Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Utilization and management of spent brewers grain in Ethiopian dairy farms
Alvarez Aranguiz, Adolfo ; Berhanu, Tinsae ; Vernooij, Adriaan - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1207) - 27
This report is based on the information generated through a survey, meetings with stakeholders, visits to farms, and research information already available to the organisation. The acquired knowledge has provided a realistic view of how dairy systems in the study areas in Ethiopia are managed and allowed the realisation of an analysis of the situation at the farm level. This information has then been used to propose the development of future actions so that the efficiency in the utilization of the spent brewery grain on Ethiopia dairy farms is optimised. The presence of numerous breweries in the area studied with a potential capacity of 10,660.000 hl of beer per year and their projected growth in the near future, offers an excellent opportunity to farmers in the area to have access to spent brewery grain at a very affordable price. The information gathered in this study reveals that spent brewery grain is a key ingredient in the dairy cow’s diet in Ethiopia, especially considering the scarcity of land to grow fodders and the quality of available feed. Yet the efficiency at which this by-product is currently utilised is very low. In order to improve the efficiency of its use it will be fundamental to take action in different aspects of the production chain, as listed below: •Improvement of the commercialization chain: At present there is a lack of transparency in thechain, along with transport issues and the lack of compromise of the stakeholders involved. Thissituation limits the ability of farmers to develop a feed budget based in the spent brewery grainutilization. •Storage: Condition and capacity of storage are the main on-farm limitations. Key aspects that willneed to be addressed are the improvement of the storage infrastructure and their capacity. Thepossibility to make silage of spent brewery grain, alone or combined with other feeds, can be aninteresting option to be considered. •Management: There is a manifest lack of knowledge and information on how to manage this by-product, and especially on how to avoid spoilage and heating. Farmers are requesting informationto overcome these issues. •Feeding: The current inefficient use of spent brewery grain as a component of the diet of dairycows is due to a combination of factors which includes not only those just mentioned, but also thelack of knowledge on the nutritional properties of the spent brewery grain and its potential use asan ingredient in the complete diet. According to the information gathered, we can conclude that spent brewery grain is a key ingredient in the diet of dairy cows of the study area and will be a crucial component in the profitability of the Ethiopian dairy farms in the future. The nutrient content of spent brewery grain combined with the low-quality feed available for dairy cows will allow to improve the expression of the animal genetic potential, increment their productivity, and improve animal condition. At the same time, the competitive price of the by-product will help improve the profitability of the dairy farm
Analyzing Components of Productivity Growth Using the Bennet-Lowe Indicator: An Application to Welsh Sheep Farms
Ang, Frederic - \ 2019
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 101 (2019)4. - ISSN 0002-9092 - p. 1262 - 1276.
Bennet-Lowe indicator - data envelopment analysis - decomposition - distance function - total factor productivity - transitivity

This article introduces the Bennet-Lowe Total Factor Productivity (TFP) indicator. The proposed measure is difference-based, additively complete, and transitive. We also develop a general nonparametric framework to exhaustively decompose all Bennet-Type TFP indicators, including the one introduced here, into technical change, technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change, and mix efficiency change. This decomposition provides a powerful tool for policy makers to guide financial decisions on research and development, extension, subsidies, and price support. The empirical application focuses on the Welsh sheep sector for the years 2001-2014. The results show that in this 14-year period, Welsh sheep farms increased their TFP by 30.28% on average (2.33% p.a.). However, the exhaustive decomposition shows that TFP growth is not distributed equally across all farms, with an increasing divergence between front-runners and laggards. The negative values of scale efficiency change and mix efficiency change cast doubt on the current subsidy policies.

Climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector in Europe
Jacobs, C. ; Berglund, M. ; Kurnik, Blaz ; Dworak, T. ; Marras, Serena ; Mereu, Valentina ; Michetti, Melania - \ 2019
Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2019 : European Environment Agency (EEA) (EEA Report 4/2019) - ISBN 9789294800725 - 112 p.
Key messages:
Climate change has an impact on European agriculture in a number of ways. Climate change has already negatively affected the agriculture sector in Europe, and this will continue in the future. Future climate change might also have some positive effects on the sector due to longer growing seasons and more suitable crop conditions. However, the number of climate extreme events negatively affecting agriculture in Europe is projected to increase.
A cascade of impacts from climate change outside Europe may affect the price, quantity and quality of products, and consequently trade patterns, which in turn may affect agricultural income in Europe. Although fodder and food security in the EU will probably not be an issue, the increase in food demand could exert pressure on food prices in the coming decades.
The EU strategy on adaptation to climate change and the common agricultural policy have enabled adaptation actions in the agriculture sector. The new proposed common agricultural policy for 2021-2027 has adaptation as a clear objective, which could lead to EU Member States having to increase their financing of adaptation measures in the sector.
The EU Member States have defined the agriculture sector as a priority in their national adaptation strategies or national adaptation plans. Measures at national or regional levels include awareness raising, practical measures to decrease the impacts and risks of extreme weather events, or risk-sharing strategies, and developing and implementing infrastructure for irrigation and flood protection.
There are opportunities for implementing a wide variety of existing measures at farm level that aim to improve the management of soils and water, which can provide benefits for adaptation, mitigation, the environment and the economy. However, adaptation at the farm level, in many cases, does not take place because of a lack of, among other things, resources for investment, policy initiatives to adapt, institutional capacity and access to adaptation knowledge.
Exploring the impact of data uncertainty on the performance of a demand response program
Azari, Delaram ; Shariat Torbaghan, Shahab ; Cappon, Hans ; Keesman, Karel J. ; Rijnaarts, Huub ; Gibescu, Madeleine - \ 2019
Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks 20 (2019). - ISSN 2352-4677
Data uncertainty - Demand response - Sensitivity analysis

There is a significant interest in utilizing demand response (DR) programs to increase the flexibility of sustainable power systems. The DR operators (e.g., aggregator companies) need a robust means to assess the performance of a potential DR program that will be employed in the future. Such assessments should be based on data, some of which are hardly available. Knowledge about the DR providers (e.g., the behavior of proactive consumers) is key to the success of a DR program. In this paper, we devise a data-driven framework to assess the impact of uncertainties associated with future DR programs. The proposed framework comprises two modules: the DR simulation module, and the data analytics module. The DR module solves an optimization problem which simulates the operation of a hypothetical DR program. The data analytics module, firstly, selects subsets from historical load and price data. Secondly, it performs sensitivity analysis on the optimal solution to capture the impact of uncertainties. We consider two sources of uncertainty. First, we consider lack of information about DR providers due to the absence of a DR program in the current system. Second, we consider errors in load and price forecasts, whose impacts are investigated by formulating a sensitivity matrix from the perturbed KKT equations of the optimization problem solved by the DR module. The proposed framework provides insights regarding the potential of a prospective DR program. Such information can be useful for DR operators as a starting point to decide their position in the contractual agreement they will engage in with the (distribution) system operator and/or DR providers in the future.

Eating behaviour of adolescent schoolgirls in Malang, East Java: A qualitative study
Sondari, Mulia ; Brouwer, Inge ; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty - \ 2019
Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 25 (2019). - ISSN 1394-035X - p. S87 - S96.
Adolescent schoolgirls - Eating behaviour - Indonesia - Malang

