasterecht, Tomas Van; Scott, Elinor ; Bitter, Harry ; Suelves, Isabel ; Pinilla, Jose Luis - \ 2020
Catalysis Science & Technology 10 (2020)9. - ISSN 2044-4753 - p. 2970 - 2985.
Production of linear α-olefins from renewable sources is gaining increasing attention because it allows the transition from the current petrochemical synthesis route to a more sustainable scenario. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of an innovative catalyst based on a di-μ-chloro-bis[palladium(ii) anthranilate] complex highly dispersed by incipient wetness impregnation over acyl chlorinated carbon nanofibers. The subnanometric dispersion of the metal complex allowed higher catalytic efficiency for the selective decarbonylation of stearic acid to 1-heptadecene as compared to the reference homogenous catalyst. The best catalytic performance (90 mol% selectivity, 71 mol% conversion, and TON = 484) was achieved under mild reaction conditions (atmospheric pressure, 140 °C) with a Pd loading in solution of 0.14 mol%. The post-mortem catalyst characterization and the recyclability tests evidenced the high stability of the catalyst. The highly dispersed catalyst developed in this work provides new opportunities in the rational design of more efficient catalytic systems for the sustainable transformation of fatty acids.
Phenotypic and lifestyle determinants of HbA1c in the general population – the Hoorn study
Wisgerhof, Willem ; Ruijgrok, Carolien ; Braver, Nicole R. Den; Borgonjen—van Den Berg, Karin J. ; Heijden, Amber A.W.A. Van Der; Elders, Petra J.M. ; Beulens, Joline W.J. ; Alssema, Marjan - \ 2020
PLoS ONE 15 (2020)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
Aim To investigate the relative contribution of phenotypic and lifestyle factors to HbA1c, independent of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2h post-load glucose (2hPG), in the general population. Methods The study populations included 2309 participants without known diabetes from the first wave of the Hoorn Study (1989) and 2619 from the second wave (2006). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between potential determinants and HbA1c in addition to FPG and 2hPG. The multivariate model was derived in the first wave of the Hoorn Study, and replicated in the second wave. Results In both cohorts, independent of FPG and 2hPG, higher age, female sex, larger waist circumference, and smoking were associated with a higher HbA1c level. Larger hip circumference, higher BMI, higher alcohol consumption and vitamin C intake were associated with a lower HbA1c level. FPG and 2hPG together explained 41.0% (first wave) and 53.0% (second wave) of the total variance in HbA1c. The combination of phenotypic and lifestyle determinants additionally explained 5.7% (first wave) and 3.9% (second wave). Conclusions This study suggests that, independent of glucose, phenotypic and lifestyle factors are associated with HbA1c, but the contribution is relatively small. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the low correlation between glucose levels and HbA1c in the general population.
Effects of CO2 limitation on the metabolism of Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes
Koendjbiharie, Jeroen Girwar ; Post, Wilbert Berend ; Palmer, Martí Munar ; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2020
BMC Microbiology 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1471-2180 - 1 p.
Batch fermentation - Chemostat - CO2 limitation - Fermentation products - Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes - Redox balance - Succinic acid - Transcriptomics
BACKGROUND: Bio-based succinic acid holds promise as a sustainable platform chemical. Its production through microbial fermentation concurs with the fixation of CO2, through the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. Here, we studied the effect of the available CO2 on the metabolism of Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes, the only known succinate producing thermophile. Batch cultivations in bioreactors sparged with 1 and 20% CO2 were conducted that allowed us to carefully study the effect of CO2 limitation. RESULTS: Formate yield was greatly reduced at low CO2 concentrations, signifying a switch from pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) to pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) for acetyl-CoA formation. The corresponding increase in endogenous CO2 production (by PFOR) enabled succinic acid production to be largely maintained as its yield was reduced by only 26%, thus also maintaining the concomitant NADH re-oxidation, essential for regenerating NAD+ for glycolysis. Acetate yield was slightly reduced as well, while that of lactate was slightly increased. CO2 limitation also prompted the formation of significant amounts of ethanol, which is only marginally produced during CO2 excess. Altogether, the changes in fermentation product yields result in increased ferredoxin and NAD+ reduction, and increased NADPH oxidation during CO2 limitation, which must be linked to reshuffled (trans) hydrogenation mechanisms of those cofactors, in order to keep them balanced. RNA sequencing, to investigate transcriptional effects of CO2 limitation, yielded only ambiguous results regarding the known (trans) hydrogenation mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: The results hinted at a decreased NAD+/NADH ratio, which could ultimately be responsible for the stress observed during CO2 limitation. Clear overexpression of an alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE) was observed, which may explain the increased ethanol production, while no changes were seen for PFL and PFOR expression that could explain the anticipated switch based on the fermentation results.
