The Native Oyster Restoration Alliance (NORA) and the Berlin Oyster Recommendation: bringing back a key ecosystem engineer by developing and supporting best practice in Europe
Pogoda, Bernadette ; Brown, Janet ; Hancock, Boze ; Preston, Joanne ; Pouvreau, Stephane ; Kamermans, Pauline ; Sanderson, William ; Nordheim, Henning von - \ 2019
Aquatic Living Resources 32 (2019). - ISSN 0990-7440 - 9 p.
Ostrea edulis - Berlin oyster recommendation - biogenic reef - ecosystem service - biodiversity
Efforts to restore the native oyster Ostrea edulis and its associated habitats are gaining momentum across Europe. Several projects are currently running or being planned. To maximize the success of these, it is crucial to draw on existing knowledge and experience in order to design, plan and implement
restoration activities in a sustainable and constructive approach. For the development of best practice recommendations and to promote multidimensional knowledge and technology exchange, the Native Oyster
Restoration Alliance (NORA) was formed by partners from science, technology, nature conservation, consultancies, commercial producers and policy-makers. The NORA network will enhance scientific and practical progress in flat oyster restoration, such as in project planning and permitting, seed oyster production, disease management and monitoring. It also focuses on joint funding opportunities and the potential development of national and international regulatory frameworks. The main motivation behind NORA is to facilitate the restoration of native oyster habitat within its historic biogeographic range in the
North Sea and other European seas along with the associated ecosystem services; services such as enhancing biodiversity, including enhanced fish stocks, nutrient cycling and sediment stabilization. NORA members agreed on a set of joint recommendations and strongly advise that any restoration measure should respect and apply these recommendations: The Berlin Oyster Recommendation is presented here. It will help guide the development of the field by developing and applying best practice accordingly. NORA also aims to
combine the outreach activities of local projects for improved community support and awareness and to provide educational material to increase knowledge of the key ecological role of this species and increase awareness among regulators, permit providers and stakeholders. A synthesis of O. edulis restoration efforts in Europe is provided and underlines the general significance in the field.
Adaptation policy at supranational level? Evidence from the European Union
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2019
In: Research Handbook on Climate Change Adaptation Policy / Keskitalo, E.C.H., Preston, B.L., Edward Elgar Publishing (Social and Political Science 2019 ) - ISBN 9781786432513 - p. 194 - 211.
The European Union (EU) is a supranational entity for which climate change adaptation has become an important policy topic. This chapter seeks to address the question of how the EU currently governs climate change adaptation. The authors show how the open method of coordination as governing logic offers the possibility for the European Commission to mainstream climate change adaptation considerations through the acquiscommunautaire. Moreover, this approach also offers the Commission the possibility to stimulate the exchange of best practices, setting up new policy, practice and knowledge networks, involving non-governmental organizations and the private sector in adaptation, and to facilitate coordination and cooperation between member states and regions. Beyond these mostly procedural policy tools, however, the EU has very limited power to force member states to start adapting. The authors reflect on what these insights from the EU mean for governing climate change adaptation at the supranational level in general.
Visions for nature and nature’s contributions to people for the 21st century : Report from an IPBES visioning workshop held on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand
Lundquist, Carolyn J. ; Pereira, H.M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Belder, E. den; Carvalho Ribeiro, Sonja ; Davies, Kate ; Greenaway, Alison ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Kim, H. ; Lazarova, Tanya ; Pereira, Laura ; Peterson, G. ; Ravera, Federica ; Brink, Thelma van den; Argumedo, Alejandro ; Arida, Clarissa ; Armenteras, Dolors ; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle ; Baptiste, Brigitte ; Belanger, Julie ; Bingham, Kelly ; Bowden-Kerby, Austin ; Cao, Mingchang ; Nettleton-Carino, Jocelyn ; Damme, Paul Andre Van; Devivo, R. ; Dickson, Fiona ; Dushimumuremyi, Jean Paul ; Ferrier, S. ; Flores-Díaz, Adriana ; Foley, Melissa ; Garcia Marquez, Jaime ; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina ; Greenhalgh, Suzie ; Hamilton, D.J. ; Hardison, Preston ; Hicks, Geoff ; Hughey, Ken ; Kahui-McConnell, Richelle ; Wangechi Karuri-Sebina, Geci ; Kock, M. de; Leadley, Paul ; Lemaitre, Frederic ; Maltseva, Elina ; Mattos Scaramuzza, Carlos A. de; Metwaly, Mona ; Nelson, W. ; Ngo, Hien ; Neumann, Christian ; Norrie, Craig ; Perry, Joanne ; Quintana, Rodrigo ; Rodriguez Osuna, Vanesa Eliana ; Röhrl, Richard ; Seager, J. ; Sharpe, Helen ; Shortland, Tui ; Shulbaeva, Polina ; Rashid Sumaila, U. ; Takahashi, Yasuo ; Titeux, Titeux ; Tiwari, Sunandan ; Trisos, Christopher ; Ursache, Andrei ; Wheatley, Amanda ; Wilson, David ; Wood, S. ; Wyk, Ernita van; Yue, Tian Xiang ; Zulfikar, Dina - \ 2017
NIWA Science and Technology (NIWA Science and Technology Series 83) - ISBN 9780473426101 - 123 p.
