Conceptual links between landscape diversity and diet diversity : A roadmap for transdisciplinary research
Gergel, Sarah E. ; Powell, Bronwen ; Baudron, Frédéric ; Wood, Sylvia L.R. ; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Rasmussen, Laura V. ; Ickowitz, Amy ; Fagan, Matthew E. ; Smithwick, Erica A.H. ; Ranieri, Jessica ; Wood, Stephen A. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. - \ 2020
Bioscience 70 (2020)7. - ISSN 0006-3568 - p. 563 - 575.
Food security and nutrition - Landscape approach - Remote sensing - Restoration - Sustainable development - Tropical forest conservation
Malnutrition linked to poor quality diets affects at least 2 billion people. Forests, as well as agricultural systems linked to trees, are key sources of dietary diversity in rural settings. In the present article, we develop conceptual links between diet diversity and forested landscape mosaics within the rural tropics. First, we summarize the state of knowledge regarding diets obtained from forests, trees, and agroforests. We then hypothesize how disturbed secondary forests, edge habitats, forest access, and landscape diversity can function in bolstering dietary diversity. Taken together, these ideas help us build a framework illuminating four pathways (direct, agroecological, energy, and market pathways) connecting forested landscapes to diet diversity. Finally, we offer recommendations to fill remaining knowledge gaps related to diet and forest cover monitoring. We argue that better evaluation of the role of land cover complexity will help avoid overly simplistic views of food security and, instead, uncover nutritional synergies with forest conservation and restoration.
The percentage of total agricultural area under maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production, by country, subject to water scarcity in 2050 as estimated from a multi-model ensemble
Fitton, N. ; Alexander, P. ; Arnell, N. ; Bajzelj, B. ; Calvin, K. ; Doelman, J. ; Gerber, J.S. ; Havlik, P. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Herrero, M. ; Krisztin, T. ; Meijl, H. van; Powell, T. ; Sands, R. ; Stehfest, E. ; West, P.C. ; Smith, P. - \ 2020
University of Aberdeen
agriculture production - commodity production - future land availability - global analysis - water scarcity
Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities availability in 2050.
Obituary: Hugo Besemer
Addison, Chris ; Cummings, Sarah ; Parr, Martin ; Subirats, Imma ; Webbink, J.F. ; Holt, Ilkay ; Pesce, Valeria ; Powell, Mike - \ 2020
Knowledge Management for Development
The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.
The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.
Integrating agroecological production in a robust post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework
Wanger, Thomas C. ; DeClerck, Fabrice ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Ghazoul, Jaboury ; Kleijn, David ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Kremen, Claire ; Mooney, Harold ; Perfecto, Ivette ; Powell, Luke L. ; Settele, Josef ; Solé, Mirco ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Weisser, Wolfgang - \ 2020
Nature Ecology & Evolution (2020). - ISSN 2397-334X
Testing the Various Pathways Linking Forest Cover to Dietary Diversity in Tropical Landscapes
Baudron, Frédéric ; Tomscha, Stephanie A. ; Powell, Bronwen ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Gergel, Sarah E. ; Sunderland, Terry - \ 2019
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
ecosystem services - hidden hunger - multifunctional landscapes - nutrition - structural equation modeling
A diverse diet is important to address micronutrient deficiencies and other forms of malnutrition, one of the greatest challenges of today's food systems. In tropical countries, several studies have found a positive association between forest cover and dietary diversity, although the actual mechanisms of this has yet to be identified and quantified. Three complementary pathways may link forests to diets: a direct pathway (e.g., consumption of forest food), an income pathway (income from forest products used to purchase food from markets), and an agroecological pathway (forests and trees sustaining farm production). We used piece-wise structural equation modeling to test and quantify the relative contribution of these three pathways for households in seven tropical landscapes in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Nicaragua, and Zambia. We used survey data from 1,783 households and determined forest cover within a 2-km radius of each household. The quality of household diets was assessed through four indicators: household dietary diversity and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and meat, based on a 24-h recall. We found evidence of a direct pathway in four landscapes (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Zambia), an income pathway in none of the landscapes considered, and an agroecological pathway in three landscapes (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Indonesia). We also found evidence of improved crop and livestock production with greater forest cover in five landscapes (Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Indonesia). Conversely, we found negative associations between forest cover and crop and livestock production in three landscapes (Cameroon, Indonesia, and Zambia). In addition, we found evidence of forest cover being negatively related to at least one indicator of diet quality in three landscapes (Indonesia, Nicaragua, and Zambia) and to integration to the cash economy in three landscapes (Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua). This is one of the first studies to quantify the different mechanisms linking forest cover and diet. Our work illuminates the fact that these mechanisms can vary significantly from one site to another, calling for site-specific interventions. Our results also suggest that the positive contributions of forests to rural livelihoods cannot be generalized and should not be idealized.
