Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Cranial fenestration and adaptive potential in the two basal clades of modern birds
    Gussekloo, S.W.S. ; Berthaume, M.A. ; Pulaski, D.R. ; Westbroek, I. ; Waarsing, J.H. ; Heinen, R. ; Grosse, I.R. ; Dumont, E.R. - \ 2017
    Data from: Functional and evolutionary consequences of cranial fenestration in birds
    Gussekloo, S.W.S. ; Berthaume, Michael A. ; Pulaski, Daniel R. ; Westbroek, Irene ; Waarsing, Jan H. ; Heinen, R. ; Grosse, Ian R. ; Dumont, Elizabeth R. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University & Research
    avian evolution - cranial morphology - fenestration - finite element modelling - adaptive radiation
    Ostrich-like birds (Palaeognathae) show very little taxonomic diversity while their sister taxon (Neognathae) contains roughly 10000 species. The main anatomical differences between the two taxa are in the crania. Palaeognaths lack an element in the bill called the lateral bar that is present in both ancestral theropods and modern neognaths, have thin zones in the bones of the bill, and robust bony elements on the ventral surface of their crania. Here we use a combination of modelling and developmental experiments to investigate the processes that might have led to these differences. Engineering-based finite element analyses indicate that removing the lateral bars from a neognath increases mechanical stress in the upper bill and the ventral elements of the skull, regions that are either more robust or more flexible in palaeognaths. Surgically removing the lateral bar from neognath hatchlings led to similar changes. These results indicate that the lateral bar is load-bearing and suggest that this function was transferred to other bony elements when it was lost in palaeognaths. It is possible that the loss of the load-bearing lateral bar might have constrained diversification of skull morphology in palaeognaths and thus limited taxonomic diversity within the group.
    Functional and evolutionary consequences of cranial fenestration in birds
    Gussekloo, Sander W.S. ; Berthaume, Michael A. ; Pulaski, Daniel R. ; Westbroek, Irene ; Waarsing, Jan H. ; Heinen, Robin ; Grosse, Ian R. ; Dumont, Elizabeth R. - \ 2017
    Evolution 71 (2017)5. - ISSN 0014-3820 - p. 1327 - 1338.
    Adaptive radiation - Avian evolution - Cranial morphology - Fenestration - Finite element modeling
    Ostrich-like birds (Palaeognathae) show very little taxonomic diversity while their sister taxon (Neognathae) contains roughly 10,000 species. The main anatomical differences between the two taxa are in the crania. Palaeognaths lack an element in the bill called the lateral bar that is present in both ancestral theropods and modern neognaths, and have thin zones in the bones of the bill, and robust bony elements on the ventral surface of their crania. Here we use a combination of modeling and developmental experiments to investigate the processes that might have led to these differences. Engineering-based finite element analyses indicate that removing the lateral bars from a neognath increases mechanical stress in the upper bill and the ventral elements of the skull, regions that are either more robust or more flexible in palaeognaths. Surgically removing the lateral bar from neognath hatchlings led to similar changes. These results indicate that the lateral bar is load-bearing and suggest that this function was transferred to other bony elements when it was lost in palaeognaths. It is possible that the loss of the load-bearing lateral bar might have constrained diversification of skull morphology in palaeognaths and thus limited taxonomic diversity within the group.
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