Introduction: Poor eating behaviour is known to lead to nutritional deficiency among adolescents. At the same time, poor eating behaviour characterised by dietary excesses could lead to overweight and obesity. The present study aimed to explore the eating behaviour of adolescent schoolgirls in Malang, East Java Province, Indonesia, and to determine the factors that influenced their eating behaviour. Methods: This was a qualitative study, guided by the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), which focused on individual and environmental influences to better understand health-related behaviours, such as eating behaviour. Triangulation was applied to the study subjects (adolescent girls, their mothers, and school staff). The methods used included individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Qualitative data analyses were performed using Atlas.ti 7. Results: Most participants showed poor eating behaviour that was characterised by skipping breakfast, frequent consumption of fast foods and the consumption of local food with low nutrient content. Their eating behaviour was influenced by individual factors including personal preferences, the price of the food, and by environmental factors, such as the family, school and neighbourhood. Conclusion: Our findings showed that adolescent girls in Malang appeared to be aware of healthy eating but they showed unsatisfactory eating practices. Interventions are suggested to improve the poor eating behaviour of the adolescents toward avoiding malnutrition consequences.

Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe
Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Haile, James ; Lin, Audrey T. ; Scheu, Amelie ; Geörg, Christina ; Benecke, Norbert ; Alexander, Michelle ; Linderholm, Anna ; Mullin, Victoria E. ; Daly, Kevin G. ; Battista, Vincent M. ; Price, Max ; Gron, Kurt J. ; Alexandri, Panoraia ; Arbogast, Rose Marie ; Arbuckle, Benjamin ; Bǎlǎşescu, Adrian ; Barnett, Ross ; Bartosiewicz, László ; Baryshnikov, Gennady ; Bonsall, Clive ; Borić, Dušan ; Boroneanţ, Adina ; Bulatović, Jelena ; Çakirlar, Canan ; Carretero, José Miguel ; Chapman, John ; Church, Mike ; Crooijmans, Richard ; Cupere, Bea De; Detry, Cleia ; Dimitrijevic, Vesna ; Dumitraşcu, Valentin ; Plessis, Louis Du; Edwards, Ceiridwen J. ; Erek, Cevdet Merih ; Erim-Özdoǧan, Asli ; Ervynck, Anton ; Fulgione, Domenico ; Gligor, Mihai ; Götherström, Anders ; Gourichon, Lionel ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Helmer, Daniel ; Hongo, Hitomi ; Horwitz, Liora K. ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Lebrasseur, Ophélie ; Lesur, Joséphine ; Malone, Caroline ; Manaseryan, Ninna ; Marciniak, Arkadiusz ; Martlew, Holley ; Mashkour, Marjan ; Matthews, Roger ; Matuzeviciute, Giedre Motuzaite ; Maziar, Sepideh ; Meijaard, Erik ; McGovern, Tom ; Megens, Hendrik Jan ; Miller, Rebecca ; Mohaseb, Azadeh Fatemeh ; Orschiedt, Jörg ; Orton, David ; Papathanasiou, Anastasia ; Pearson, Mike Parker ; Pinhasi, Ron ; Radmanović, Darko ; Ricaut, François Xavier ; Richards, Mike ; Sabin, Richard ; Sarti, Lucia ; Schier, Wolfram ; Sheikhi, Shiva ; Stephan, Elisabeth ; Stewart, John R. ; Stoddart, Simon ; Tagliacozzo, Antonio ; Tasić, Nenad ; Trantalidou, Katerina ; Tresset, Anne ; Valdiosera, Cristina ; Hurk, Youri Van Den; Poucke, Sophie Van; Vigne, Jean Denis ; Yanevich, Alexander ; Zeeb-Lanz, Andrea ; Triantafyllidis, Alexandros ; Gilbert, M.T.P. ; Schibler, Jörg ; Rowley-Conwy, Peter ; Zeder, Melinda ; Peters, Joris ; Cucchi, Thomas ; Bradley, Daniel G. ; Dobney, Keith ; Burger, Joachim ; Evin, Allowen ; Girdland-Flink, Linus ; Larson, Greger - \ 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)35. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 17231 - 17238.
Domestication - Evolution - Gene flow - Neolithic

