Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Ecological impact and cost-effectiveness of wildlife crossings in a highly fragmented landscape : a multi-method approach
    Sijtsma, Frans J. ; Veen, Eelke van der; Hinsberg, Arjen van; Pouwels, Rogier ; Bekker, Renée ; Dijk, René E. van; Grutters, Mark ; Klaassen, Raymond ; Krijn, Margriet ; Mouissie, Maarten ; Wymenga, Eddy - \ 2020
    Landscape Ecology 35 (2020)7. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1701 - 1720.
    Cost-effectiveness - Defragmentation of road infrastructure - Ecoducts (wildlife crossing bridges) - Mixed-method evaluation - The Netherlands - Wildlife crossings

    Context: Road infrastructure construction is integral to economic development, but negatively affects biodiversity. To mitigate the negative impacts of infrastructure, various types of wildlife crossings are realized worldwide, but little is known about their effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. Objective: The paper contributes to the methodological and empirical discussion on the effectiveness of wildlife crossings for enhancing the quality of surrounding nature and its cost-effectiveness by analyzing a large-scale wildlife-crossings program in the Netherlands. Method: A multi-criteria cost–benefit analysis is applied, comprised of monetary and non-monetary measures, and a mixed-method approach is used to determine ecological effects. Ecological effects are expressed in the standardized weighted hectare measurement of threat-weighted ecological quality area (1 T-EQA = 1 ha of 100% ecological quality, averagely threatened). Cost-effectiveness is calculated comparing the monetary costs of intervention with ecological benefits (Euro costs/T-EQA), for different types of wildlife crossings and for two other nature policies. Results: The Dutch habitat defragmentation program has induced an increase in nature value of 1734 T-EQA at a cost of Euro 283 million. Ecological gains per hierarchically ordered groups of measures differ strongly: The most effective are ecoducts (wildlife crossing bridges) followed by shared-use viaducts and large fauna tunnels. Ecoducts generated the largest gain in nature value, but were also the most costly measures. In terms of cost-effectiveness, both large fauna tunnels and shared-use viaducts for traffic and animals outperformed ecoducts. Conclusions: Ecoducts deliver ecologically, but their cost-effectiveness appears modest. Purchasing agricultural land for restoration of nature appears more cost-effective than building wildlife crossings. Yet, reducing environmental pressures or their effects on existing nature areas is likely to be most cost-effective.

    Natuurbescherming: tijd voor een andere aanpak
    Breman, B.C. ; Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Pouwels, R. ; Egmond, P.M. van; Hinsberg, Arjen van - \ 2020
    Nieuwe Veluwe 1 (2020). - ISSN 1879-6001 - p. 10 - 11.
    Using GPS tracking to understand the impact of management interventions on visitor densities and bird populations
    Pouwels, Rogier ; Eupen, Michiel van; Walvoort, Dennis J.J. ; Jochem, René - \ 2020
    Applied Geography 116 (2020). - ISSN 0143-6228
    Bird conservation - Management tool - Outdoor recreation - Random forest - Rules of thumb

    To manage the potential conflict between outdoor recreation and nature conservation, managers of nature areas need information to select effective interventions. For large nature areas information on visitor use is often lacking and managers often make decisions based on expert judgement. In this paper we use monitoring data gathered with GPS devices to develop a tool and derive rules of thumb managers can use to estimate the impact of management actions on visitor densities. Using a dataset of 1563 tracks from the New Forest, UK, we developed a random forest model and identified which landscape and environmental features account for the spatial variation in visitor densities. The random forest model shows that distance to car park, distance to roads and openness are the most important factors for predicting visitor densities. The model was used as a tool to assess the impact of potential management interventions on the population of Nightjar. As developing this type of tool requires a lot of data we also derived rules of thumb and a simple algorithm that managers of other nature areas can use to estimate the impact of their interventions on visitor densities. The derived rules of thumb show that changing the location of car parks in relation to tarmac roads can help managers to reduce local visitor densities by 80%. Further research in other nature areas should verify the feasibility of these rules of thumb and the simple algorithm.

