Elucidating transmission patterns of endemic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using molecular epidemiology
Mitchell, Rebecca M. ; Beaver, Annabelle ; Knupfer, Elena ; Pradhan, Abani K. ; Fyock, Terry ; Whitlock, Robert H. ; Schukken, Ynte H. - \ 2019
Veterinary Sciences 6 (2019)1. - ISSN 2306-7381
MLSSR typing - Mutation rate - Mycobacterial co-infections - Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) - Vertical transmission - Within-host evolution
Mycobacterial diseases are persistent and characterized by lengthy latent periods. Thus, epidemiological models require careful delineation of transmission routes. Understanding transmission routes will improve the quality and success of control programs. We aimed to study the infection dynamics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causal agent of ruminant Johne's disease, and to distinguish within-host mutation from individual transmission events in a longitudinally MAP-defined dairy herd in upstate New York. To this end, semi-annual fecal samples were obtained from a single dairy herd over the course of seven years, in addition to tissue samples from a selection of culled animals. All samples were cultured for MAP, and multi-locus short-sequence repeat (MLSSR) typing was used to determine MAP SSR types. We concluded from these precise MAP infection data that, when the tissue burden remains low, the majority of MAP infections are not detectable by routine fecal culture but will be identified when tissue culture is performed after slaughter. Additionally, we determined that in this herd vertical infection played only a minor role in MAP transmission. By means of extensive and precise longitudinal data from a single dairy herd, we have come to new insights regarding MAP co-infections and within-host evolution.
Modeling the effects of infection status and hygiene practices on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis contamination in bulk tank milk
Rani, Surabhi ; Beaver, Annabelle ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Pradhan, Abani K. - \ 2019
Food Control 104 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 367 - 376.
Bulk tank milk - Good hygiene practices - Johne's disease - Milk filters - Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis - Washing efficiency
Infectious diseases in dairy cattle are of significant concern to dairy industries because of their huge impact on animal health, milk production, and economics. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)is a pathogenic bacterium that causes Johne's disease, one of the important endemic infectious diseases in dairy cattle. Contamination of bulk tank milk with MAP can occur through direct shedding into milk by infected cows (internal route), fecal contamination (fecal route), or introduction of soil and water containing MAP (environmental route). Humans can be exposed to MAP via raw milk consumption; additionally, there are reports of MAP survival in milk after pasteurization. The risk of human consumption is particularly important due to an association between MAP and human Crohn's disease. In the current study, we used a probabilistic modeling framework to predict the level of MAP contamination per liter in the bulk tank milk and weigh the relative importance of each contamination route. Our model focused on several different infection statuses and the contribution of each group to environmental and fecal contamination, in addition to internal route shedding. We assessed the influence of common hygiene practices, such as washing of udders before milking and the use of milk filters, on the concentration of MAP in bulk tank milk. We extracted parameters and their distributions from national surveys and thorough literature search. Our baseline model comprising all hygiene practices provided an average estimate of 0.76 log CFU/L for the final concentration of MAP in bulk tank milk, with a maximum of 6.70 log CFU/L and a minimum of 0.04 log CFU/L depending on herd size and the ratio of infection statuses. Results from sensitivity analyses indicated that the average fecal contamination showed the greatest impact on the final MAP concentration per liter in bulk tank milk, followed by herd size and washing efficiency. This study emphasized that good hygiene practices are crucial for maintaining the quality of raw milk in an endemically-infected dairy herd.
Evaluation of watershed health using Fuzzy-ANP approach considering geo-environmental and topo-hydrological criteria
Alilou, Hossein ; Rahmati, Omid ; Singh, Vijay P. ; Choubin, Bahram ; Pradhan, Biswajeet ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Ghiasi, Seid Saeid ; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 232 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 22 - 36.