Uncertainties in enteric methane inventories and measurement techniques
Hristov, A.N. ; Kebreab, Ermias ; Niu, M. ; Oh, J. ; Melgar, A. ; Bannink, A. ; Bayat, A.R. ; Boland, T.M. ; Brito, A.F. ; Casper, D.P. ; Crompton, L.A. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Eugène, M. ; Garnsworthy, P.C. ; Haque, N. ; Hellwing, A.L.F. ; Huhtanen, P. ; Kreuzer, M. ; Kuhla, Bjoern ; Lund, Peter ; Madsen, J. ; Martin, C. ; Moate, P.J. ; Muetzel, Stefan ; Muñoz, Camila ; Peiren, Nico ; Powell, J.M. ; Reynolds, Chris ; Schwarm, A. ; Shingfield, K.J. ; Storlien, T.M. ; Weisbjerg, M.R. ; Yáñez-ruiz, David R. ; Yu, Z. - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the 7th GGAA - Greenhouse Gas and Animal Agriculture Conference. - Iguassu Falls/Brazil : Embrapa (Proceedings 135) - p. 45 - 46.
The vulnerabilities of agricultural land and food production to future water scarcity
Fitton, N. ; Alexander, P. ; Arnell, N. ; Bajzelj, B. ; Calvin, K. ; Doelman, J. ; Gerber, J.S. ; Havlik, P. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Herrero, M. ; Krisztin, T. ; Meijl, H. van; Powell, T. ; Sands, R. ; Stehfest, E. ; West, P.C. ; Smith, P. - \ 2019
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 58 (2019). - ISSN 0959-3780
Food security - Land use - Shared socio-economic pathways - Water availability
Rapidly increasing populations coupled with increased food demand requires either an expansion of agricultural land or sufficient production gains from current resources. However, in a changing world, reduced water availability might undermine improvements in crop and grass productivity and may disproportionately affect different parts of the world. Using multi-model studies, the potential trends, risks and uncertainties to land use and land availability that may arise from reductions in water availability are examined here. In addition, the impacts of different policy interventions on pressures from emerging risks are examined. Results indicate that globally, approximately 11% and 10% of current crop- and grass-lands could be vulnerable to reduction in water availability and may lose some productive capacity, with Africa and the Middle East, China, Europe and Asia particularly at risk. While uncertainties remain, reduction in agricultural land area associated with dietary changes (reduction of food waste and decreased meat consumption) offers the greatest buffer against land loss and food insecurity.
Symposium review: Uncertainties in enteric methane inventories, measurement techniques, and prediction models
Hristov, A.N. ; Kebreab, Ermias ; Niu, Mutian ; Oh, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bayat, Ali R. ; Boland, Tommy ; Brito, A.F. ; Casper, D.P. ; Crompton, Les A. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Eugène, Maguy A. ; Garnsworthy, Phil C. ; Haque, N. ; Hellwing, Anne L.F. ; Huhtanen, Pekka ; Kreuzer, Michael ; Lund, Peter ; Madsen, Jørgen ; Martin, C. ; Moate, P.J. ; Muetzel, Stefan ; Muñoz, Camila ; Peiren, Nico ; Powell, J.M. ; Reynolds, Chris ; Schwarm, Angela ; Shingfield, Kevin J. ; Storlien, Tonje M. ; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis ; Yáñez-Ruiz, D.R. ; Yu, Z. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6655 - 6674.
