Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mixing has limited impacts on the foliar nutrition of European beech and Scots pine trees across Europe
    Streel, Géraud de; Ammer, Christian ; Annighöfer, Peter ; Barbeito, Ignacio ; Bielak, Kamil ; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Buraczyk, Włodzimierz ; Collet, Catherine ; Hurt, Vaclav ; Kurylyak, Viktor ; Ouden, Jan den; Pach, Maciej ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Skrzyszewski, Jerzy ; Sramek, Vit ; Stankevičiūtė, Jolanta ; Strelcova, Katarina ; Svoboda, Miroslav ; Verheyen, Kris ; Zlatanov, Tzvetan ; Ponette, Quentin - \ 2020
    Forest Ecology and Management 479 (2020). - ISSN 0378-1127
    Complementarity - Fagus sylvatica L. - Foliar nutrition - Pinus sylvestris L. - Species mixture

    Tree species-mixing has been suggested as one option to counteract the adverse effects of global change on tree mineral nutrition, yet the effect of mixing on nutrient availability remains poorly documented. We therefore analyzed the current foliar nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) quantities and ilr balances (isometric log transformed ratios between elements or groups of elements) for 261 European beech and 248 Scots pine trees from 15 sites, each consisting of one beech-pine mixed stand and the respective monocultures, across a gradient of environmental conditions in Europe. We hypothesized an overall positive effect of mixing on tree foliar nutrient content, and that this mixing effect would be stronger on nutrient-poor sites. Using linear mixed models and multivariate linear regression models, we first tested for the effects of species (beech/pine) and composition (pure/mixed) across all sites; we then investigated whether the species-mixing effect was related to site fertility. The nutrient composition of beech leaves and pine needles differed significantly for all ilr balances. For both species, significant mixing effects were detected for some nutrients and ilr balances; those effects, however, could not be consistently related to contrasted nutrient composition between species. For most nutrients and ilr balances, the mixing effect was influenced by the site nutritional status, but the pattern differed from expectation: absence or minor differences between monocultures and mixtures at the lower end of the chemical fertility gradient, and maximum differences in rich soils. The contrasting foliar nutrient composition of pine and beech trees and the site nutrient status only partly explained the mixing effects on tree mineral nutrition. Our results claim for a better understanding of nutrient-related mechanisms associated with complementarity and points towards the need to further expand the existing frameworks to account for the multivariate nature of tree nutrition.

    Late-spring frost risk between 1959 and 2017 decreased in North America but increased in Europe and Asia
    Zohner, Constantin M. ; Mo, Lidong ; Renner, Susanne S. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Vitasse, Yann ; Benito, Blas M. ; Ordonez, Alejandro ; Baumgarten, Frederik ; Bastin, Jean François ; Sebald, Veronica ; Reich, Peter B. ; Liang, Jingjing ; Nabuurs, Gert Jan ; De-Migueln, Sergio ; Alberti, Giorgio ; Antón-Fernández, Clara ; Balazy, Radomir ; Brändli, Urs Beat ; Chen, Han Y.H. ; Chisholm, Chelsea ; Cienciala, Emil ; Dayanandan, Selvadurai ; Fayle, Tom M. ; Frizzera, Lorenzo ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M. ; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan ; Jucker, Tommaso ; Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian ; Khan, Mohammed Latif ; Kim, Hyun Seok ; Korjus, Henn ; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist ; Laarmann, Diana ; Langn, Mait ; Zawila-Niedzwiecki, Tomasz ; Niklaus, Pascal A. ; Paquette, Alain ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Saikia, Purabi ; Schall, Peter ; Seben, Vladimír ; Svoboda, Miroslav ; Tikhonova, Elena ; Viana, Helder ; Zhang, Chunyu ; Zhao, Xiuhai ; Crowther, Thomas W. - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)22. - ISSN 0027-8424
    Climate change - Freezing damage - Late frost - Phenology - Spring leaf-out

    Late-spring frosts (LSFs) affect the performance of plants and animals across the world's temperate and boreal zones, but despite their ecological and economic impact on agriculture and forestry, the geographic distribution and evolutionary impact of these frost events are poorly understood. Here, we analyze LSFs between 1959 and 2017 and the resistance strategies of Northern Hemisphere woody species to infer trees' adaptations for minimizing frost damage to their leaves and to forecast forest vulnerability under the ongoing changes in frost frequencies. Trait values on leaf-out and leaf-freezing resistance come from up to 1,500 temperate and boreal woody species cultivated in common gardens. We find that areas in which LSFs are common, such as eastern North America, harbor tree species with cautious (late-leafing) leaf-out strategies. Areas in which LSFs used to be unlikely, such as broad-leaved forests and shrublands in Europe and Asia, instead harbor opportunistic tree species (quickly reacting to warming air temperatures). LSFs in the latter regions are currently increasing, and given species' innate resistance strategies, we estimate that ∼35% of the European and ∼26% of the Asian temperate forest area, but only ∼10% of the North American, will experience increasing late-frost damage in the future. Our findings reveal region-specific changes in the spring-frost risk that can inform decision-making in land management, forestry, agriculture, and insurance policy.