Archaeological evidence indicates that pig domestication had begun by ∼10,500 y before the present (BP) in the Near East, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that pigs arrived in Europe alongside farmers ∼8,500 y BP. A few thousand years after the introduction of Near Eastern pigs into Europe, however, their characteristic mtDNA signature disappeared and was replaced by haplotypes associated with European wild boars. This turnover could be accounted for by substantial gene flow from local European wild boars, although it is also possible that European wild boars were domesticated independently without any genetic contribution from the Near East. To test these hypotheses, we obtained mtDNA sequences from 2,099 modern and ancient pig samples and 63 nuclear ancient genomes from Near Eastern and European pigs. Our analyses revealed that European domestic pigs dating from 7,100 to 6,000 y BP possessed both Near Eastern and European nuclear ancestry, while later pigs possessed no more than 4% Near Eastern ancestry, indicating that gene flow from European wild boars resulted in a near-complete disappearance of Near East ancestry. In addition, we demonstrate that a variant at a locus encoding black coat color likely originated in the Near East and persisted in European pigs. Altogether, our results indicate that while pigs were not independently domesticated in Europe, the vast majority of human-mediated selection over the past 5,000 y focused on the genomic fraction derived from the European wild boars, and not on the fraction that was selected by early Neolithic farmers over the first 2,500 y of the domestication process.

The future of intercropping under growing resource scarcity and declining grain prices - A model analysis based on a case study in Northwest China
Hong, Yu ; Berentsen, Paul ; Heerink, Nico ; Shi, Minjun ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems 176 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X
China - Intercropping - Labor - Maize price - Water

Intercropping, i.e. mixed crop species cultivation on a field, can potentially reduce pressure on land and water resources by generating higher resource use efficiencies and crop yields through exploitation of complementarities between species. Intercropping systems in China and elsewhere have come under pressure through labor migration, growing water scarcity, changing crop prices and other factors. However, little hard evidence is available on how these socio-economic factors interplay and affect the prevalence of intercropping systems now and in the near future. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of growing scarcity of (water and labor) resources and declining (maize) grain prices on the share of intercropping in the optimal cropping plan and on associated agricultural income levels in an intercropping-dominated agricultural system in China. To undertake this analysis, we developed a mathematical programming model to simulate crop production for a model village in Gaotai county in the Hexi Corridor in northwest China, for given resources and economic conditions in 2013 and possible changes (scenarios) in the future. In the Hexi Corridor, conventional wheat/maize intercropping contributed greatly to rising food production while cash crops integrated with maize provided important cash income. With the introduction of seed crops and stricter water regulations, intercropping has become less prevalent in this area in recent years. In the absence of water constraints and at price levels and labor availability in 2013, our model results indicate that an optimal land use would entail that all land would be devoted to intercropping. Sole cumin and sole cotton enter the optimal cropping plan when water becomes scarce and the maize price declines substantially, while increases in hired labor wages have a strong negative impact on intercropping only when on-farm labor becomes scarce.

Information systems and actionable knowledge creation in rice-farming systems in Northern Ghana
Nyamekye, Andy Bonaventure ; Dewulf, Art ; Slobbe, Erik Van; Termeer, Katrien - \ 2019
African Geographical Review (2019). - ISSN 1937-6812
actionable knowledge - credibility - information systems - Informational governance - legitimacy - salience

Rice farmers in the Kumbungu District in Northern Ghana interact with information systems. Of interest here is the degree to which knowledge derived from such interaction is actionable. The paper addresses the overall question: what information systems are currently providing agricultural information to rice farmers, and to what extent does this result in actionable knowledge creation? Findings revealed that Farmer-to-Farmer systems contribute most to actionable knowledge creation. We conclude that systems integration and local actor participation are essential for actionable knowledge creation in information systems.

