Editorial: The importance of non-CO2 greenhouse gases
Kroeze, Carolien ; Pulles, Tinus - \ 2015
Journal of integrative Environmental Sciences 12 (2015)S1. - ISSN 1943-815X - p. 1 - 4.
|Meer aandacht nodig voor niet-CO2 broeikasgassen
Kroeze, C. ; Pulles, M.P.J. - \ 2014
Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals 8-2014 (2014). - p. 34 - 35.
The diet of the garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus) in the Netherlands in summer and autumn
Kuipers, L. ; Scholten, J. ; Thissen, J.B.M. ; Bekkers, L. ; Geertsma, M. ; Pulles, C.A.T. ; Siepel, H. ; Turnhout, L.J.E.A. van - \ 2012
Lutra 55 (2012)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 17 - 27.
muizen - voedingsgedrag - monitoring - bodemecologie - bosecologie - zuid-limburg - mice - feeding behaviour - monitoring - soil ecology - forest ecology - zuid-limburg
The food of the last remaining population of garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus) in the Netherlands is studied by means of analysing faecal samples, collected in the summer and autumn of the year 2010. In total 139 scat samples were collected from 51 different nest boxes. The samples were visually analysed for the presence (or absence) of different animal and vegetable food items using a stereo microscope. Millipedes (Diplopoda), beetles (Coleoptera) and snails (Gastropoda) were found to be the main animal food sources. Important vegetable food remains were the fruit pulp of apples, pears and seeds. The identified seeds were the remains of blackberries (Rubus ssp.) and elderberries (Sambucus nigra). The results were skewed by someone feeding the garden dormice with apples and pears. All the other food items were collected by the garden dormice themselves. These animal and vegetable food sources were present in more than 20% of the samples. Hymnopterans (Hymenoptera), earthworms (Lumbricidae), spiders (Araneae), harvestmen (Opiliones) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were present in 5% to 20% of the samples. Flies (Diptera), true bugs (Heteroptera), woodlice (Isopoda), pseudoscorpions
(Pseudoscorpiones), butterfly larvae (caterpillars) (Lepidoaptera), songbirds (Passeriformes) and flowers were occasionally found. Invertebrates, especially millipedes, are the staple food during the entire active feeding period.
In spring and early summer the garden dormouse eats relatively more vertebrates (possibly mainly the nestlings of birds and mice), gastropods, beetles and flowers, than in August-November. The first seeds of berries were identified in the beginning of August. The occurrence of seeds increased rapidly to 90% at the end of August and then decreased to 30% in September and 0% by the end of October. Garden dormice in woods seem to depend on the rich invertebrate fauna within the litter layer. Mesotrophic mull soils have a rich fauna of medium-sized to large invertebrates and these soils are disappearing from the Savelsbos as a result of traditional management practices being abandoned. Re-establishment of species-rich wood types that produce mesotrophic mull soils could be of benefit to the remnant population of garden dormouse in the Savelsbos.
|Pro’s en contra’s van rijden op dieselolie uit algen
Janssen, M.G.J. ; Kleinegris, D.M.M. ; Pulles, T. - \ 2011
Milieu : opinieblad van de Vereniging van Milieuprofessionals 8 (2011). - ISSN 1873-5436 - p. 41 - 43.
|Focus op CO2-reductie onterecht
Kroeze, C. ; Pulles, T. - \ 2011
Milieu 17 (2011)8. - ISSN 0920-2234 - p. 27 - 27.
Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are still increasing
Amstel, A.R. van; Pulles, T. - \ 2010
Journal of integrative Environmental Sciences 7 (2010)S1. - ISSN 1943-815X - p. 1 - 2.
An overview on non-CO2 greenhouse gases
Pulles, T. ; Amstel, A.R. van - \ 2010
Journal of integrative Environmental Sciences 7 (2010)S1. - ISSN 1943-815X - p. 3 - 19.
Non-CO2 greenhouse gases, included in the Kyoto Protocol, are methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hexafluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Together they account for about 25% of the present global greenhouse gas emissions. Reductions in emissions of these gases have occurred in the industrialised countries, and they contribute to the efforts to reach the target of 5% greenhouse gas emission reduction as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for these countries. Globally however, greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase as do the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere. The relation between emissions and concentrations is not clear for all non-CO2 greenhouse gases. This especially holds for methane. This article discusses the contribution of non-CO2 greenhouse gases to global climate forcing within the causal chain approach of the DPSIR schema (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact and Response) as a background for the studies presented in this special issue. Although considerable reductions in non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions are expected in the first commitment period under the Climate Convention (Kyoto Protocol), it is argued that further substantial emission reductions in subsequent commitment periods for the most important non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) are difficult to achieve
Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis
Neto, B. ; Kroeze, C. ; Hordijk, L. ; Costa, C. ; Pulles, T. - \ 2009
Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009)2. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 815 - 830.
life-cycle assessment - systems - tool - netherlands - options - cost
This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact Of all aluminium pressure die casting company and options for control. Environmental Modelling & Software 23 (2) 147-168] we included the model description and explored the model by applying it to a plant in which no reduction options are assumed to be implemented (so-called zero case, reflecting the current practice in the plant). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of reduction options. We analysed seven types of reduction strategies, assuming the simultaneous implementation of different reduction options. These strategies are analysed with respect to their potential to reduce emissions, environmental impact and costs associated with the implementation of options. These strategies were found to differ largely in their potential to reduce the environmental impact of the plant (10-87%), as well as in the costs associated with the implementation of options (-268 to +277 k(sic)/ year). We were able to define I I strategies, reducing the overall environmental impact by more than 50%. Of these, two have net negative costs, indicating that the company may in fact earn money through their implementation. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All fights reserved.