    Modelling approaches for mixed forests dynamics prognosis. Research gaps and opportunities
    Bravo, Felipe ; Fabrika, Marek ; Ammer, Christian ; Barreiro, Susana ; Bielak, Kamil ; Coll, Lluis ; Fonseca, Teresa ; Kangur, Ahto ; Löf, Magnus ; Merganičová, Katarina ; Pach, Maciej ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Stojanović, Dejan ; Schuler, Laura ; Peric, Sanja ; Rötzer, Thomas ; Río, Miren Del; Dodan, Martina ; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés - \ 2019
    Forest Systems 28 (2019)1. - ISSN 2171-5068 - 18 p.
    Classification - Dynamics - Ecology - Empirical - Growth - Yield

    Aim of study: Modelling of forest growth and dynamics has focused mainly on pure stands. Mixed-forest management lacks systematic procedures to forecast the impact of silvicultural actions. The main objective of the present work is to review current knowledge and forest model developments that can be applied to mixed forests. Material and methods: Primary research literature was reviewed to determine the state of the art for modelling tree species mixtures, focusing mainly on temperate forests. Main results: The essential principles for predicting stand growth in mixed forests were identified. Forest model applicability in mixtures was analysed. Input data, main model components, output and viewers were presented. Finally, model evaluation procedures and some of the main model platforms were described. Research highlights: Responses to environmental changes and management activities in mixed forests can differ from pure stands. For greater insight into mixed-forest dynamics and ecology, forest scientists and practitioners need new theoretical frameworks, different approaches and innovative solutions for sustainable forest management in the context of environmental and social changes.

    Predicting the spatial and temporal dynamics of species interactions in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris forests across Europe
    Forrester, David Ian ; Ammer, Ch ; Annighöfer, Peter J. ; Avdagic, A. ; Barbeito, I. ; Bielak, Kamil ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Coll, L. ; Río, M. del; Drössler, L. ; Heym, Michael ; Hurt, Václav ; Löf, Magnus ; Matović, B. ; Meloni, F. ; Ouden, J. den; Pach, Maciej ; Pereira, M.G. ; Ponette, Quentin ; Pretzsch, H. ; Skrzyszewski, Jerzy ; Stojanović, D. ; Svoboda, M. ; Ruiz-Peinado, R. ; Vacchiano, G. ; Verheyen, K. ; Zlatanov, T. ; Bravo-Oviedo, A. - \ 2017
    Forest Ecology and Management 405 (2017). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 112 - 133.