Existing scenarios of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) have important limitations and gaps that constrain their usefulness for the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Specifically, they fail to incorporate policy objectives related to nature conservation and social-ecological feedbacks, they do not address the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem services, and they are typically relevant at only a particular spatial scale. In addition, nature and its benefits are treated as the consequence of human decisions, but are not at the centre of the analysis. To address these issues, the IPBES Scenarios and Models Expert Group initiated the development of a set of Multiscale Scenarios for Nature Futures based on positive visions for human relationships with nature.
The first step of this process was a visioning workshop with stakeholders and experts on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 73 participants from inter-governmental organisations, national government organisations, non-governmental organisations, academia and the private sector, from 31 countries, and with a range of sectoral expertise on biodiversity topics, from urban development to agriculture to fisheries, worked together in a visioning exercise. This report documents the results from this visioning workshop to inform further stakeholder consultation and the development of the associated multiscale scenarios by modelers and experts.
This creative visioning exercise was carried out in four steps based on a suite of participatory methods that were used to develop visions of alternative futures. First the participants identified important themes to develop the visions. Next, thematic groups identified the main trends for BES in each theme and a set of “Seeds” of emerging initiatives leading to positive futures for our relationship with nature. Implications of what would happen across a range of sectors were identified for each seed. Then a pathway analysis of how the current regime in each theme may be transformed into the future desirable regime was carried
out. Narratives were then built for the visions emerging from each group. Finally, commonalities of visions across the groups were identified, and the regional relevance of each vision for different parts of the world was assessed.
|Scenarios thinking for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Region
Lovecraft, A.L. ; Preston, B.L. ; Absar, S.M. ; Blair, Berill ; Cost, D. ; Ernst, K.M. ; Fresco, N. ; Hillmer-Pegram, K. ; Hum, R. ; Lee, O. ; Machavariani, G. ; Wesche, S. - \ 2017
In: Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic Oslo : - ISBN 9788279711032 - p. 217 - 238.
A number of biophysical and socio-economic drivers will have a significant influence on future vulnerability, risk, resilience, and adaptation planning in the Bering-Chuckchi-Beaufort (BCB) region ( Chapters 4-7). The trajectories of some of those drivers are amenable to modeling, forecasting, or projection. However, the future is inherently uncertain, particularly over long time horizons. Scenarios have been used for over 50 years as a tool for exploring such uncertainty in order to identify key driving forces and critical unknowns, as well as to generate shared understanding among stakeholders regarding the potential for, and implications of, alternative futures (van Notten et al., 2003; Bishop et al., 2007; Avango et al., 2013). This chapter provides a general overview of scenarios and their value for understanding the implications of a changing climate within the broader context of global change. The chapter includes a review of how scenarios have been used previously to understand climate change vulnerability, risk, and resilience, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic. It also introduces a new series of qualitative regional and subregional socioeconomic scenarios for the BCB region, peering into the future to 2050, and discusses their implications for climate change impacts as well as adaptation planning and implementation.
|Campylobacter spp. strain choice and food matrix strongly affect LDO50 results
Hazeleger, W.C. ; Jongenburger, I. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Besten, H.M.W. den - \ 2017
- p. 69 - 69.