Ruminant production systems are important contributors to anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions, but there are large uncertainties in national and global livestock CH4 inventories. Sources of uncertainty in enteric CH4 emissions include animal inventories, feed dry matter intake (DMI), ingredient and chemical composition of the diets, and CH4 emission factors. There is also significant uncertainty associated with enteric CH4 measurements. The most widely used techniques are respiration chambers, the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, and the automated head-chamber system (GreenFeed; C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). All 3 methods have been successfully used in a large number of experiments with dairy or beef cattle in various environmental conditions, although studies that compare techniques have reported inconsistent results. Although different types of models have been developed to predict enteric CH4 emissions, relatively simple empirical (statistical) models have been commonly used for inventory purposes because of their broad applicability and ease of use compared with more detailed empirical and process-based mechanistic models. However, extant empirical models used to predict enteric CH4 emissions suffer from narrow spatial focus, limited observations, and limitations of the statistical technique used. Therefore, prediction models must be developed from robust data sets that can only be generated through collaboration of scientists across the world. To achieve high prediction accuracy, these data sets should encompass a wide range of diets and production systems within regions and globally. Overall, enteric CH4 prediction models are based on various animal or feed characteristic inputs but are dominated by DMI in one form or another. As a result, accurate prediction of DMI is essential for accurate prediction of livestock CH4 emissions. Analysis of a large data set of individual dairy cattle data showed that simplified enteric CH4 prediction models based on DMI alone or DMI and limited feed- or animal-related inputs can predict average CH4 emission with a similar accuracy to more complex empirical models. These simplified models can be reliably used for emission inventory purposes.
Enteric methane emissions: Prediction and mitigation, the GLOBAL NETWORK project
Hristov, A.N. ; Kebreab, E. ; Niu, M. ; Oh, J. ; Arndt, C. ; Bannink, A. ; Bayat, A.R. ; Brito, A.F. ; Casper, D. ; Crompton, L.A. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Garnsworthy, P.C. ; Haque, N. ; Hellwing, A.L.F. ; Huhtanen, P. ; Kreuzer, M. ; Kuhla, B. ; Lund, Peter ; Madsen, J. ; McClelland, S.C. ; Moate, P.J. ; Muñoz, Camila ; Peiren, N. ; Powell, J.M. ; Reynolds, Chris ; Schwarm, A. ; Shingfield, K.J. ; Storlien, T.M. ; Weisbjerg, M.R. - \ 2017
Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)Supplement 2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 430 - 431.
Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems
Klein, Cecile A.M. De; Monaghan, Ross M. ; Alfaro, Marta A. ; Gourley, Cameron J.P. ; Oenema, Oene ; Mark Powell, J. - \ 2017
Soil Research 55 (2017)5-6. - ISSN 1838-675X - p. 479 - 488.
animal NUE - crop NUE - dairy systems - nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) - whole-farm NUE
Nitrogen (N) is invaluable for maintaining agricultural production, but its use, and particularly inefficient use, can lead to environmental losses. This paper reviews N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus indicators for dairy production systems to assess their utility for optimising N use outcomes and minimising environmental N losses. Using case-study examples, we also assess realistic goals for these indicators and discuss key issues associated with their use. Published whole-farm NUE and whole-farm N surplus values ranged within 10-65% and 40-700kg N ha-1 year-1 respectively. In a study of five catchments across New Zealand, whole-farm NUE was more strongly affected by catchment differences in soil and climatic conditions than by differences in management. In contrast, whole-farm N surplus differed both between-and within-catchments and was a good indicator of N losses to water. Realistic goals for both NUE and N surplus thus depend on the agro-climatic context of the dairy system and on its economic and environmental goals. Crop and animal NUE values can be valuable indicators for optimising fertiliser and feed use and minimising N losses. However, global or national whole-farm NUE values appear of limited value if the ultimate goal for setting targets is to reduce the environmental impact of N use; whole-farm level targets based on N surplus would be a more useful indicator for this purpose. Our review also reinforces the importance of standardising the variables that should be used to estimate NUE and N surplus values, to ensure equitable comparisons between different systems. Finally, NUE and N surplus targets should also be set in the context of other agro-environmental considerations.