    Biodiversity - Climate - Competition - Complementarity - Forest growth model - Mixed-species - Silviculture
    The productivity and functioning of mixed-species forests often differs from that of monocultures. However, the magnitude and direction of these differences are difficult to predict because species interactions can be modified by many potentially interacting climatic and edaphic conditions, stand structure and previous management. Process-based forest growth models could potentially be used to disentangle the effects of these factors and thereby improve our understanding of mixed forest functioning while facilitating their design and silvicultural management. However, to date, the predicted mixing effects of forest growth models have not been compared with measured mixing effects. In this study, 26 sites across Europe, each containing a mixture and monocultures of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, were used to calculate mixing effects on growth and yield and compare them with the mixing effects predicted by the forest growth model 3-PGmix. The climate and edaphic conditions, stand structures and ages varied greatly between sites. The model performed well when predicting the stem mass and total mass (and mixing effects on these components), with model efficiency that was usually >0.7. The model efficiency was lower for growth or smaller components such as foliage mass and root mass. The model was also used to predict how mixing effects would change along gradients in precipitation, temperature, potential available soil water, age, thinning intensity and soil fertility. The predicted patterns were consistent with measurements of mixing effects from published studies. The 3-PG model is a widely used management tool for monospecific stands and this study shows that 3-PGmix can be used to examine the dynamics of mixed-species stands and determine how they may need to be managed.
    Decision Support Tools and Strategies to Simulate Forest Landscape Evolutions Integrating Forest Owner Behaviour: A Review from the Case Studies of the European Project, INTEGRAL
    Orazio, Christophe ; Montoya, Rebeca ; Régolini, Margot ; Borges, José ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Barreiro, Susana ; Botequim, Brigite ; Marques, Susete ; Sedmák, Róbert ; Smreček, Róbert ; Brodrechtová, Yvonne ; Brukas, Vilis ; Chirici, Gherardo ; Marchetti, Marco ; Moshammer, Ralf ; Biber, Peter ; Corrigan, Edwin ; Eriksson, Ljusk ; Favero, Matteo ; Galev, Emil ; Hengeveld, Geerten ; Kavaliauskas, Marius ; Mozgeris, Gintautas ; Navrátil, Rudolf ; Nieuwenhuis, Maarten ; Paligorov, Ivan ; Pettenella, Davide ; Stanislovaitis, Andrius ; Tomé, Margarida ; Trubins, Renats ; Tuček, Ján ; Vizzarri, Matteo ; Wallin, Ida ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Sallnäs, Ola - \ 2017
    Sustainability 9 (2017)4. - ISSN 2071-1050
    For forest sustainability and vulnerability assessment, the landscape scale is considered to be more and more relevant as the stand level approaches its known limitations. This review, which describes the main forest landscape simulation tools used in the 20 European case studies of the European project “Future-oriented integrated management of European forest landscapes” (INTEGRAL), gives an update on existing decision support tools to run landscape simulation from Mediterranean to boreal ecosystems. The main growth models and software available in Europe are described, and the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches are discussed. Trades-offs between input efforts and output are illustrated. Recommendations for the selection of a forest landscape simulator are given. The paper concludes by describing the need to have tools that are able to cope with climate change and the need to build more robust indicators for assessment of forest landscape sustainability and vulnerability.
    Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe
    Río, Miren del; Pretzsch, Hans ; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo ; Ampoorter, Evy ; Annighöfer, Peter ; Barbeito, Ignacio ; Bielak, Kamil ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Coll, Lluís ; Drössler, Lars ; Mohren, Frits ; Ouden, Jan den; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés - \ 2017
    Journal of Ecology 105 (2017)4. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1032 - 1043.
    Asynchrony - Mixed-species forests - Niche complementarity - Organizational levels - Overyielding - Plant-plant interactions - Temporal variability

    There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability (TS) of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at the population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest communities. We investigated the way mixing species influenced the TS of productivity in Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. forests, and attempted to determine the main drivers among overyielding, asynchrony between species annual growth responses to environmental conditions, and temporal shifts in species interactions. We used a network of 93 experimental plots distributed across Europe to compare the TS of basal area growth over a 15-year period (1999-2013) in mixed and monospecific forest stands at different organizational levels, namely the community, population and individual tree levels. Mixed stands showed a higher TS of basal area growth than monospecific stands at the community level, but not at the population or individual tree levels. The TS at the community level was related to asynchrony between species growth in mixtures, but not to overyielding nor to asynchrony between species growth in monospecific stands. Temporal shifts in species interactions were also related to asynchrony and to the mixing effect on the TS. Synthesis. Our findings confirm that species mixing can stabilize productivity at the community level, whereas there is a neutral or negative effect on stability at the population and individual tree levels. The contrasting findings regarding the relationships between the temporal stability and asynchrony in species growth in mixed and monospecific stands suggest that the main driver in the stabilizing process may be the temporal niche complementarity between species rather than differences in species' intrinsic responses to environmental conditions.

    Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe
    Río, Miren del; Pretzsch, Hans ; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo ; Ampoorter, Evy ; Annighöfer, Peter ; Barbeito, Ignacio ; Bielak, Kamil ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Coll, Lluís ; Drössler, L. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés - \ 2016
    Wageningen University & Research
    temporal variability
    Main data are basal area increments by triplet, species composition and year, for the study period 1999-2013. Dataset includes data at community level (stand basal area increment), population level (species basal area increment in mixed and monospecific stands), and individual tree level (basal area increments by core, two cores by tree). Moreover data describing the trees used in the analysis is included.
    Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests
    Liang, J. ; Crowther, T.W. ; Picard, N. ; Wiser, S. ; Zhou, M. ; Alberti, G. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Mcguire, A.D. ; Bozzato, F. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Miguel, S. de; Paquette, A. ; Herault, B. ; Scherer-Lorenzen, M. ; Barrett, C.B. ; Glick, H.B. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan ; Pfautsch, S. ; Viana, H. ; Vibrans, A.C. ; Ammer, C. ; Schall, P. ; Verbyla, D. ; Tchebakova, N. ; Fischer, M. ; Watson, J.V. ; Chen, Han Y.H. ; Lei, X. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Lu, Huicui ; Gianelle, D. ; Parfenova, E.I. ; Salas, C. ; Lee, E. ; Lee, B. ; Kim, H.S. ; Bruelheide, H. ; Coomes, D.A. ; Piotto, D. ; Sunderland, T. ; Schmid, B. ; Gourlet-Fleury, S. ; Sonke, B. ; Tavani, R. ; Zhu, J. ; Brandl, S. ; Vayreda, J. ; Kitahara, F. ; Searle, E.B. ; Neldner, V.J. ; Ngugi, M.R. ; Baraloto, C. ; Frizzera, L. ; Ba Azy, R. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Zawila-Niedzwiecki, T. ; Bouriaud, O. ; Bussotti, F. ; Finer, L. ; Jaroszewicz, B. ; Jucker, T. ; Valladares, F. ; Jagodzinski, A.M. ; Peri, P.L. ; Gonmadje, C. ; Marthy, W. ; Obrien, T. ; Martin, E.H. ; Marshall, A.R. ; Rovero, F. ; Bitariho, R. ; Niklaus, P.A. ; Alvarez-Loayza, P. ; Chamuya, N. ; Valencia, R. ; Mortier, F. ; Wortel, V. ; Engone-Obiang, N.L. ; Ferreira, L.V. ; Odeke, D.E. ; Vasquez, R.M. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Reich, P.B. - \ 2016
    Science 354 (2016)6309. - ISSN 0036-8075 - 15 p.
    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone—US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation—is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities.
    Mixing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) enhances structural heterogeneity, And the effect increases with water availability
    Pretzsch, H. ; Río, M. del; Schütze, G. ; Mohren, F. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2016
    Forest Ecology and Management 373 (2016). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 149 - 166.
    Additive mixing effect - Morphological variability - Multiplicative mixing effect - Overyielding - Stand density - Tree size inequality

    The mixing of tree species with complementary ecological traits may modify forest functioning regarding productivity, stability, or resilience against disturbances. This may be achieved by a higher heterogeneity in stand structure which is often addressed but rarely quantified. Here, we use 32 triplets of mature and fully stocked monocultures and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) located along a productivity and water availability gradient through Europe to examine how mixing modifies the stand structure in terms of stand density, horizontal tree distribution pattern, vertical stand structure, size distribution pattern, and variation in tree morphology. We further analyze how site conditions modify these aspects of stand structure. For this typical mixture of a light demanding and shade tolerant species we show that (i) mixing significantly increases many aspects of structural heterogeneity compared with monocultures, (ii) mixing effects such as an increase of stand density and diversification of vertical structure and tree morphology are caused by species identity (additive effects) but also by species interactions (multiplicative effects), and (iii) superior heterogeneity of mixed stands over monocultures can increase from dry to moist sites. We discuss the implications for analyzing the productivity, for modelling and for the management of mixed species stands.