Salinity drives growth dynamics of the mangrove tree Sonneratia apetala Buch. -Ham. in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh
Rahman, Md Saidur ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Chowdhury, Md Qumruzzaman ; Beeckman, Hans - \ 2020
Dendrochronologia 62 (2020). - ISSN 1125-7865
Cambial activity - Dendrochronology - Growth ring - Sonneratia apetala - The Sundarbans
Mangroves throughout the world are threatened by environmental changes apart from anthropogenic disturbances. Many of these changes may inhibit the growth and survival of mangrove species. To understand and predict the effects of global change on mangrove forests, it is necessary to obtain insights on the growth dynamics of mangroves in relation to environmental factors. This study was conducted on Sonneratia apetala, a mangrove species which grows under a range of salinity conditions across the Sundarbans in Bangladesh. We studied trees growing under respectively high, medium, and low salinity conditions based on the influence of freshwater discharge. First, the periodicity of radial growth across the year was detected by applying cambial analyses. Based on tree-ring analyses, we calculated the growth response of S. apetala to monthly variation in precipitation and temperature as well as river discharge, as a proxy for salinity. We found the cambium of S. apetala being active during the monsoon and post-monsoon period whereas it was dormant in the pre-monsoon. This periodicity in radial growth leads to the formation of distinct annual rings with ring boundaries being marked by radially flattened fibres. S. apetala trees growing under low salinity conditions generally show higher growth rates indicating the positive impact of river discharge, i.e. freshwater input on mangrove growth. Wet and warm conditions during the monsoon period positively affected S. apetala growth, especially in the low salinity zone. Our results show that salinity is the primary driver of growth dynamics of S. apetala in the Sundarbans. A gradual or seasonal increase in salinity, e.g. as a consequence of sea-level rise may therefore importantly alter the growth of this species, possibly leading to changes in mangrove forest dynamics and zonation.
Forest fire effects on sediment connectivity in headwater sub-catchments : Evaluation of indices performance
López-Vicente, M. ; González-Romero, J. ; Lucas-Borja, M.E. - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 732 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697 - 1 p.
Forest fire - Index performance - Post-fire management - Sediment connectivity
Forest fires and post-fire practices influence the hydrological response of the soil in terms of runoff and sediment connectivity (SC). In this study, the ability of four indices (IC-Borselli, IC-Cavalli, IC-Persichillo and aggregated index of connectivity (AIC)) to assess SC was evaluated in three Mediterranean headwater sub-catchments (66, 143 and 194 ha) affected by an arson fire in 2012. Three temporal scenarios (before the fire, one year after the fire and two years after the fire including post-fire practices (salvage logging, skid trails and check dams)) and two computation targets (streams: hillslope-channel SC; and check-dams: hillslope-outlet SC) were considered, obtaining 66 maps of SC at fine spatial resolution (2 m of cell size). Burn severity classes were estimated using Landsat-7 imagery and the dNBR index. The indices' output analysis included geomorphic (landscape units), mathematic (significance, percentiles and frequency distribution), fire (burn severity classes and unburnt areas) and sedimentological (measured specific sediment yield - SSY) criteria. The IC-Borselli and AIC were the most responsive approaches to the effects of fire on SC at catchment scale, whereas the IC-Persichillo was the most sensitive index to the increasing burn severities. The overlay between the fire severities and the geomorphic features appeared as a key aspect to understand the hydrological response at both the stream-system and outlet targets. We found a good and positive agreement between the measured SSY in the three check-dams and the changes in the estimated SCOUTLET due to the fire, especially with the IC-Borselli and AIC. For a better implementation of post-fire programs, we recommend SCOUTLET maps -from AIC- to assess sediment transport in streams, which is dominated by the deposition process, and SCSTREAM maps -from IC-Borselli and AIC- to place sediment control measures at hillslopes for intense rainfall events when effective sediment transport happens.