Combining market structure and econometric methods for pricetransmission analysis
Acosta, Alejandro ; Ihle, Rico ; Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan von - \ 2019
Food Security 11 (2019)4. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 941 - 951.
Food Policy Design - Food Price Formation - Market Structure - Price Transmission

Much attention has been devoted in the literature to the analysis of price transmission along food supply chains. Price transmission analysis has traditionally focused on applying econometric methods to assess price dynamics and interrelationships. However, the exclusive application of econometric methods without considering the market’s institutional context has limited potential to support evidence-based policy-making. In recent years, studies have thus attempted to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to better understand the level of performance of food value chains. This study contributes to broadening these empirical toolkits by suggesting a structured analytical framework that benefits from the simultaneous application of econometric and market-structure methods in price transmission analysis. To illustrate the application of the framework, we analyzed the milk market of Panama.

Landwirtschaftliches Risikomanagement in der Europäischen Union: Ein Vorschlag um vorsorgliches Sparen zu ermöglichen
Asseldonk, Marcel van; Jongeneel, Roel ; Kooten, Cornelis van; Cordier, Jean - \ 2019
EuroChoices 18 (2019)2. - ISSN 1478-0917 - p. 40 - 46.

Through a series of reforms, the European Union (EU) replaced most of its trade distorting price support programmes with safety net provisions and direct payments decoupled from production. This has resulted in greater market orientation and a situation in which farmers face increased price variability. Policy now emphasises the development of business risk management (BRM) programmes, such as crop and whole farm insurance. However, for various reasons EU-wide adoption of BRM programmes and farmer uptake and use of risk instruments is below expectations. We recommend the use of farm-specific savings accounts upon which farmers can draw when revenues fall below a proportion of expected revenue. Farmer-Directed Precautionary Savings Accounts (FDPSAs) would complement traditional non-financial, on-farm risk management strategies and private/public risk transfer strategies. FDPSAs would protect farmers against shallow losses and, along with crop and/or index-based insurance, also protect against deep losses. Further, this form of protection is easy to understand and administer and leaves complete control with the producer.

Characterising permanent grassland-based farming systems in Europe
Korevaar, H. ; Sacco, Dario ; Ravetto Enri, Simone ; Lombardi, Giampiero ; Berge, H.F.M. ten; Bufe, Conny ; Whittingham, Mark J. ; Smith, Pete ; Vanwalleghem, Tom ; Lellei-kovács, Eszter ; Stypinski, Piotr ; Hejduk, Stanislav ; Tonn, Bettina ; Newell Price, Paul J. - \ 2019
In: Improving sown grasslands through breeding and management Wageningen Academic Publishers (Grassland Science in Europe ) - p. 164 - 166.
Does bundling crop insurance with certified seeds crowd-in investments? Experimental evidence from Kenya
Bulte, E. ; Cecchi, Francesco ; Lensink, Robert ; Marr, Ana ; Asseldonk, Marcel van - \ 2019
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2019). - ISSN 0167-2681
Farm management - Index and indemnity-based insurance - Input bundling - Subsidized input

We use a randomised experiment in Kenya to analyse how smallholder farmers respond to receiving a free hybrid crop insurance product, conditional on purchasing certified seeds. We find that farmers increase effort—increasing total investments and taking more land in production. In addition to adopting more certified seeds, they also invest more in complementary inputs such as fertilizer and hired-in farm-machinery and non-farm labour. We find limited evidence of a change in farming intensity. For example, there is no evidence of ‘crowding-out’ of effort or inputs on a per-hectare basis, even if the indemnity-based component of the insurance product potentially gives rise to asymmetric information problems (moral hazard). We also document that ex post willingness to pay for the insurance product has increased for the treatment group. This suggests that learning about the benefits of (subsidized) insurance outweighs any anchoring effects on the zero price during the pilot study.