    How Sensitive Are Ecosystem Services in European Forest Landscapes to Silvicultural Treatment?
    Biber, P. ; Borges, J.G. ; Moshammer, R. ; Barreiro, S. ; Botequim, B. ; Brodrechtová, Y. ; Brukas, V. ; Chirici, G. ; Cordero-Debets, R. ; Corrigan, E. ; Eriksson, L.O. ; Favero, M. ; Galev, E. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, J. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Kavaliauskas, M. ; Marchetti, M. ; Marques, S. ; Mozgeris, G. ; Navrátil, R. ; Nieuwenhuis, M. ; Orazio, C. ; Paligorov, I. ; Pettenella, D. ; Sedmák, R. ; Smrecek, R. ; Stanislovaitis, A. ; Tomé, M. ; Trubins, R. ; Tucek, J. ; Vizzarri, M. ; Wallin, I. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Sallnäs, O. - \ 2015
    Forests 6 (2015)5. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1666 - 1695.
    scenario analysis - simulator silva - climate-change - management - growth - tree - impacts - regions - yield - stand
    While sustainable forestry in Europe is characterized by the provision of a multitude of forest ecosystem services, there exists no comprehensive study that scrutinizes their sensitivity to forest management on a pan-European scale, so far. We compile scenario runs from regionally tailored forest growth models and Decision Support Systems (DSS) from 20 case studies throughout Europe and analyze whether the ecosystem service provision depends on management intensity and other co-variables, comprising regional affiliation, social environment, and tree species composition. The simulation runs provide information about the case-specifically most important ecosystem services in terms of appropriate indicators. We found a strong positive correlation between management intensity and wood production, but only weak correlation with protective and socioeconomic forest functions. Interestingly, depending on the forest region, we found that biodiversity can react in both ways, positively and negatively, to increased management intensity. Thus, it may be in tradeoff or in synergy with wood production and forest resource maintenance. The covariables species composition and social environment are of punctual interest only, while the affiliation to a certain region often makes an important difference in terms of an ecosystem service’s treatment sensitivity.
    Growth and yield of mixed versus pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) analysed along a productivity gradient through Europe
    Pretzsch, H. ; Ammer, C. ; Barbeito, I. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den; Verheyen, K. - \ 2015
    European Journal of Forest Research 134 (2015)5. - ISSN 1612-4669 - p. 927 - 947.
    spruce picea-abies - long-term experiments - norway spruce - species forests - structural complexity - temperate forests - plant-communities - modeling approach - crown plasticity - tree diversity
    Mixing of complementary tree species may increase stand productivity, mitigate the effects of drought and other risks, and pave the way to forest production systems which may be more resource-use efficient and stable in the face of climate change. However, systematic empirical studies on mixing effects are still missing for many commercially important and widespread species combinations. Here we studied the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in mixed versus pure stands on 32 triplets located along a productivity gradient through Europe, reaching from Sweden to Bulgaria and from Spain to the Ukraine. Stand inventory and taking increment cores on the mainly 60–80 year-old trees and 0.02–1.55 ha sized, fully stocked plots provided insight how species mixing modifies the structure, dynamics and productivity compared with neighbouring pure stands. In mixture standing volume (+12 %), stand density (+20 %), basal area growth (+12 %), and stand volume growth (+8 %) were higher than the weighted mean of the neighbouring pure stands. Scots pine and European beech contributed rather equally to the overyielding and overdensity. In mixed stands mean diameter (+20 %) and height (+6 %) of Scots pine was ahead, while both diameter and height growth of European beech were behind (-8 %). The overyielding and overdensity were independent of the site index, the stand growth and yield, and climatic variables despite the wide variation in precipitation (520–1175 mm year-1), mean annual temperature (6–10.5 °C), and the drought index by de Martonne (28–61 mm °C-1) on the sites. Therefore, this species combination is potentially useful for increasing productivity across a wide range of site and climatic conditions. Given the significant overyielding of stand basal area growth but the absence of any relationship with site index and climatic variables, we hypothesize that the overyielding and overdensity results from several different types of interactions (light-, water-, and nutrient-related) that are all important in different circumstances. We discuss the relevance of the results for ecological theory and for the ongoing silvicultural transition from pure to mixed stands and their adaptation to climate change.