Analytical network process - Fuzzy theory - Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) - Soil erosion - Watershed health
Assessment of watershed health and prioritization of sub-watersheds are needed to allocate natural resources and efficiently manage watersheds. Characterization of health and spatial prioritization of sub-watersheds in data scarce regions helps better comprehend real watershed conditions and design and implement management strategies. Previous studies on the assessment of health and prioritization of sub-watersheds in ungauged regions have not considered environmental factors and their inter-relationship. In this regard, fuzzy logic theory can be employed to improve the assessment of watershed health. The present study considered a combination of climate vulnerability (Climate Water Balance), relative erosion rate of surficial rocks, slope weighted K-factor, topographic indices, thirteen morphometric characteristics (linear, areal, and relief aspects), and potential non-point source pollution to assess watershed health, using a new framework which considers the complex linkage between human activities and natural resources. The new framework, focusing on watershed health score (WHS), was employed for the spatial prioritization of 31 sub-watersheds in the Khoy watershed, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. In this framework, an analytical network process (ANP) and fuzzy theory were used to investigate the inter-relationships between the above mentioned geo-environmental factors and to classify and rank the health of each sub-watershed in four classes. Results demonstrated that only one sub-watershed (C15) fell into the class that was defined as ‘a potentially critical zone’. This article provides a new framework and practical recommendations for watershed management agencies with a high level of assurance when there is a lack of reliable hydrometric gauge data.
Potential of conservation agriculture (CA) for climate change adaptation and food security under rainfed uplands of India : A transdisciplinary approach
Pradhan, Aliza ; Chan, Catherine ; Roul, Pravat Kumar ; Halbrendt, Jacqueline ; Sipes, Brent - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 163 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 27 - 35.
Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) - Conservation agriculture (CA) - Indian tribal farmers - Maize based cropping system - Rainfed agriculture - Soil quality - Transdisciplinary approach
Rainfed agro-ecosystems, the purported grey patches untouched by the Green Revolution or most technological advances, occupy a prominent position in Indian agriculture. Cropping intensities and crop yields are low and unstable in these areas due to unpredictable patterns of rainfall, a host of biotic and abiotic stresses and adherence to traditional farm practices. This precarious food security situation is especially dangerous in the central Indian tribal belt (also known as the poverty belt) which is a typical rainfed area dominated by tribal communities. More than 90% of the tribal people are totally dependent on agriculture and produce much of what they eat. Small land holdings and their low productivity, along with uncertainties in rainfall patterns, increases economic and social risks for these farmers. With degraded soils and unreliable weather patterns, return on investment is uncertain and likely to be much lower overall than under irrigated conditions with better soils. Under such conditions, one approach to achieve improved crop production is to minimize soil and other natural resource degradation by adopting a set of crop-nutrient-water-land system management practices, such as conservation agriculture (CA). To assess the effect of introduced technology under local ecological and socio-economic conditions, the study focused on two ecosystem services: a) provisional, and b) regulatory through five treatments consisting of farmers' traditional practice (FP) which was conventional tillage with broadcast of local variety maize (Zea mays L.); and four CA treatments viz., conventional tillage with sole cropped maize using line sowing of the improved maize cultivar 'Nilesh' (CT-M); conventional tillage with maize intercropped with the improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. cultivar 'Hariyalli Bush') (CT-M + C); reduced tillage with sole cropped maize (MT-M); and reduced tillage with maize + cowpea (MT-M + C). After harvest of maize and cowpea, mustard was planted as a post rainy season crop and all the mustard plant residues were returned to their respective plots as residue cover except FP. Under provisional ecosystem services, performance of CA on crop yield, and profitability was assessed through maize equivalent yield and partial budget analysis, respectively. Results showed that reduced tillage combined with maize-cowpea intercropping (MT-M + C) followed by mustard residue retention had higher system productivity and net benefits, an increase of 200% and 230%, respectively over FP. Under regulatory ecosystem services, the soil quality was assessed through calculation of soil quality index (SQI) which was highest under MT-M + C followed by mustard residue retention and lowest under farmers' practices. In terms of CA treatment preference, 35% of the farmers indicated a strong preference for MT-M + C compared to 14% for FP. Combined, these results clearly demonstrate the potential of CA to simultaneously increase yield, diversify crop production and improve soil quality which should support a move towards sustainable intensification of crop production to improve future household income and food security. Additionally, using a transdisciplinary approach fully engaged all stakeholders in co-designing the CA treatments appropriate for the farmers and local environmental conditions leading to significant impacts on economic livelihoods, environmental sustainability and food security.