Introduction: Campylobacteriosis is the most comm-only reported zoonosis in the EU and the occurrence of Campylobacter in broiler meat remains high. The detection in food may be hampered due to abundant growth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae during enrichment, resulting in false-negative samples. Therefore, the ISO protocol (ISO-DIS 10272-1; 2015) was revised to include, next to Bolton Broth (BB), Preston Broth (PB) as a prescribed enrichment broth to inhibit competitive flora in samples with suspected high levels of ESBLs. An Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) was performed to validate this protocol, using four food matrices and chicken caecal material.
Purpose: The ILS validation included one different strain per food matrix; therefore, in the current study, enrichment procedures were carried out with all strains used in the ILS in each food matrix.
Methods: Enrichment procedures according to the ISO protocol were conducted using spinach, minced meat, raw milk, and chicken skin. Each matrix was inoculated with a different strain of Campylobacter jejuni (3 strains) or Campylobacter coli (2 stains).
Results were expressed as LOD50 (Level of Detection), which is the concentration at which the probability of detection is 50%.
Results: The LOD50 for all strains tested in spinach was approximately 0.7 CFU/sample, which complies with the ILS results. Results for the other food products, however, showed a large variation in the LOD50, with statistically significant differences between food products and between strains in raw milk and minced meat.
Significance: When a laboratory is validating the ISO method, care should be taken to extrapolate the ILS results to other Campylobacter spp. strains. One of the strains used in the ILS (C. jejuni WDCM 00156) is not the best choice to use as the reference strain.
Flexibility but no coordination of visits in provisioning riflemen
Khwaja, Nyil ; Preston, Stephanie A.J. ; Hatchwell, Ben J. ; Briskie, James V. ; Winney, Isabel S. ; Savage, James L. - \ 2017
Animal Behaviour 125 (2017). - ISSN 0003-3472 - p. 25 - 31.
Parental care strategies occupy a continuum from fixed investments that are consistent across contexts to flexible behaviour that largely depends on external social and environmental cues. Determining the flexibility of care behaviour is important, as it influences the outcome of investment games between multiple individuals caring for the same brood. We investigated the repeatability of provisioning behaviour and the potential for turn taking among breeders and helpers in a cooperatively breeding bird, the rifleman, Acanthisitta chloris. First, we examined whether nest visit rate is an accurate measure of investment by assessing whether carers consistently bring the same size of food, and whether food size is related to nest visit rate. Our results support the use of visit rate as a valid indicator of parental investment. Next, we calculated the repeatability of visit rate and food size to determine whether these behaviours are fixed individual traits or flexible responses to particular contexts. We found that riflemen were flexible in visit rate, supporting responsive models of care over ‘sealed bids’. Finally, we used runs tests to assess whether individual riflemen alternated visits with other carers, indicative of turn taking. We found little evidence of any such coordination of parental provisioning. We conclude that individual flexibility in parental care appears to arise through factors such as breeding status and brood demand, rather than as a real-time response to social partners.
Quantification of Growth of Campylobacter and Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Bacteria Sheds Light on Black Box of Enrichment Procedures
Hazeleger, Wilma C. ; Jacobs-reitsma, Wilma F. ; Besten, Heidy M.W. den - \ 2016
Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016). - ISSN 1664-302X - 9 p.
Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, and is routinely found in meat originating from poultry, sheep, pigs, and cattle. Effective monitoring of Campylobacter contamination is dependent on the availability of reliable detection methods. The method of the International Organization for Standardization for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in food (ISO 10272-1:2006) recommends the use of Bolton broth (BB) as selective enrichment medium, including a pre-enrichment step of 4–6 h at 37°C to revive sublethally damaged cells prior to incubation for 2 days at 41.5°C. Recently the presence of abundantly growing extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL bacteria) has become one of the most important factors that interfere with the isolation of Campylobacter, resulting in false-negative detection. However, detailed growth dynamics of Campylobacter and its competitors remain unclear, where these would provide a solid base for further improvement of the enrichment procedure for Campylobacter. Other enrichment broths, such as Preston broth (PB) and BB plus clavulanic acid (BBc) have been suggested to inhibit competitive flora. Therefore, these different broths were used as enrichments to measure the growth kinetics of several strains of Campylobacter jejuni and ESBL bacteria separately, in co-culture and of strains in chicken samples. The maximum cell numbers and often the growth rates of Campylobacter in mixed culture with ESBL bacteria were significantly lower than in single cultures, indicating severe suppression of Campylobacter by ESBL bacteria, also in naturally contaminated samples. PB and BBc successfully diminished ESBL bacteria and might therefore be a better choice as enrichment medium in possibly ESBL-bacteria contaminated samples. The efficacy of a pre-enrichment step in the BB ISO-procedure was not supported for cold-stressed and non-stressed cells. Therefore, omission of this step (4–6 h at 37°C) might be advised to obtain a less troublesome protocol.