    Food for extra-terrestrial astronaut missions on native soil
    Pouwels, C.R. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Musilova, M. ; Foing, B. - \ 2020
    In: 51st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2020). - LPSC, joint effort between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA. - 2 p.
    Veerkracht en adaptief vermogen van natuur. : Tussenrapportage WOT-04-011-037.13
    Cormont, A. ; Pleijte, M. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Pouwels, R. - \ 2019
    NVK Toestand en Trends (2019) : Tussenrapportage WOT-04-011-034.59
    Pouwels, R. - \ 2019
    Droogte in zandgebieden van Zuid-, Midden- en Oost-Nederland : Rapportage fase 1: ontwikkeling van uniforme werkwijze voor analyse van droogte en tussentijdse bevindingen
    Eertwegh, Gé van den; Bartholomeus, Ruud ; Louw, Perry de; Witte, Flip ; Dam, Jos van; Deijl, Dion van; Hoefsloot, Peter ; Clevers, Sharon ; Hendriks, Dimmie ; Huijgevoort, Marjolein van; Hunink, Joachim ; Mulder, Niels ; Pouwels, Janneke ; Wit, Janine de - \ 2019
    Berg en Dal : KnowH2O - 95
    PhD promotion Rogier Pouwels: A bird's-eye of recreation. Improving the application of scientific knowledge and tools in collaborative decision-making processes (Event)
    Dewulf, Art - \ 2019
    NVK Toestand en Trends : Tussenrapportage WOT-04-011-034.59
    Pouwels, R. - \ 2019
    WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-interne notitie 256)
    Natuurbescherming in Nederland : tijd voor een nieuwe praktijk
    Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Breman, B.C. ; Egmond, Petra van; Hinsberg, Arjen van; Pouwels, R. - \ 2019
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 36 (2019)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 167 - 173.
    Er zijn fundamentele transities in onze economie en samenleving nodig om de teloorgang van natuur te stoppen, constateerde het IPBES eerder dit jaar. De huidige aanpak van het natuurbeleid richt zich onvoldoende op de oorzaken van biodiversiteitsverlies. Ook in Nederland blijkt de huidige praktijk van natuurbescherming niet afdoende om de doelen te realiseren. In de Natuurverkenning 2020 verkennen we hoe zulke transities eruit zouden kunnen zien en welke potenties ze hebben.
    Birds don't like visitors
    Pouwels, Rogier - \ 2019

    Hikers in nature areas disturb the birds. But how big is that effect and what would be a
    good solution for that problem? PhD candidate Rogier Pouwels developed a method to assess this.

    Veel minder vogels door wandelaars, Veluwe mogelijk deels op slot
    Pouwels, R. - \ 2019
    A bird’s-eye view of recreation : improving the application of scientific knowledge and tools in collaborative decision-making processes
    Pouwels, Rogier - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.F.M. Opdam; R.B.P. Foppen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439886 - 169

    Natural areas are essential for species conservation and outdoor recreation. Where conservation and recreational values are under threat, site managers need to take measures to protect them. Scientific knowledge and tools might help them to predict the outcomes of planned measures and create support amongst stakeholders. To be accepted by all stakeholders the knowledge and tools must possess three attributes credibility, salience and legitimacy. In this PhD thesis existing scientific knowledge and tools were made context-specific and local measures were related to regional conservation targets for different study areas in the UK, Netherlands and France. The process of integrating site-specific data and local knowledge in the tools helps stakeholders explain their view of the local context and increases the salience and legitimacy of the knowledge and tools while their credibility is maintained. This leads to a co-learning process between recreation stakeholders, conservation stakeholders, managers and scientists where measures are supported by all parties involved.