Priorities for research in soil ecology
Eisenhauer, Nico ; Antunes, Pedro M. ; Bennett, Alison E. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bissett, Andrew ; Bowker, Matthew A. ; Caruso, Tancredi ; Chen, Baodong ; Coleman, David C. ; Boer, Wietse de; Ruiter, Peter de; DeLuca, Thomas H. ; Frati, Francesco ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Hart, Miranda M. ; Hättenschwiler, Stephan ; Haimi, Jari ; Heethoff, Michael ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kelly, Laura C. ; Leinaas, Hans Petter ; Lindo, Zoë ; Macdonald, Catriona ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Ruess, Liliane ; Scheu, Stefan ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Seastedt, Timothy R. ; Straalen, Nico M. van; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Zimmer, Martin ; Powell, Jeff R. - \ 2017
Pedobiologia 63 (2017). - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 1 - 7.
Aboveground-belowground interactions - Biodiversity–ecosystem functioning - Biogeography - Chemical ecology - Climate change - Ecosystem services - Global change - Microbial ecology - Novel environments - Plant-microbe interactions - Soil biodiversity - Soil food web - Soil management - Soil processes
The ecological interactions that occur in and with soil are of consequence in many ecosystems on the planet. These interactions provide numerous essential ecosystem services, and the sustainable management of soils has attracted increasing scientific and public attention. Although soil ecology emerged as an independent field of research many decades ago, and we have gained important insights into the functioning of soils, there still are fundamental aspects that need to be better understood to ensure that the ecosystem services that soils provide are not lost and that soils can be used in a sustainable way. In this perspectives paper, we highlight some of the major knowledge gaps that should be prioritized in soil ecological research. These research priorities were compiled based on an online survey of 32 editors of Pedobiologia – Journal of Soil Ecology. These editors work at universities and research centers in Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. The questions were categorized into four themes: (1) soil biodiversity and biogeography, (2) interactions and the functioning of ecosystems, (3) global change and soil management, and (4) new directions. The respondents identified priorities that may be achievable in the near future, as well as several that are currently achievable but remain open. While some of the identified barriers to progress were technological in nature, many respondents cited a need for substantial leadership and goodwill among members of the soil ecology research community, including the need for multi-institutional partnerships, and had substantial concerns regarding the loss of taxonomic expertise.
Identification of a Mammalian Silicon Transporter
Ratcliffe, Sarah ; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin ; Ma, Jian Feng ; Mitani-Ueno, Nakimi ; Vivancos, Julien ; Deshmukh, Rupesh ; Boekschoten, Mark ; Muller, Michael ; Mawhinney, Robert ; Marron, Alan ; Isenring, Paul ; Kinrade, Stephen ; Bélanger, Richard ; Powell, Jonathan - \ 2017
GSE58404 - Rattus norvegicus - GSE58404 - Rattus norvegicus - PRJNA252508
Silicon (Si) has long been known to play a major physiological role in certain organisms, including some sponges and many diatoms and higher plants, leading to the recent identification of multiple proteins responsible for silicon transport in a range of algal and plant species. In mammals, despite several convincing studies suggesting that silicon is an important factor in bone development and connective tissue health, there is a critical lack of understanding in biochemical pathways that enable silicon homeostasis. Here we report the identification of a mammalian efflux silicon transporter, namely Slc34a2 (also known as NaPiIIb), which was upregulated in the kidneys of rats following chronic dietary silicon deprivation. When heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the protein displayed marked silicon transport activity, specifically efflux, comparable to plant OsLsi2 transfected in the same fashion and independent of sodium and/or phosphate influx. This is the first evidence for a specific active transporter protein for silicon in mammals and suggests an important role for silicon in vertebrates.
Identification of a mammalian silicon transporter
Ratcliffe, Sarah ; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin ; Vivancos, Julien ; Marron, Alan ; Deshmukh, Rupesh ; Ma, Jian Feng ; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki ; Robertson, Jack ; Wills, John ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Müller, Michael ; Mawhinney, Robert C. ; Kinrade, Stephen D. ; Isenring, Paul ; Bélanger, Richard R. ; Powell, Jonathan J. - \ 2017
American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology 312 (2017)5. - ISSN 0363-6143 - p. C550 - C561.