Global vegetable intake and supply compared to recommendations : A systematic review
Kalmpourtzidou, Aliki ; Eilander, Ans ; Talsma, Elise F. - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
Dietary intake - Global - Vegetable consumption - Vegetable supply - Vegetables
Low vegetable intake is associated with higher incidence of noncommunicable diseases. Data on global vegetable intake excluding legumes and potatoes is currently lacking. A systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted to assess vegetable consumption and supply in adult populations and to compare these data to the existing recommendations (≥240 g/day according to World Health Organization). For vegetable intake data online, websites of government institutions and health authorities, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) and Pubmed/Medline databases were searched from March 2018 to June 2019. Vegetable supply data was extracted from Food Balance Sheets, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT), 2013. Vegetable intake was expressed as means and 95% confidence intervals. Data were summarized for each region by calculating weighted means. Vegetable intake and supply data were available for 162 and 136 countries, respectively. Weighted mean vegetable intake was 186 g/day (56-349 g/day). Weighted mean vegetable supply was 431 g/day (71-882 g/day). For 88% of the countries vegetable intake was below the recommendations. Public health campaigns are required to encourage vegetable consumption worldwide. In the 61% of the countries where vegetable supply is currently insufficient to meet the recommendations, innovative food system approaches to improve yields and decrease post-harvest losses are imperative.
Developments of economic growth and employment in bioeconomy sectors across the EU
Ronzon, Tévécia ; Piotrowski, Stephan ; Tamosiunas, Saulius ; Dammer, Lara ; Carus, Michael ; M'barek, Robert - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
Apparent labour productivity - Bio-based products - Bioeconomy - Employment - European union - Regional development - Value added
The development of the bioeconomy-or the substitution of fossil-based materials and energy by bio-based solutions-is considered a strategic economic orientation by the European Commission and its Green Deal. This paper presents a methodology to monitor the contribution of the bioeconomy to jobs and growth within the European Union (EU) and its Member States. Classified as an "output-based" approach, the methodology relies on expert estimations of the biomass content of the bio-based materials produced in the EU and the subsequent calculation of "sectoral" bio-based shares by using Eurostat statistics on the production of manufactured goods (prom). Sectoral shares are applied to indicators of employment, and value added is reported in Eurostat-Structural business statistics. This paper updates the methodology and time series presented in 2018. The bioeconomy of the EU (post-Brexit composition) employed around 17.5 million people and generated ¿614 billion of value added in 2017. The study evidences structural differences between EU national bioeconomies, which become more pronounced over time, especially in terms of the level of apparent labour productivity of national bioeconomies. Finally, this paper describes cases of transition over the 2008-2017 period.