|LOD50 is dependent on choice of Campylobacter strain and food matrix
Hazeleger, W.C. ; Veljkovic Cvoric, L. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Besten, H.M.W. den - \ 2015
- p. 81 - 81.
Due to abundant growth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae during enrichment it is hard to isolate and recognize Campylobacter colonies on mCCDA. Therefore, in the current revision of the ISO protocol (ISO 10272-1), next to Bolton Broth (BB), Preston broth (PB) is suggested as enrichment broth to inhibit competitive fl ora in samples where high levels of background fl ora such as ESBLs are suspected.
To validate this revised ISO 10272-1, an Inter Laboratory Study (ILS) was performed where diff erent matrices were used in the enrichment procedures: frozen spinach, minced meat, raw milk and chicken skin. Each matrix was
inoculated with a diff erent strain of C. jejuni or C. coli and the results were expressed as LOD50 (Level of Detection) which is the lowest contamination level that can be detected with a probability of 50%. Since diff erent strains
were used for each matrix, results of the ILS are possibly infl uenced by the strains’ characteristics. Therefore, in this study we tested the enrichment procedures for spinach, minced meat, milk and chicken skin with each of
the strains used in the ILS. The LOD50 of all strains tested in spinach was in the range of 0.7 cfu/sample which complies with the ILS-results and which is also the theoretical value. Preliminary results for the other product types, however, show a large variation of LOD50 between strains which indicates that the choice of strain will infl uence the LOD50. In conclusion care should be taken to extrapolate the ILS results to other strains.
|Preston Broth and Bolton Broth plus clavulanic acid suppress ESBLs sufficiently in Campylobacter enrichment procedures
Hazeleger, W.C. ; Zhang, J. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Besten, H.M.W. den - \ 2015
- p. 193 - 193.
The presence and increase of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in food have become important factors that interfere with the isolation of Campylobacter, resulting in false-negative detection results. The ISO-protocol for detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food and animal
feeding stuff s (ISO 10272-1, 2006) describes the use of Bolton broth (BB) which is mixed 10:1 with the food sample including a pre-enrichment step at 37°C to resuscitate sublethally damaged cells. Currently, the ISOprotocol is revised and a distinction is made between diff erent food samples, where the more selective Preston Broth (PB) is advised for samples in which high background fl ora such as ESBLs is suspected. However, detailed growth dynamics of Campylobacter and its competitors during enrichment remain unclear, while these would provide a solid base for further improvement of the enrichment procedure of ampylobacter. Therefore, growth kinetics were studied in detail using several strains of C. jejuni and ESBLs combined and separately in BB, PB and BB supplemented with clavulanic acid (BBc). Also, growth dynamics of ampylobacter and ESBLs in naturally contaminated chicken samples were evaluated. No signifi cant diff erences in growth kinetics were found using a pre-enrichment step of 4 h at 37°C compared to immediate enrichment at 41.5°C. Furthermore, the yields and often the growth rates of Campylobacter in co-culture with ESBLs were lower than in pure cultures, indicating severe suppression of Campylobacter by ESBLs. PB and BBc, however, successfully inhibited growth of ESBLs and are therefore a better choice as enrichment media for potentially ESBL-contaminated samples.