Efficiency of conservation agriculture production systems for smallholders in rain-fed uplands of India: A transformative approach to food security
Chan, Catherine ; Sipes, Brent ; Ayman, Abouzeid ; Zhang, Xu ; LaPorte, Patricia ; Fernandes, Fellipe ; Pradhan, Aliza ; Chan-Dentoni, Jacqueline ; Roul, Pravat - \ 2017
Land 6 (2017)3. - ISSN 2073-445X
Conservation agriculture cropping system - Intercrop - Maize-based system - Technical efficiency - Transdisciplinary approach - Tribal villages
With challenges from global climate change, it is imperative to enhance food production using climate-smart technologies and maximize farm efficiency. Fifty-six households in Rudhiapada and Badamahulidiha, Odisha, India were selected to evaluate farmers' efficiency using conservation agriculture (CA) cropping system practices. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and regression analysis were used to estimate farmer efficiency and the determinants of yield. Conventional tillage with the local maize cultivar was compared to reduced tillage with improved maize cultivar and maize intercropped with cowpea. Badamahulidiha outperformed Rudhiapada in yields for all cropping systems. This could be attributed to lower input use and exposure to NGO training. The current efficiency level of farmers' productivity was between 0.4 and 0.7. Inputs such as labor, seed, and fertilizers were found to be significant in increasing yield except for female labor and phosphate. This finding suggests conservation agriculture cropping system is female friendly. The conservation agriculture cropping systems improved maize yields by 60% to 70% when compared to conventional farming system. Combining conservation agriculture practices with improving efficiency of farmers in optimal use of the inputs can contribute substantially to productivity, thus enhancing food security and nutrition in the face of climate change in India and other tropical areas.
Strengthening Landscape Governance Capacities in Bhutan : Worksop Report, UWICE-Bumthang, Bhutan, 13–19 March, 2017
Oosten, C.J. van; Dorji, Tashi ; Rathore, Brij ; Pradhan, Nawraj ; Choigey, Tenzin - \ 2017
Kathmandu : International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development - 21
The Impact of Social and Financial Education on Savings Attitudes and Behavior Among Primary School Children in Uganda
Supanantaroek, Suthinee ; Lensink, Robert ; Hansen, Nina - \ 2017
Evaluation Review 41 (2017)6. - ISSN 0193-841X - p. 511 - 541.
attitudes - children - financial literacy - intervention - saving and spending - social and financial education - training
Background: Saving plays a crucial role in the process of economic growth. However, one main reason why poor people often do not save is that they lack financial knowledge. Improving the savings culture of children through financial education is a promising way to develop savings attitudes and behavior early in life. Objectives: This study is one of the first that examines the effects of social and financial education training and a children’s club developed by Aflatoun on savings attitudes and behavior among primary school children in Uganda, besides Berry, Karlan, and Pradhan. Research design: A randomized phase in approach was used by randomizing the order in which schools implemented the program (school-level randomization). The treatment group consisted of students in schools where the program was implemented, while in the control group the program was not yet implemented. The program lasted 3 months including 16 hours. We compared posttreatment variables for the treatment and control group. Subjects: Study participants included 1,746 students, of which 936 students were from 22 schools that were randomly assigned to receive the program between May and July 2011; the remaining 810 students attended 22 schools that did not implement the program during the study period. Measures: Indicators for children’s savings attitudes and behavior were key outcomes. Results: The intervention increased awareness of money, money recording, and savings attitudes. It also provides some evidence—although less robust—that the intervention increased actual savings. Conclusions: A short financial literacy and social training can improve savings attitudes and behavior of children considerably.
Impact of the shedding level on transmission of persistent infections in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)
Slater, Noa ; Mitchell, Rebecca Mans ; Whitlock, Robert H. ; Fyock, Terry ; Pradhan, Abani Kumar ; Knupfer, Elena ; Schukken, Ynte Hein ; Louzoun, Yoram - \ 2016
Veterinary Research 47 (2016)1. - ISSN 0928-4249
Super-shedders are infectious individuals that contribute a disproportionate amount of infectious pathogen load to the environment. A super-shedder host may produce up to 10 000 times more pathogens than other infectious hosts. Super-shedders have been reported for multiple human and animal diseases. If their contribution to infection dynamics was linear to the pathogen load, they would dominate infection dynamics. We here focus on quantifying the effect of super-shedders on the spread of infection in natural environments to test if such an effect actually occurs in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). We study a case where the infection dynamics and the bacterial load shed by each host at every point in time are known. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we estimate the parameters of a model with multiple transmission routes, including direct contact, indirect contact and a background infection risk. We use longitudinal data from persistent infections (MAP), where infectious individuals have a wide distribution of infectious loads, ranging upward of three orders of magnitude. We show based on these parameters that the effect of super-shedders for MAP is limited and that the effect of the individual bacterial load is limited and the relationship between bacterial load and the infectiousness is highly concave. A 1000-fold increase in the bacterial contribution is equivalent to up to a 2-3 fold increase in infectiousness.