Effects of Dutch livestock production on human health and the environment
Post, Pim M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Baumann, Bert ; Fischer, Paul ; Rutledge-Jonker, Susanna ; Hilderink, Henk ; Hollander, Anne ; Hoogsteen, Martine J.J. ; Liebman, Alex ; Mangen, Marie-Josée J. ; Manuel, Henk Jan ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Poll, Ric van; Posthuma, Leo ; Pul, Addo van; Rutgers, Michiel ; Schmitt, Heike ; Steenbergen, Jim van; Sterk, Hendrika A.M. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Vries, Wilco de; Wallace, Robert G. ; Wichink Kruit, Roy ; Lebret, Erik ; Boer, Imke J.M. de - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 737 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
Animal production - Climate impact - Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) - Environmental impact - Livestock farming
Observed multiple adverse effects of livestock production have led to increasing calls for more sustainable livestock production. Quantitative analysis of adverse effects, which can guide public debate and policy development in this area, is limited and generally scattered across environmental, human health, and other science domains. The aim of this study was to bring together and, where possible, quantify and aggregate the effects of national-scale livestock production on 17 impact categories, ranging from impacts of particulate matter, emerging infectious diseases and odor annoyance to airborne nitrogen deposition on terrestrial nature areas and greenhouse gas emissions. Effects were estimated and scaled to total Dutch livestock production, with system boundaries including feed production, manure management and transport, but excluding slaughtering, retail and consumption. Effects were expressed using eight indicators that directly express Impact in the sense of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework, while the remaining 14 express Pressures or States. Results show that livestock production may contribute both positively and negatively to human health with a human disease burden (expressed in disability-adjusted life years) of up to 4% for three different health effects: those related to particulate matter, zoonoses, and occupational accidents. The contribution to environmental impact ranges from 2% for consumptive water use in the Netherlands to 95% for phosphorus transfer to soils, and extends beyond Dutch borders. While some aggregation across impact categories was possible, notably for burden of disease estimates, further aggregation of disparate indicators would require normative value judgement. Despite difficulty of aggregation, the assessment shows that impacts receive a different contribution of different animal sectors. While some of our results are country-specific, the overall approach is generic and can be adapted and tuned according to specific contexts and information needs in other regions, to allow informed decision making across a broad range of impact categories.
Experimental Coxiella burnetii infection in non-pregnant goats and the effect of breeding
Roest, Hendrik I.J. ; Dinkla, Annemieke ; Koets, Ad P. ; Post, Jacob ; Keulen, Lucien Van - \ 2020
Veterinary Research 51 (2020)1. - ISSN 0928-4249
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In Europe, small ruminants are the main source of human Q fever. Small ruminant herds can be infectious during several lambing seasons. However, it is not clear how infection is maintained in a herd and what role non-pregnant animals play in the transmission of C. burnetii. We therefore inoculated nulliparous goats with C. burnetii, isolated from the outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands, to gain a better understanding of the role of non-pregnant goats. Seroconversion and excretion of C. burnetii were monitored after inoculation. To study the effect of breeding on the excretion of C. burnetii, the goats were naturally bred and monitored during gestation and after lambing. Our results indicate that C. burnetii infection prior to breeding did not result in infection of the placenta nor did it affect the gestation length or the number of kids born. However, one of the ten does did excrete C. burnetii in the colostrum post-partum and the bacterium was detected in the mammary gland and associated lymph nodes at necropsy. This result indicates that non-pregnant goats might play a role in maintaining Q fever in a goat herd as persistent carriers of infection.
Detection of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H10N7 in Poultry and Environmental Water Samples During a Clinical Outbreak in Commercial Free-Range Layers, Netherlands 2017
Germeraad, Evelien A. ; Elbers, Armin R.W. ; Bruijn, Naomi D. de; Heutink, Rene ; Voorst, Wendy van; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate ; Bergervoet, Saskia A. ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Beerens, Nancy - \ 2020
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
environmental sampling - LPAIV - outbreak - poultry - water
Wild birds are the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus (AIV) and may transmit AIV to poultry via direct contact or indirectly through the environment. In the Netherlands, a clinically suspected free-range layer flock was reported to the veterinary authorities by the farmer. Increased mortality, a decreased feed intake, and a drop in egg production were observed. Subsequently, an infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected. This study describes the diagnostic procedures used for detection and subtyping of the virus. In addition to routine diagnostics, the potential of two different environmental diagnostic methods was investigated for detecting AIV in surface water. AIV was first detected using rRT-PCR and isolated from tracheal and cloacal swabs collected from the hens. The virus was subtyped as H10N7. Antibodies against the virus were detected in 28 of the 31 sera tested. An intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) experiment was performed, but no clinical signs (IVPI = 0) were observed. Post-mortem examination and histology confirmed the AIV infection. Multiple water samples were collected longitudinally from the free-range area and waterway near the farm. Both environmental diagnostic methods allowed the detection of the H10N7 virus, demonstrating the potential of these methods in detection of AIV. The described methods could be a useful additional procedure for AIV surveillance in water-rich areas with large concentrations of wild birds or in areas around poultry farms. In addition, these methods could be used as a tool to test if the environment or free-range area is virus-free again, at the end of an AIV epidemic.