Rat kidneys - Silicon - Slc34a2 - Transport - Xenopus laevis oocytes
Silicon (Si) has long been known to play a major physiological and structural role in certain organisms, including diatoms, sponges, and many higher plants, leading to the recent identification of multiple proteins responsible for Si transport in a range of algal and plant species. In mammals, despite several convincing studies suggesting that silicon is an important factor in bone development and connective tissue health, there is a critical lack of understanding about the biochemical pathways that enable Si homeostasis. Here we report the identification of a mammalian efflux Si transporter, namely Slc34a2 (also termed NaPiIIb), a known sodium-phosphate cotransporter, which was upregulated in rat kidney following chronic dietary Si deprivation. Normal rat renal epithelium demonstrated punctate expression of Slc34a2, and when the protein was heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, Si efflux activity (i.e., movement of Si out of cells) was induced and was quantitatively similar to that induced by the known plant Si transporter OsLsi2 in the same expression system. Interestingly, Si efflux appeared saturable over time, but it did not vary as a function of extracellular HPO2- 4 or Na- concentration, suggesting that Slc34a2 harbors a functionally independent transport site for Si operating in the reverse direction to the site for phosphate. Indeed, in rats with dietary Si depletion-induced upregulation of transporter expression, there was increased urinary phosphate excretion. This is the first evidence of an active Si transport protein in mammals and points towards an important role for Si in vertebrates and explains interactions between dietary phosphate and silicon.
Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections
Alexander, Peter ; Prestele, Reinhard ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Arneth, Almut ; Baranzelli, Claudia ; Batista e Silva, Filipe ; Brown, Calum ; Butler, Adam ; Calvin, Katherine ; Dendoncker, Nicolas ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Dunford, Robert ; Engström, Kerstin ; Eitelberg, David ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Havlik, Petr ; Holzhauer, Sascha ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris ; Jain, Atul K. ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Kyle, Page ; Lavalle, Carlo ; Lenton, Tim ; Liu, Jiayi ; Meiyappan, Prasanth ; Popp, Alexander ; Powell, Tom ; Sands, Ronald D. ; Schaldach, Rüdiger ; Stehfest, Elke ; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Meijl, Hans van; Wise, Marshall A. ; Rounsevell, Mark D.A. - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 767 - 781.
Cropland - Land cover - Land use - Model inter-comparison - Uncertainty
Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover.
Learning for transformation of water governance : reflections on design from the climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) project
Blackmore, Chris ; Bommel, Severine van; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Vries, Jasper de; Westberg, Lotten ; Powell, Neil ; Foster, Natalie ; Collins, Kevin ; Roggero, Pier Paolo ; Seddaiu, Giovanna - \ 2016
Water 8 (2016)11. - ISSN 2073-4441
CADWAGO - Design - Learning - Transformation - water governance
This paper considers how learning for transformation of water governance in the context of climate change adaptation can be designed for and supported, drawing examples from the international climate change adaptation and water governance project (CADWAGO). The project explicitly set out to design for governance learning in the sense of developing elements of social infrastructure such as workshops, performances and online media to bring stakeholders together and to facilitate co-learning of relevance to governance. CADWAGO drew on a variety of international cases from past and ongoing work of the project partners. It created a forum for dialogue among actors from different contexts working at different levels and scales. The range of opportunities and constraints encountered are discussed, including the principles and practicalities of working with distributed processes of design and leadership of events. A range of concepts, tools and techniques were used to consider and facilitate individual and collective learning processes and outcomes associated with water governance in the context of climate adaptation. Questions were addressed about how elements of past, present and future water governance thinking and practice are connected and how multi-level systemic change in governance can take place. Some reflections on the effectiveness of the design for learning process are included. The nature of the contribution that projects such as CADWAGO can make in learning for transformation of water governance practices is also critically considered.
Acceleration of ripening-related host cell wall disassembly during Botrytis cinerea infections of unripe tomato fruit
Blanco Ulate, Barbara ; Cantu, D. ; Vincenti, E. ; Kan, J.A.L. van; Hahn, M. ; Labavitch, J.M. ; Powell, A.L.T. - \ 2016
- p. 51 - 52.