Country report ETHIOPIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS
Lensink, R. ; Asenso-Okyere, K. ; Bahiigwa, G. ; Cao, E. De; Eriksen, S. ; Jemaneh, S. ; Gutu, T. ; Hansen, N. ; Lutz, C. ; Tadesse, G. ; Tefera, W. ; Yirga, C. ; Zerfu, E. ; Berg, M. van der; Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Hofstede, M. ; Ingen, T. van; Getew, H. ; Tigabu, A. ; Babu, S. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Bulte, E. ; Pradhan, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Rapporten ) - 1978
This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (covering the eight country studies); and - A report with the results of the international lobbying and advocacy programmes. This series of reports assessed the 2011-2015 contribution of the Dutch Co-Financing System (MFS II) towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, strengthening international civil society, setting the international agenda and changing decision-makers’ policy and practice, with the ultimate goal of reducing structural poverty. On July 2nd, 2015, the reports were approved by the independent steering committee (see below), which concluded that they meet the quality standards of validity, reliability and usefulness set by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Country report INDIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS
Lensink, R. ; Bedi, A. ; Gangopadhyay, S. ; Ghosh, N. ; Goderis, B. ; Kumar Yadav, B. ; Meesters, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. ; Rao Sahib, P. ; Sethi, S. ; Sharma, P. ; Srinivasan, S. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Pandey, R. ; Madaan, A. ; Kalra, A. ; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Bhargava, S. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Kishore Das, A. ; Wilson Bhatra, R. ; Sen, P. ; Bulte, E. ; Pradhan, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Rapporten ) - 1860
This report on India is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (covering the eight country studies); and - A report with the results of the international lobbying and advocacy programmes. This series of reports assessed the 2011-2015 contribution of the Dutch Co-Financing System (MFS II) towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, strengthening international civil society, setting the international agenda and changing decision-makers’ policy and practice, with the ultimate goal of reducing structural poverty. On July 2nd, 2015, the reports were approved by the independent steering committee (see below), which concluded that they meet the quality standards of validity, reliability and usefulness set by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Country report INDONESIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS
Klaver, D.C. ; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Pradhan, M. ; Vigh, M. ; Groot Bruinderink, M. ; Rossum, I. van; Böhnke, L. ; Wallaart, K. ; Malamas, S. ; Berkhout, E. ; Ni Wayan Suriasatini, ; Sikoki, B. ; Ginting, M.B. ; Mulia, M. ; Ningsih, K. ; Pujiastuti, S. ; Dwi Andari, B. ; Suprobo, N. ; Priyahita, W. ; Sihombing, R.R. ; Rokhmatulloh, S.W. ; Rosita, I. ; Wieriks, M. ; Smidt, H. ; Nugroho, K. ; Prasetyo, K. ; Larastiti, C. ; Amir, S. ; Sutikno, - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten )
This report on Indonesia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - a synthesis report (covering the eight country studies); and - a report with the results of the international lobbying and advocacy programmes. This series of reports assessed the 2011-2015 contribution of the Dutch Co-Financing System (MFS II) towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, strengthening international civil society, setting the international agenda and changing decision-makers’ policy and practice, with the ultimate goal of reducing structural poverty. On July 2nd, 2015, the reports were approved by the independent steering committee (see below), which concluded that they meet the quality standards of validity, reliability and usefulness set by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Self-identification of indigenous people in post-independence Indonesia: a historical analysis in the context of REDD+
Royer, S. De; Visser, L.E. ; Galudra, G. ; Pradhan, U. ; Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2015
International Forestry Review 17 (2015)3. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 282 - 297.