The hydro-social dynamics of exclusion and water insecurity of Dalits in peri-urban Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: fluid yet unchanging
Shrestha, Anushiya ; Joshi, Deepa ; Roth, Dik - \ 2020
Contemporary South Asia (2020). - ISSN 0958-4935 - p. 1 - 16.
Processes of urbanisation create peri-urban spaces that are socially and institutionally fluid. In this article, we analyse how contestations and competition over declining water resources in peri-urban Kathmandu Valley in Nepal reshape water use, access and rights as well as user communities themselves, by creating and reproducing new and existing exclusions and solidarities. Traditional caste-based discriminatory practices, prohibiting Dalits from physically accessing water from sources used by higher castes, are said to be no longer practiced in Nepal. However, our findings show that, exclusion persists for Dalits even though the characteristics of exclusion have changed. In situations of competing water claims in the research location, Dalit households, unlike higher-caste groups, are unable to exercise prior-use water rights. Their water insecurity is compounded by their relative inability to mobilise political, social and economic resources to claim and access new water services and institutions. By juxtaposing the hydro-social and social exclusion analytical frameworks, we demonstrate how exclusions as well as interpretations and experiences of water (in)security are reified in post-Maoist, supposedly inclusive Nepal
Niet alles kan overal : Eindadvies over structurele aanpak op lange termijn
Remkes, J.W. ; Dijk, J.J. van; Dijkgraaf, E. ; Freriks, A. ; Gerbrandy, G.J. ; Maij, W.H. ; Nijhof, A.G. ; Post, E. ; Rabbinge, R. ; Scholten, M.C.Th. ; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2020
Amersfoort : Adviescollege Stikstofproblematiek - 175
Het Adviescollege Stikstofproblematiek heeft de opdracht gekregen de minister van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit te adviseren over hoe om te gaan met de stikstofproblematiek in Nederland. Na het uitbrengen van het eerste advies ‘Niet alles kan’, het tussentijdse advies over ‘Bemesten en beweiden in 2020’ en het ‘Advies Luchtvaartsector’ is het Adviescollege van start gegaan met de tweede fase van de opdracht. Opdracht voor deze tweede fase betreft het adviseren over een structurele aanpak van de stikstofproblematiek op de lange termijn. Dit advies is verwoord in deze eindrapportage.
Sustainable bottled water : How nudging and Internet Search affect consumers’ choices
Grebitus, Carola ; Roscoe, Rod D. ; Loo, Ellen J. Van; Kula, Irfan - \ 2020
Journal of Cleaner Production 267 (2020). - ISSN 0959-6526
Artesian water - Beverage - Information search - lab vs. online study - Mountain spring water - Online search - Plant-based plastic - Post-consumer waste plastic
This study examined differences in consumer preferences and willingness to pay for sustainable bottled water based on pro-environmental guidance, Internet information search, and research setting (i.e., laboratory or online). Specifically, we investigated willingness to pay for bottled water produced with plant-based plastics and post-consumer waste plastics. Insight into willingness to pay (i.e., preferences and acceptance) for novel plastics is valuable given the potential impact of such materials regarding cleaner production of food and non-food products. Results from mixed logit models showed that searching for information increased the likelihood that consumers would choose sustainable plastic water bottles over less sustainable options, and the effect was magnified when consumers were primed to make environmentally friendly choices. Findings also revealed a considerable amount of preference heterogeneity with regard to the type of water product or type of plastic used to manufacture the bottles. Similar results were reflected in the willingness to pay. In addition, preference and willingness to pay were generally higher in the lab setting compared to the online setting. Overall, pro-environmental guidance can nudge individuals towards making more sustainable choices even if it comes at a higher cost. For stakeholders and policy makers with interests in the beverage industry, observed findings can inform recommendations for facilitating more sustainable consumer behavior.