Effect of atorvastatin on C-reactive protein and benefits for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: analyses from the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Trial
Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Livingstone, S.J. ; Charlton-Menys, V. ; Betteridge, D.J. ; Hitman, G.A. ; Neil, H.A.W. ; Bao, W. ; DeMicco, D.A. ; Preston, G.M. ; Fuller, J.H. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Durrington, P.N. ; Colhoun, H.M. - \ 2015
Diabetologia 58 (2015)7. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 1494 - 1502.
placebo-controlled trial - acute coronary syndromes - cardiac outcomes trial - statin therapy - myocardial-infarction - on-treatment - follow-up - cholesterol - mortality - heart
Aims/hypothesis We investigated whether atorvastatin 10 mg daily lowered C-reactive protein (CRP) and whether the effects of atorvastatin on cardiovascular disease (CVD) varied by achieved levels of CRP and LDL-cholesterol. Methods CRP levels were measured at baseline and 1 year after randomisation to atorvastatin in 2,322 patients with type 2 diabetes (40–75 years, 69% males) in a secondary analysis of the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. We used Cox regression models to test the effects on subsequent CVD events (n¿=¿147) of CRP and LDL-cholesterol lowering at 1 year. Results After 1 year, the atorvastatin arm showed a net CRP lowering of 32% (95% CI -40%, -22%) compared with placebo. The CRP response was highly variable, with 45% of those on atorvastatin having no decrease in CRP (median [interquartile range, IQR] per cent change -9.8% [-57%, 115%]). The LDL-cholesterol response was less variable, with a median (IQR) within-person per cent change of -41% (-51%, -31%). Baseline CRP did not predict CVD over 3.8 years of follow-up (HRper SD log 0.89 [95% CI 0.75, 1.06]), whereas baseline LDL-cholesterol predicted CVD (HRper SD 1.21 [95% CI 1.02, 1.44]), as did on-treatment LDL-cholesterol. There was no significant difference in the reduction in CVD by atorvastatin, with above median (HR 0.57) or below median (HR 0.52) change in CRP or change in LDL-cholesterol (HR 0.61 vs 0.50). Conclusions/interpretation CRP was not a strong predictor of CVD. Statin efficacy did not vary with achieved CRP despite considerable variability in CRP response. The use of CRP as an indicator of efficacy of statin therapy on CVD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes is not supported by these data.
Research approaches and methods for evaluating the protein quality of human foods - Report of a FAO Expert Working Group
Ball, R.O. ; Elango, R. ; Sarwar Gilani, G. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Kurpad, A.V. ; Millward, J. ; Moughan, P.J. ; Preston, T. ; Tomé, D. ; Uauy, R. - \ 2015
Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - ISBN 9789251086957
Enhancing the relevance of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability research.
Ruijven, B.J. ; Levy, M. ; Agrawal, A. ; Biermann, F. ; Birkmann, J. ; Carter, T.R. ; Ebi, K.L. ; Garschagen, M. ; Jones, B. ; Jones, R. ; Kemp-Benedict, E. ; Kok, M. ; Kok, K. ; Lemos, M.C. ; Lucas, P.L. ; Orlove, B. ; Pachauri, S. ; Parris, T. ; Patwardhan, A. ; Petersen, A. ; Preston, B.L. ; Ribot, J. ; Rothman, D.S. ; Schweizer, V.J. - \ 2014
Climatic Change 122 (2014)3. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 481 - 494.
global environmental-change - emissions scenarios - spatially explicit - sres climate - land-use - assessments - 21st-century - projections - storylines - indicators
This paper discusses the role and relevance of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and the new scenarios that combine SSPs with representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability (IAV) research. It first provides an overview of uses of social–environmental scenarios in IAV studies and identifies the main shortcomings of earlier such scenarios. Second, the paper elaborates on two aspects of the SSPs and new scenarios that would improve their usefulness for IAV studies compared to earlier scenario sets: (i) enhancing their applicability while retaining coherence across spatial scales, and (ii) adding indicators of importance for projecting vulnerability. The paper therefore presents an agenda for future research, recommending that SSPs incorporate not only the standard variables of population and gross domestic product, but also indicators such as income distribution, spatial population, human health and governance.
|Growth kinetics of Campylobacter and ESBLs in selective enrichment broths
Hazeleger, W.C. ; Lu, J. ; Pinzon Bonilla, P. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Besten, H.M.W. den - \ 2013
In: Abstract book 17th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms, CHRO 2013, 15 - 19 September, 2013, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. - - p. 156 - 156.