The reform era around the turn of the century in Indonesia has been followed by a revitalization of local claims to political authority and natural resources on the basis of adat and indigeneity. In May of 2013, the Constitutional Court acknowledged indigenous ownership of forest territories and declassified them from State-owned forest zones without further conceptualizing the notion of indigeneity and its relation to land tenure and territorial conflicts. Drawing on a historical review of the adat discourse, this paper demonstrates how Dutch scholars during the colonial time have supported a definition of indigeneity based on territorialisation. Using a case study from the interior of Kalimantan, we provide evidence that privileging indigenous communities based on the notion of territoriality and prior occupation of the land, supported by a colonial definition of adat rights tends to exclude right-holders who do not necessarily fit clear territorial niches. This administrative practice of essentializing the social structuring of the landscape matches the requirements used in the context of REDD+ but ignores the fact that social and territorial boundaries of ethnic groups are permeable and dynamic due to social-political interactions which create contention and conflict especially in the context of the recent introduction of carbon rights and benefit sharing under the context of REDD+.
Masculinities: a scale challenge in Irrigation Governance in Nepal
Liebrand, J. - \ 2010
In: Dynamics of Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems: Socio-Institutional, economic and technical contexts. - Kathmandu : FMIS Promition Trust - ISBN 9789937228725 - p. 53 - 72.
Feeding ecology of two endangered sympatric megaherbivores: Asian elephant Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in lowland Nepal
Pradhan, N.M.B. ; Wegge, P. ; Moe, S.R. ; Shrestha, A.K. - \ 2008
Wildlife Biology 14 (2008)1. - ISSN 0909-6396 - p. 147 - 154.
microhistological analysis - african elephants - wildlife-reserve - diets - behavior - ruminant - range - feces
We studied the diets of low-density but increasing populations of sympatric Asian elephants Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in the Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. A microhistological technique based on faecal material was used to estimate the seasonal diet composition of the two megaherbivores. Rhinos ate more grass than browse in all seasons, and their grass/browse ratio was significantly higher than that of elephants. Both species ate more browse in the dry season, with bark constituting an estimated 73% of the elephant diet in the cool part of that season. Diet overlap was high in the resource-rich monsoon season and lower in the resource-poor dry season, indicating partitioning of food between the two species in the period of resource limitation. Both species consumed large amounts of the floodplain grass Saccharum spontaneum, particularly during the monsoon season. As the numbers of both species increase, intraspecific and interspecific competition for S. spontaneum in the limited floodplains is likely to occur. Owing to their higher grass diet and more restricted all-year home ranges within the floodplain habitat complex, rhinos are then expected to be affected more than elephants.
|Historical Analysis of Water Flows in the Rio Dulce Catchment
Ertsen, M.W. ; Prieto, D. ; Pradhan, T.M.S. ; Angella, G. - \ 2005
In: Water Resources Management III / de Conçeicao Cunha, M., Brebbia, C.A., Southhampton : WIT Press - ISBN 9781845640071 - p. 569 - 579.
|FMIS and Governance, Challenges and Opportunities: Evidences from India and Nepal
Nikku, B.R. ; Udas, P.B. - \ 2005
In: Proceedings of the third International Seminar, Farmer managed irrigation systems and governance alternatives, 9 - 10 September, 2004, Kathmandou, Nepal. - Kathmandu, Nepal : Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems Promotion Trust - ISBN 9789994634422 - p. 241 - 251.
|Leadership and Turnover: The Contradicitons of Irrigation Management Reform in the People's Republic of China
Mollinga, P.P. ; Hong, G. ; Bhatia, A.M. - \ 2005
In: Asian Irrigation in Transition. Responding to Challenges / Shivakoti, G.P, Vermillion, D.L., Lam, Wai-Fung, Ostrom, E., Pradhan, U., Yoder, R., New Delhi : SAGE Publications - ISBN 9780761933502 - p. 310 - 345.
|Technology, groundwater and water rights: a preamble to water-extracting devices in the Kathmandu valley
Regmi, A. - \ 2003
In: Legal pluralism and unofficial law in social, economic and political development: papers of the XIIIth international congress on folk law and legal pluralism, Chiang Mai, Thailand, April 7-10, 2002. Volume 2. - Kathmandu : ICNEC - p. 267 - 294.
|Gender, Policy and Irrigation: The Case of Tukucha Nala Irrigation System, Central Nepal
Udas, P.B. - \ 2003
In: Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law in Social, Economic and Political Development, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2002 / Rajendra Pradhan Kathmandu : ICNEC - p. 353 - 372.
|Panel Discussion on Future Directions for FMIS
Vincent, L.F. - \ 2002
In: Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems in the Changed Context / Pradhan, P., Gautam, U., Nepal : Farmer Managed Irrigation Syst. Promotion Trust - ISBN 9789993332831 - p. 428 - 431.