Impact of post-ruminally infused macronutrients on bovine mammary gland expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, energy metabolism, and protein synthesis measured in RNA isolated from milk fat
Nichols, Kelly ; Bannink, André ; Baal, Jurgen Van; Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2020
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 1674-9782
Cytoplasmic crescent - Endoplasmic reticulum biogenesis - Mammary cell - Milk fat globule - Milk synthesis - Tricarboxylic acid cycle
Background: Characterising the regulation of milk component synthesis in response to macronutrient supply is critical for understanding the implications of nutritional interventions on milk production. Gene expression in mammary gland secretory cells was measured using RNA isolated from milk fat globules from 6 Holstein-Friesian cows receiving 5-d abomasal infusions of saline, essential amino acids (AA), or glucose (GG) or palm olein (LG) without (LAA) or with (HAA) essential AA, according to a 6 × 6 Latin square design. RNA was isolated from milk fat samples collected on d 5 of infusion and subjected to real-time quantitative PCR. We hypothesised that mRNA expression of genes involved in de novo milk fatty acid (FA) synthesis would be differently affected by GG and LG, and that expression of genes regulating transfer of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates would increase at the HAA level. We also hypothesised that the HAA level would affect genes regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis but would not affect genes related to the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) or the integrated stress response (ISR) network. Results: Infusion of GG did not affect de novo milk FA yield but decreased expression of FA synthase (FASN). Infusion of LG decreased de novo FA yield and tended to decrease expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1). The HAA level increased both de novo FA yield and expression of ACC1, and tended to decrease expression of mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2). mRNA expression of mTORC1 signaling participants was not affected by GG, LG, or AA level. Expression of the ϵ subunit of the ISR constituent eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B5) tended to increase at the HAA level, but only in the presence of LG. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA was activated in response to LG and the HAA level. Conclusions: Results show that expression of genes involved in de novo FA synthesis responded to glucogenic, lipogenic, and aminogenic substrates, whereas genes regulating intermediate flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle were not majorly affected. Results also suggest that after 5 d of AA supplementation, milk protein synthesis is supported by enhanced ER biogenesis instead of signaling through the mTORC1 or ISR networks.
Cadena de valor en la red de tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceum) en Ecuador
Moreno-Miranda, Carlos ; Molina, José Isaac ; Ortiz, Jacqueline ; Peñafiel, Carla ; Moreno, Raúl - \ 2020
Agronomia mesoamericana 31 (2020)1. - ISSN 1021-7444 - p. 13 - 29.
Coordination - Horticulture - Market - Strategy - Unit of production
Introduction. The fruit and vegetable sector in Ecuador has shown promising performance in domestic and international markets. Likewise, this sector has faced problems of a social, economic and productive nature in its structure and articulations, which until now require intervention. Objective. The objective of this study was to analyze in a descriptive way the structure of the tree tomato agro-food network. Materials and methods. This study was carried out in the provinces of Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, and Chimborazo, Ecuador, during the period between the second quarter of 2016 and the end of 2017. The study applied a systemic methodology aimed at the identification and characterization of stages, agents and activities (primary and support), and the analysis of network governance mechanisms. Results. The present study showed the main social and productive characteristics, horizontal and vertical sizing; and the proposal of strategies focused on improving their productive performance. Conclusions. The inclusion of women, the sense of associativity of processors and distributors, and the training of producers in topics related to post-harvest, and good agricultural practices, would significantly improve the economic performance of the network, and also encourage greater participation of the agents involved. The network requires increasing the area allocated to tree tomato cultivation, and the application of greenhouse production systems that increase yields.