According to the ISO-protocol for detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food and animal feeding stuffs (ISO 10272-1, 2006), Bolton broth (BB) is used which is mixed 10:1 with the food sample. After enrichment, campylobacters are isolated on mCCDA, which is often complicated, since abundantly growing Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing bacteria (ESBLs) make it hard to recognize and isolate Campylobacter colonies. Other enrichment broths, such as Preston broth (PB) and BB plus clavulanic acid (BBc) have been suggested. However, detailed growth dynamics of Campylobacter and its competitors during enrichment remain unclear, where these would provide a solid base for further improvement of the enrichment procedure of Campylobacter. With a revision of the ISO-10272-protocol at hand, we measured the growth kinetics in PB, BB and BBc of several strains of C. jejuni and ESBLs separately and in combination. Also, growth dynamics were evaluated during enrichment of naturally contaminated chicken samples. No significant difference in growth kinetics were found using a pre-enrichment step of 4 h at 37°C compared to immediate enrichment at 41.5°C. The yields and often the growth rates of Campylobacter in co-culture with ESBLs were lower than in pure cultures, indicating severe suppression of Campylobacter by ESBLs. PB and BBc successfully inhibited growth of ESBLs and are therefore a better choice as enrichment medium for possibly ESBL-contaminated samples. Therefore, the choice in the revised ISO-10272-protocol for use of PB in samples where high levels of background flora is suspected, is well supported by these experiments.
The effect of Atorvastatin therapy tumour necrosis factor- and vascular adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with no prior history of coronary heart disease
Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Charlton-Menys, V. ; Bao, W. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Colhoun, H.M. ; Betteridge, D.J. ; Durrington, P. ; Hitman, G. ; Neil, H.A.W. ; Livingstone, S.J. ; Fuller, J.H. ; DeMicco, D.A. ; Preston, G.M. - \ 2011
The British journal of diabetes and vascular disease 11 (2011)6. - ISSN 1474-6514 - p. 288 - 297.
We examined the effect of atorvastatin (and placebo) on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)a, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in patients with type 2 diabetes without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) and investigated whether adhesion molecules were associated with incident CVD. Baseline and follow-up concentrations of TNFa, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were measured in patients from the Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS). Patients had a mean age of 61 years (standard deviation = 8) and 70% were men. TNFa 2.20 pg/mL (1.82–2.86), sVCAM-1 865 ng/mL (729–1059) and sICAM-1 619 ng/mL (533–753) concentrations (median, interquartile range 25, 75%) were similar at baseline in atorvastatin (given values) and placebo groups and not significantly different at 2 years. The multivariable hazard ratios for the associations between sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 (doubling the concentration) and CVD were, 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–1.0) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.50–0.71), respectively. In conclusion atorvastatin had no significant effect on TNFa, sVCAM-1 or sICAM-1 levels in type 2 diabetic patients without a prior history of CVD compared with placebo. In addition, both sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 concentrations were associated with a decreased risk of CVD
|C-reactive Protein and Amyloid A as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes in the CARDS Study
Charlton-Menys, V. ; Colhoun, H.M. ; Betteridge, D.J. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Hitman, G. ; Neil, A. ; Livingstone, S. ; Bao, W. ; DeMicco, D.A. ; Preston, G.M. ; Fuller, J. ; Durrington, P. - \ 2009
Circulation 120 (2009)S398. - ISSN 0009-7322 - p. 823 - 823.
Background: Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (sAA) have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but information in diabetes is limited. Methods: We measured CRP and sAA (both mg/L) at baseline and after 12 months of treatment in the randomised Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), which demonstrated efficacy of 10 mg atorvastatin in the primary prevention of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes. We used results for CRP and sAA available in 87% of the CARDS patients (placebo [n=1215] and atorvastatin [n=1250]) in whom a total of 181 primary events occurred. The median duration of follow-up was 3.9 years. CRP and sAA were measured in plasma using latex particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assays with the BN Prospec® system (Dade-Behring UK Ltd). Time to first CVD event was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models using quartiles of baseline biomarker concentrations with adjustment for treatment allocation and relevant covariates. Results: At baseline, patients on placebo and atorvastatin had similar concentrations of CRP (median [interquartile range] of 1.5 [0.6 –3.6] vs. 1.3 [0.6 –3.1]) and sAA (3.0 [1.7–5.2] vs. 2.9 [1.6 – 4.9]). CRP correlated with sAA both at baseline and at 12 months (r=0.66 and r=0.65; p0.2). Patients with CVD events had a slight increase in CRP (0.1, [–0.8 –1.3]), not significantly different (p=0.13) from patients without events (0, [–0.9 –1.1]). Similar results were observed for sAA. Conclusion: CRP is reduced by atorvastatin relative to placebo. In these diabetic patients with relatively low baseline CRP, reduction in CVD events from atorvastatin treatment was seen in patients with and without elevated CRP levels.