The ripening of tomato fruit is an example of a developmental transition that coincides with increased susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea. Ripening processes that promote susceptibility include softening-associated disassembly of the fruit host cell wall polysaccharide
networks, modulation of the fruit’s synthesis and perception of plant hormones, accumulation of organic acids and losses of preformed or induced defense responses. As an opportunistic pathogen, B. cinerea modifies its infection strategy to take into account the ripening stage of the host. The diverse and versatile infection mechanisms that B. cinerea deploys on fruit help to define processes that the pathogen may use to hasten fruit susceptibility but also demonstrate that B. cinerea takes advantage of opportune ripening events that render its host vulnerable to aggressive infections. B. cinerea utilizes a large repertoire of enzymes that degrade multiple components of the cell walls of
unripe tomato fruit. However, fruit susceptibility to B. cinerea not only depends on the array of enzymes secreted by the pathogen during infection, but also on modifications that alter the fruit cell wall as part of ripening. We have determined that B. cinerea induces the expression of tomato genes
coding for cell wall degrading proteins that enhance the deconstruction and softening of the fruit tissues. Tomato and B. cinerea genes coding for pectin degrading enzymes are expressed more in infected unripe fruit than in infected ripe fruit. Glycome profiling of cell walls from B. cinerea-infected
and healthy tomato fruit identified changes in the composition and structure of the wall caused by infections that are associated with fungal infections and the normal ripening process. Specific classes of cell wall polysaccharides that are depolymerized by B. cinerea during tomato fruit infections include
the backbones and side-chains of homoglacturonan pectins. We detected significant correlations between the modifications in the fruit cell walls that occurred during B. cinerea infections of unripe fruit and those that occurred as a result of uninfected fruit ripening. Fruit susceptibility assays using B. cinerea knockout mutants of pectin degrading enzymes validated the role of particular enzymes during interactions between tomato fruit and B. cinerea.
The influence of household farming systems on dietary diversity and caloric intake: The case of Uganda
Linderhof, Vincent ; Powell, Jeffrey ; Vignes, Romain ; Ruben, R. - \ 2016
The influence of household farming systems on dietary diversity and caloric intake: the case of Uganda
Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Powell, J.P. ; Vignes, Romain ; Ruben, R. - \ 2016
- 16 p.
Nutrition diversity - Production diversity - Uganda - LSMS - Econometrics
The relationship between farm production diversity at the plot level and diversity of household consumption and caloric intake are econometrically estimated. Our results confirm previous findings that an increase in production diversity increases consumption diversity and thereby, presumably, household nutritional levels. In addition, we find a positive relationship between diversity of farm production and caloric intake. Three waves of the World Bank LSMS-ISA database for Uganda were used to create a panel data set. Fixed effects models were estimated. Preliminary results indicate that households that produce a greater diversity of crops, have higher food expenditures, have larger farms, and consume more from their own production have higher nutrition diversity and caloric intake. Policy implications are that strategies aimed at increasing household production diversity may have positive effects on household nutritional levels and caloric intake.
Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields
Powell, J.P. ; Reinhard, S. - \ 2016
Weather and Climate Extremes 12 (2016). - ISSN 2212-0947 - p. 69 - 79.
Extreme climate events - Netherlands - Panel data - Wheat yields
Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects are best measured at a local level. This paper analyzes weather events at the level of the farm for a specific crop, winter wheat. Once it has been established that extreme events are expected to continue occurring at historically high levels for farming locations throughout the Netherlands, the effects of those events on wheat yields are estimated while controlling for the other major input factors affecting yields. Econometric techniques are applied to an unbalanced panel data set of 334 farms for a period of up to 12 years. Analyzes show that the number of days with extreme high temperatures in Dutch wheat growing regions has significantly increased since the early 1900s, while the number of extreme low temperature events has fallen over that same period. The effects of weather events on wheat yields were found to be time specific in that the week in which an event occurred determined its effect on yields. High temperature events and precipitation events were found to significantly decrease yields.