Improving dietary intake during lunch through the provision of a healthy school lunch at Dutch primary schools : Design of a pretest-posttest effectiveness study
Kleef, Ellen Van; Rongen, Frédérique C. ; Vingerhoeds, Monique H. ; Dijkstra, Coosje ; Seidell, Jaap C. - \ 2020
BMC Public Health 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
Primary school - School lunch - School-based intervention - Vegetables
Background: Since there is a shift from eating lunch at home to eating lunch at primary schools in the Netherlands, providing a school lunch may be an important opportunity to improve the diet quality of Dutch children. Therefore, the aim of this Healthy School Lunch project is to encourage healthy eating behavior of children at primary schools by offering a healthy school lunch, based on the guidelines for a healthy diet. In this study, two research questions will be addressed. The first research question is: What and how much do children consume from a self-served school lunch and how do they evaluate the lunch? The second research question is: Do children compensate healthier school lunches by eating less healthy outside school hours? The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale and study design of this study. Methods: In the Healthy School Lunch project children in grades 5-8 (aged 8-12 years) of three primary schools in the Netherlands will receive a healthy school lunch for a 6-month period. To answer research question 1, lunch consumption data will be collected at baseline and again at 3- A nd 6-months. This will be measured with lunch photos and questionnaires among children. To answer the second research question, a quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test intervention-comparison group design (3 intervention schools and 3 comparison schools) will be carried out. Potential compensation effects will be measured with a single brief questionnaire among parents at the three intervention and three comparison schools at month 6 of the lunch period. The school lunch will also be evaluated by parents (discussion groups) and teachers and support staff (brief questionnaires). Discussion: Results of this study will provide valuable information to influence future school lunch interventions and policies. Trial registration: This study is registered at the Netherlands trial register (NTR): Trialregister.nl, Trial NL7402 (NTR7618), registered retrospectively at 2018-11-13.
A survey on the uses of glyphosate in European countries
Riemens, M.M. - \ 2020
ENDURE - 60 p.
This report offers a framework for understanding and monitoring glyphosate uses in the agricultural sector, based on the identification of the cropping systems in which glyphosate is used, the agronomic purposesfor which it is usedandthe nature of this use (from occasional to systematic). Glyphosate is widely used in annual cropping systems, perennial crops and grasslands. In annual cropping systems, it is mostly used prior to sowing, shortly after sowing of the crop (at the pre-emergence stage) or at the post-harvest stage for controlling weeds and volunteers.
Assessing seasonal nitrogen export to large tropical lakes
Goshu, Goraw ; Strokal, M. ; Kroeze, C. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Klein, J.J.M. de - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 731 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
Eutrophication - Modelling seasonality - Nitrogen - River export - Sub-basin - Tropical Lake
Rivers are exporting increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) to lakes, which is leading to eutrophication. However, the seasonality apparent in nutrient loading, especially in tropical areas, is thus far only partially understood. This study aims to better understand the seasonality and the sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) inputs from sub-basins to tropical lakes. We integrated existing approaches into a seasonal model that accounts for seasonality in human activities, meteorology and hydrology, and we applied the model to the sub-basins of a representative tropical lake: Lake Tana, Ethiopia. The model quantifies the river export of DIN by season, source and sub-basin and also accounts for open defecation to land as a diffuse source of N in rivers. Seasonality parameters were calibrated, and model outputs were validated against measured nitrogen loads in the main river outlets. The calibrated model showed good agreement with the measured nitrogen loads at the outflow of the main rivers. The model distinguishes four seasons: rainy (July–September), post-rainy (October–December), dry (January–March) and pre-rainy (April–June). The river export of DIN to Lake Tana was about 9 kton in 2017 and showed spatial and temporal variability: It was highest in the rainy and lowest in the dry seasons. Diffuse sources from agriculture were important contributors of DIN to rivers in 2017, and animal manure was the dominant source in all seasons. Our seasonal sub-basins and rivers model provides opportunities to identify the main nutrient sources to the lake and to formulate effective water quality management options. An example is nutrient application level that correspond to the crop needs in the sub-basins. Furthermore, our model can be used to analyse future trends and serves as an example for other large tropical lakes experiencing eutrophication.