    European Mixed Forests: Definition and research perspectives
    Bravo-Oviedo, A. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Ammer, C. ; Andenmatten, E. ; Barbati, A. ; Barreiro, S. ; Brang, P. ; Bravo, F. ; Coll, L. ; Corona, P. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2014
    Forest Systems 23 (2014)3. - ISSN 2171-5068 - p. 518 - 533.
    stand-density index - fagus-sylvatica l. - species stands - norway spruce - picea-abies - pure stands - biomass allocation - climate-change - biodiversity - productivity
    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) briefly review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material and methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients). The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time. The research perspectives identified are (i) species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii) the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.
    The role of phenology for impact assessments of climate change on growth in boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forest ecosystems
    Kramer, K. - \ 1999
    In: Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics / Olsthoorn, A.F.M., Bartelink, H.H., Gardiner, J.J., Pretzsch, H., Hekhuis, H.J., Franc, A., - p. 278 - 291.
    Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics
    Olsthoorn, A.F.M. ; Bartelink, H.H. ; Gardiner, J.J. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Hekhuis, H.J. ; Franc, A. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN scientific contributions 15) - 392 p.
    Monitoring competition in young mixed plantations with broad-leaved tree species: a case study
    Oosterbaan, A. ; Berg, C.A. van den; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. - \ 1999
    In: Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics / Olsthoorn, A.F.M., Bartelink, H.H., Gardiner, J.J., Pretzsch, H., Hekhuis, H.J., Franc, A., - p. 88 - 94.
    Growth and management of mixed-species stands
    Bartelink, H.H. - \ 1999
    In: Management of mixed-species forest : siviculture and economics / Olsthoorn, A.F.M., Bartelink, H.H., Gardiner, J.J., Pretzsch, H., Hekhuis, H.J., Franc, A., Wageningen : IBN-DLO - p. 186 - 190.
    Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics
    Olsthoorn, A.F.M. ; Bartelink, H.H. ; Gardiner, J.J. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Hekhuis, H.J. ; Franc, A. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO - ISBN 9789076095080 - 389
    gemengde bossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - houtteelt - shelterwoodsysteem - bosbouweconomie - bosbeleid - europa - conferenties - dauerwald - mixed forests - forest management - silviculture - shelterwood system - forest economics - forest policy - europe - conferences - dauerwald
    Prospects for research on mixed-species forests
    Bartelink, H.H. ; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. - \ 1999
    In: Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics / Olsthoorn, A.F.M., Bartelink, H.H., Gardiner, J.J., Pretzsch, H., Hekhuis, H.J., Franc, A., - p. 380 - 384.
    Introduction: mixed forest in western Europe
    Bartelink, H.H. ; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. - \ 1999
    In: Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics / Olsthoorn, A.F.M., Bartelink, H.H., Gardiner, J.J., Pretzsch, H., Hekhuis, H.J., Franc, A., - p. 9 - 16.
    Simulation of competition for light in monospecific and mixed stands of Douglas-fir and beech
    Bartelink, H.H. - \ 1999
    In: Management of mixed-species forest : silviculture and economics / Olsthoorn, A.F.M., Bartelink, H.H., Gardiner, J.J., Pretzsch, H., Hekhuis, H.J., Franc, A., - p. 143 - 156.
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