    Effecten van onderwaterdrainage op de regionale watervraag : berekeningen met het Landelijk Hydrologisch Model
    Rozemeijer, Joachim ; Boomsma, Huite ; Veldhuizen, Ab ; Pouwels, Janneke ; Akker, Jan van den; Kroon, Timo - \ 2019
    Delft : Deltares - 66
    In het veenweidegebied is het verminderen van maaivelddaling een belangrijk thema.Onderwaterdrainage wordt gezien als een mogelijkheid om de laagste grondwaterstanden te verhogen en is daarmee eenvan de mogelijkheden om maaivelddaling te verminderen. Het doel van dit onderzoek was de verandering in de watervraag in droge perioden door onderwaterdrainage voor een deel van West-Nederlandin beeld te brengen. Er is gebruik gemaakt vanhet Landelijk Hydrologisch Model (LHM-versie3.4.0) voor het doorrekenen van scenario’s (1) met en zonder onderwaterdrainage, (2) met huidig en toekomstig klimaat (GL en WH) en (3) meten zonder dynamisch peilbeheer.Dein het modelgebruikte drainage-en infiltratiedoorlatendheden zijn ingeschat op basis van meetresultaten uit lokalepilots. Om de effecten van onderwaterdrainage duidelijk te maken focussen we op de verandering in de watervraag voor peilhandhaving in peilvakken die voor minimaal 10% geschikt zijn voor onderwaterdrainage. De resultaten laten zien dat dezewatervraag in een droge periode toeneemt met ongeveer 0.09 mm/dag. De totale watervraag voor peilhandhaving voor deze gebieden is 1.16 mm/dag in dereferentiesituatie, waarmee de relatieve toename uitkomt op ca. 8%. De watervraag voor het gehele beheergebied van de West-Nederlandse waterschappen is 0.66 mm/dag. De extra watervraag voor peilhandhaving door onderwaterdrainage voor het gehele gebied is dan ook ongeveer 0.03 mm/dag (ca. 4%). Bij deze berekening is uitgegaan van een gemiddeld effect van 5-10 cm verhoging van de laagste grondwaterstanden die voorkomt uitpraktijkpilots. Als de infiltratie-effectiviteit van onderwaterdrainage vergroot wordt,bijvoorbeeld door verbeterde aanleg of door pompgestuurde onderwaterdrainage (drukdrains),dan zalhet effect op de laagste grondwaterstanden ende watervraag toenemen. Bij een gemiddelde verhoging van de laagste grondwaterstanden van30-40 cmverwachten we een extra watervraag van ongeveer 0.4 mm/dag (ca. 36%). Voor de gehele West-Nederlandse waterschappen komt dit neer op een extra watervraag van ongeveer 0.11 mm/dag (ca. 18%).De resultaten uit het model moeten gezien worden als een indicatieve kwantificering van de effecten van onderwaterdrainage. Er is behoefte aan meer meetinformatie over de effecten van onderwaterdrainage over langere perioden en in droge jaren en over de effecten op waterfluxen en waterkwaliteit. Deze meetinformatie kan gebruikt worden om ook de effecten op groter schaalniveau beter te kwantificeren.
    Prediction of soil pH patterns in nature areas on a national scale
    Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Walvoort, Dennis J.J. ; Sanders, Marlies E. ; Meeuwsen, Henk A.M. ; Wegman, Ruut M.A. ; Pouwels, Rogier ; Knotters, Martin - \ 2019
    Applied Vegetation Science 22 (2019)2. - ISSN 1402-2001 - p. 189 - 199.
    acidity - kriging - pH - relevé - soil type - vegetation

    Question: To assess the acidification process, nationwide information about soil pH on a site level is called for. Measurements of soil pH may be used, however there are not sufficient measurements available to map soil pH nationwide on site level. Instead we developed a soil pH map based on vegetation data. Location: Natural terrestrial areas in The Netherlands. Methods: 271,693 vegetation plots were used to estimate average soil pH per plot with indicator values, based on field measurements, of plant species. By spatial interpolation average pH values between the plots, with the soil type, groundwater table and vegetation management type as ancillary explanatory variables we created a soil pH map. The map covers all terrestrial nature areas (all areas that are not built up areas, agricultural areas and infrastructural areas) in the Netherlands with a map resolution of 25 × 25 m2 raster cells. Results: The predicted pH of the map varied between 3.0 and 8.6 with standard errors between 0.13 and 0.93. Most of the standard errors range from 0.4 to 0.55, with an average just below 0.5 pH unit. Cross-validation shows that for 33% the difference between observed and predicted is between −0.1 and 0.1 pH-unit and for 83% the difference is between −0.5 and 0.5 pH-unit. Validation shows that the pH map is unbiased (mean error is almost zero), accurate (root mean squared error is 0.64) and nicely captures spatial patterns (r = 0.77). We applied the pH map to assess the impact of acidification on the abiotic quality of nature areas in the Netherlands. Conclusions: The model fit in the predicted soil pH is in good resulting in a low standard error and a high correlation. The measures taken to prevent acidic deposition causing further acidifying of nature areas can be considered as successful.