An analysis of life expectancy and economic production using expectile frontier zones
Schnabel, S.K. ; Eilers, P.H.C. - \ 2009
Demographic Research 21 (2009). - ISSN 1435-9871 - p. 109 - 134.
cross-section analysis - changing relation - income-distribution - index numbers - mortality - health - inequality - level - efficiency - determinants
The wealth of a country is assumed to have a strong non-linear influence on the life expectancy of its inhabitants. We follow up on research by Preston and study the relationship with gross domestic product. Smooth curves for the average but also for upper frontiers are constructed by a combination of least asymmetrically weighted squares and P-splines. Guidelines are given for optimizing the amount of smoothing and the definition of frontiers. The model is applied to a large set of countries in different years. It is also used to estimate life expectancy performance for individual countries and to show how it changed over time.
|Survival of Campylobacter and Salmonella in transport medium
Hazeleger, W.C. ; Beumer, R.R. - \ 2009
In: Abstract book 15th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and related organisms CHRO2009, September 2-5, Niigata, Japan. - - p. 66 - 66.
The detection of food born pathogens in the field can be complicated, especially for Campylobacter, which is sensitive to drying and high oxygen concentrations. Besides, time for transport of the samples to the laboratory may take several hours to days. Swabs tubes are on the market, consisting of a dry swab with a specific gel medium which facilitates survival of micro-organisms during transport. In this study, the performance of transport swabs was tested with Campylobacter and Salmonella in pure cultures and artificially contaminated fecal samples of chickens and bats. Appropriate dilutions of C. jejuni, C. lari and S. livingstone were sampled (100 µl) with Transystem Amies medium (Copan Diagnostics Inc., 108.USE) transport swabs to reach inoculation levels of 105, 102, 10 and 1 CFU per transport tube. For fecal samples, similar dilutions of the pathogens were added to 10% fecal matter of chickens and bats. The tubes were examined within one hour and 1,2,3 and 7 days after storage at 7°C. Campylobacter was isolated using Bolton Broth, Preston Broth and CCDA; Salmonella was cultured on BPW, MSRV and BGA/XLD. The pathogens were simply recovered from pure culture samples, up to 7 days of storage at inoculation levels as low as 10-102 CFU/tube. Similar results were obtained with fecal matter samples except for chicken feces: due to large amounts of contaminating flora, Campylobacter could only be isolated until 3 days of storage at low contamination levels of 10 CFU/tube whereas levels normally present in contaminated chickens (=105/g), were readily detected. In conclusion, the tested transport swabs perform well and Campylobacter and Salmonella are easily isolated both in pure cultures and in fecal matter, at levels normally present in fecal samples even after 7 days of storage at 7°C.
Life of microbes that interact with plants
Segura, A. ; Wit, P. de; Preston, G.M. - \ 2009
Microbial Biotechnology 2 (2009)4. - ISSN 1751-7907 - p. 412 - 415.
Atmospheric nitrogen pollution impacts on biodiversity: Phase 1 - Model development and testing (CR0289)
Smart, S. ; Evans, C. ; Rowe, E. ; Wamelink, W. ; Wright, S. ; Scott, A. ; Roy, D. ; Preston, C. ; Hill, M. ; Rothery, P. ; Bullock, J. ; Moy, I. ; Emmet, B. ; Maskell, L. - \ 2005
Peterborough (UK) : JNCC - 127 p.
|Formulating assessment questions
Norton, S.B. ; Boon, P.J. ; Gerould, S. ; Hall, T.J. ; Lubinski, K. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2004
In: Ecological assessment of aquatic resources: linking science to decision-making. - Pensacolo FL (USA) [etc.] : SETAC - ISBN 9781880611562 - p. 13 - 37.