Assessment of ecosystem services from permanent grassland systems
Korevaar, H. ; Berge, H.F.M. ten; Bufe, Conny ; Whittingham, Mark J. ; Smith, Pete ; Vanwalleghem, Tom ; Lellei-kovács, Eszter ; Stypinski, Piotr ; Hejduk, Stanislav ; Tonn, Bettina ; Sacco, Dario ; Newell-Price, Paul P. - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the joint BGS/BSSS Winter meeting Improving grassland performance: managing soil structure and organic matter, 19th March 2019: 23-24. - British Grassland Society - p. 23 - 24.
Explaining attention and choice for origin labeled cheese by means of consumer ethnocentrism
Loo, Ellen J. Van; Grebitus, Carola ; Roosen, Jutta - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Biodegradable packaging - Complex decision-making - Eye-tracking - Growth hormone labeling - rBST - Visual attention

This study examines the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism, visual attention and choice for origin labeled cheese. It evaluates the impact of consumer ethnocentrism on preferences for domestic products, as well as, on the visual attention paid to the origin labeling during the decision-making. Using a choice experiment, this study investigates US respondents’ preferences for product attributes of cheddar cheese including country of origin (US, Mexico, Ireland), region of origin, hormone use, biodegradable packaging, and price. It provides empirical evidence that the level of consumer ethnocentrism among US consumers influences the preference for US labelled cheese and the visual attention to origin labeling. Specifically, higher consumer ethnocentrism leads to a higher preference for US cheese as compared to Irish cheese. Further, the study reveals that the level of consumer ethnocentrism affects visual attention paid to origin labeling. However, this is only the case in less complex decision situations, when there is little information on other product attributes.

The problem of water use in rural areas of Southwestern Spain: A local perspective
Pulido, Manuel ; Barrena-González, Jesús ; Alfonso-Torreño, Alberto ; Robina-Ramírez, Rafael ; Keesstra, Saskia - \ 2019
Water 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2073-4441
Drinking water - Irrigation - Leisure facilities - Local perception

Water is a key strategic resource, particularly in Mediterranean climate-type areas with impermeable rocks and shallow soils like Southwestern Spain. The region of Extremadura is commonly known by its large surface occupied by big dams (30% of water dammed in Spain) although this theoretical abundance of water does not hide other problems of use. In this study, we have interviewed 132 people from the municipality of Arroyo de San Serván in order to know what the problems related to water use are, especially those that concern local people the most. Regarding the use of water at home, 90% of interviewees spend less than 60 EUR per month for water and their mean degree of satisfaction about the service is 3.7 out of 7. The reason for this low value can be the excessive content of calcium and bad taste according to 82.1%. Therefore, 64.2% of people do not usually drink water from the tap. Around two thirds of these local people usually buy water in the supermarket or drink filtered water. Concerning agricultural activities, local people gave great importance to irrigation as a source of employment (5.6/7) and inputs (4.5/7), although their satisfaction decreases about the current price of water for agriculture (0.02 EUR m-3). In addition, they are really worried about the overuse of fertilizers and herbicides (5.4/7) and they think about the necessity of taking measures to reduce these problems (6.1/7) as well as to reduce some management problems such as supply cuts. In the last few years, private (swimming pools) and public leisure facilities (swimming pool and spa) have been built in spite of not being considered important by local people (3.6-4.0/7). Nevertheless, about 60% of them consider these common facilities very positive in terms of employment, tourism attractions and entertainment for local people.

The who, where and why of choosing suboptimal foods : Consequences for tackling food waste in store
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica ; Otterbring, Tobias ; Hooge, Ilona E. de; Normann, Anne ; Rohm, Harald ; Almli, Valérie L. ; Oostindjer, Marije - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 236 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526
Communication - Food waste - Quality perception - Store type - Suboptimal food - Value orientation

Food stores have begun to tackle food waste at the point of sale. They do so by selling ‘suboptimal’ food before it is wasted, typically with a price reduction. However, efficiency of this food waste avoidance action can be improved by knowing for which product category, which store type, which accompanying communication, and which consumer characteristics this action works best. This study uses an experimental online survey conducted in five North western European countries to investigate the effect of communication appealing to either self- or others-centred motives in either supermarkets or farmers' markets, for packaged and for fresh food. It is found that both messages – communicating budget saving or an emotional appeal - are effective in increasing choice likelihood. Store type affects choice likelihood of suboptimal packaged, while others-centred values and trust in the store affects choice likelihood for suboptimal fresh food. Communication improves quality perception of suboptimal fresh food. Findings imply that fresh suboptimal foods lend themselves more to be promoted with others-centred messages, or to be targeted at consumers with others-centred values. Sales of suboptimal food in the store should be accompanied by communication, and such efforts to tackle food waste in the store should focus on fresh food in particular.