    Analyse verduurzamingsopgaven landelijk gebied Overijssel richting 2050
    Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Gies, E. ; Heide, M. van der; Maas, G. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Pouwels, R. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research - ISBN 9789463433662 - 22
    Toestand en Trends. Tussenrapportage WOT-04-011-034.57
    Pouwels, R. ; Hinsberg, Arjen van - \ 2018
    WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-interne notitie 226)
    Effect van kleine landschapselementen en buitenlandse natuur op het duurzaam voorkomen van soorten in de provincie Limburg : Doorrekening met het MNP
    Wamelink, Wieger ; Adrichem, Marjolijn van; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Frissel, Joep ; Woltjer, Inez ; Knegt, Bart de; Pouwels, Rogier - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2912) - 59
    In the Dutch province of Limburg not all natural areas are accounted for by the Model for Nature Policy (MNP) when assessing the realized nature targets in the Dutch Nature Network, for example in the studies for the evaluation of the ‘nature pact’ or Dutch governmental nature policy. Also the province has a long border with Germany and Belgium and the effect of their natural areas is not included in the evaluations. The MNP was therefore applied to calculate the effect of nature outside the official Nature Network and foreign nature on the viability of populations and species. When Limburg alone is assessed the viability of species and populations increases, especially if the extra natural areas are included. However, on a Dutch nation-wide scale the effects of both extra nature and foreign nature on species viability is negligible. This is due to the fact that the species that benefit in Limburg are already viable on a Dutch scale. The number of viable populations does increase, also in a national scale.
    Effects of landscape changes on species viability : A case study from northern Slovakia
    Pazúrová, Zuzana ; Pouwels, Rogier ; Ružičková, Jana ; Bolliger, Janine ; Krokusová, Juliana ; Ot'ahel', Ján ; Pazúr, Robert - \ 2018
    Sustainability 10 (2018)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Biocorridor - Landscape change - Landscape planning - Scenario - Species viability analysis

    Urbanization, increasing road networks, agricultural intensification, and land abandonment are widespread land change processes found in most European landscapes. As land changes affect animal species and their populations, there is a need to evaluate the effects of future developments on the viability of protected species. In this paper, we model population size and viability of selected indicator species for a selected area in Slovakia. Our results indicate that selected species are viable in the current landscape composition. However, the expected spread of settlement and the increase of road density in this area would likely lead to decline and loss of viability of species. Similarly, continuous land abandonment followed with spontaneous reforestation would likely trigger a decline of grassland species. In contrast, developing a biocorridor and restoration of existing green elements as modeled in our conservation scenario would strongly improve the viability of all species and avoid the impact of the expected developments. Our results underline the actions that prevent further loss of biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes and, thus, have particular importance for landscape planning and decision-making processes.

    MetaNatuurplanner v4.0 - Status A : Toepassing voor Evaluatie Natuurpact
    Pouwels, R. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Adrichem, M.H.C. van; Jochem, R. ; Wegman, R.M.A. ; Knegt, B. de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 110) - 92
    Wageningen Environmental Research and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have developed MNP version 4.0 (Model for Nature Policy; MetaNatuurplanner) to determine the impacts of policy and management activities on biodiversity at the national and regional scale. The model predicts the persistence of species protected under nature policy by assessing the availability of sufficiently large connected areas of good habitat quality in the landscape . It does not assess the actual presence of these species. The model uses correlations between environmental, water and land use parameters and the sustainable conservation of biodiversity, and is used for identifying conflicts, policy evaluation and national and regional scenario studies. Results are aggregated to form indicators for Dutch and European policy. This report describes all the aspects of the model that are needed to obtain the Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment quality status A for models. MNP will be further developed and validated in the coming years
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