A conceptual and empirical framework to analyze the economics of consumer food waste
Drabik, Dušan ; Gorter, Harry de; Reynolds, Christian - \ 2019
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 149 (2019). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 500 - 509.
Consumer purchases - Consumption - Downstream - Economic model - Effective consumption price - Food waste

We develop a microeconomic model to understand food waste of consumers. We capture at-home and away-from home food consumption and distinguish between food purchases and food consumption. We allow the consumer to choose the rate of food waste at home optimally to maximize her utility. We show that consumer purchases can decline or increase with a cut in the rate of consumer waste, depending on the elasticity of food demand. Using the UK data for poultry in 2012, we also show a case where for a price elastic demand food consumption increases with a reduction in the food waste rate, but food purchases (retail sales) increase.

Predicting estrogen receptor binding of chemicals using a suite of in silico methods – Complementary approaches of (Q)SAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics
Cotterill, J.V. ; Palazzolo, L. ; Ridgway, C. ; Price, N. ; Rorije, E. ; Moretto, A. ; Peijnenburg, A. ; Eberini, I. - \ 2019
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 378 (2019). - ISSN 0041-008X
Estrogen receptor - In Silico - Low-mode molecular dynamics simulation - Molecular docking - QSAR

With the aim of obtaining reliable estimates of Estrogen Receptor (ER) binding for diverse classes of compounds, a weight of evidence approach using estimates from a suite of in silico models was assessed. The predictivity of a simple Majority Consensus of (Q)SAR models was assessed using a test set of compounds with experimental Relative Binding Affinity (RBA) data. Molecular docking was also carried out and the binding energies of these compounds to the ERα receptor were determined. For a few selected compounds, including a known full agonist and antagonist, the intrinsic activity was determined using low-mode molecular dynamics methods. Individual (Q)SAR model predictivity varied, as expected, with some models showing high sensitivity, others higher specificity. However, the Majority Consensus (Q)SAR prediction showed a high accuracy and reasonably balanced sensitivity and specificity. Molecular docking provided quantitative information on strength of binding to the ERα receptor. For the 50 highest binding affinity compounds with positive RBA experimental values, just 5 of them were predicted to be non-binders by the Majority QSAR Consensus. Furthermore, agonist-specific assay experimental values for these 5 compounds were negative, which indicates that they may be ER antagonists. We also showed different scenarios of combining (Q)SAR results with Molecular docking classification of ER binding based on cut-off values of binding energies, providing a rational combined strategy to maximize terms of toxicological interest.

How do trust, social norms and risk attitudes influence sustained adoption of interventions to reduce post-harvest losses?: application of an Agent-Based Model to the tomato value chain in Nigeria
Wagenberg, Coen van; Oudendag, Diti ; Dijkxhoorn, Youri ; Plaisier, Christine ; Groot, Jim ; Kok, Melanie - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2019-049) - ISBN 9789463439893 - 36
Transporting fresh tomatoes from farmer to retailer in Nigeria in plastic crates instead of raffia baskets can substantially decrease post-harvest losses both in quantity and in quality. We apply the Value Chain Laboratory (VC-Lab) method to analyse the importance for the long-term acceptance of these plastic crates of trust in other chain actors, risk attitudes and social norms of chain actors, a price bonus for transporting tomatoes in crates, the costs and lifespan of crates, and who should invest in crates. The price a farmer receives from a wholesaler, risk attitudes of the actors, and social norms were the most important drivers for the long-term use of crates.
The true price of food
Baltussen, Willy - \ 2019
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