Are national greenhouse gas emissions reports scientifically valid
Swart, R.J. ; Bergamaschi, P. ; Pulles, T. ; Raes, F. - \ 2007
Climate Policy 7 (2007)6. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 535 - 538.
While countries have recently been accused of misreporting greenhouse gas emissions for their benefit, internationally agreed procedures minimize such possibilities and allow for new scientific results to be taken into account in a stepwise manner.
Economic modeling of directed technical change: the case of CO2 emission reduction
Otto, V.M. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; T.K. Kuosmanen; M.P.J. Pulles; J. Reilly. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045151 - 147
technische vooruitgang - modellen - kooldioxide - emissie - reductie - milieu - economische groei - klimaat - klimaatverandering - energie - milieubeleid - milieueconomie - economische verandering - technical progress - models - carbon dioxide - emission - reduction - environment - economic growth - climate - climatic change - energy - environmental policy - environmental economics - economic change
The potential of technical change for cost-effective pollution abatement typically differs from technology to technology. It therefore is the aim of this thesis to study how policy instruments can direct technical change to those technologies with the greatest potential for cost-effective pollution abatement. In the light of the climate change problem, this thesis uses climate policy and concomitant reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with energy use as a case study.
A first part of the study deals with the determinants of directed technical change. 1 derive these determinants using an economic model analysis of directed technical change. A main finding is that the consumption side of the economy is important for the direction of technical change. In particular, the extent to which consumers can substitute between goods determines the direction. Technology externalities reinforce the existing direction of technical change. Further, I explore a frontier approach for empirical analysis of delayed feedback in technical change that is based on the literature of productive efficiency analysis. 1 illustrate this approach using aggregate production data of25 OECD countries for the years 1980 through 1997. I find evidence that the benefits of technical change accrue gradually over time, with the delayed response continuing up to eight years.
A second part of the study deals with the possibilities of directed technical change and technology externalities for the design of climate policy. Applying the model analysis at the aggregate level of the current Dutch economy, I find that CO2 emission reduction becomes more cost effective if climate policy takes the form of a combination of traditional environmental policy and technology policy. Regardless of the particular policy instruments chosen, however, I find that technology externalities can justify differentiation of climate policy between non-CO2 intensive- and CO2-intensive sectors, such that the latter face a higher CO2 price. This result is considerably different from the conventional environmental economic conclusion that equal marginal abatement costs across the economy 1ead to a cost-effective emission reduction. Finally, focusing the model analysis more on the energy sector of the Dutch economy, I study cost effectiveness of combining the environmental policy with technology policy aimed at reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of a specific CO2 abatement technology, I take CO2 capture and storage in the Dutch electricity sector as a case study. I find that such a policy combination leads to faster adoption of CO2 capture and storage and improves cost effectiveness of the emission reduction.
|Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: selected, reviewed papers from the Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases Conference (NCGG-4), held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, on the 4-6 July 2005
Amstel, A.R. van; Pulles, T. - \ 2005
Abingdon : Taylor and Francis (Environmental sciences V.2-3, 2) - 322 p.
|Nieuwe richtlijnen voor emissies broeikasgassen
Amstel, A.R. van; Pulles, T. - \ 2005
ArenA 11 (2005)2. - ISSN 1383-7974 - p. 14 - 15.
emissie - rapporten - richtlijnen (directives) - luchtverontreiniging - emission - reports - directives - air pollution
In de loop van 2005 hoopt het IPCC gereed te komen met een stevige aanvulling en herziening van haar richtlijnen voor uniforme en betrouwbare nationale emissierapportages. In 2006 moet de vernieuwde set richtlijnen worden vastgesteld. Een aantal belangrijke aanpassingen en hun betekenis op een rij
|Milieu, de oogst gewogen : milieukundige publicaties in Nederland nader beschouwd
Bertels, J. ; Snoo, G.R. de - \ 2003
In: De oogst van het milieu / Boersema, J.J., Pulles, T., van der Straaten, J., Bertels, J., Amsterdam : Boom - ISBN 9789053528495 - p. 360 - 368.
Uncertainties in emission inventories
Aardenne, J.A. van - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. Hordijk; M.P.J. Pulles; C. Kroeze. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086419 - 143
emissie - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - luchtverontreiniging - stikstofoxiden - milieueffect - inventarisaties - emission - air pollutants - air pollution - nitrogen oxides - environmental impact - inventories
Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For policy purposes, emission inventories can be used to monitor the progress of environmental policy or to check compliance with conventions and protocols. For scientific purposes, emission inventories can be used as input into atmospheric dispersion models that are aimed at understanding the chemical and physical processes and the behaviour of air pollutants in the atmosphere. A strict separation between policy and scientific oriented emission inventories is not always possible. The usefulness of emission inventories for policy or science depends on the accuracy and the reliability of the inventories. There is uncertainty about an emission inventory when the accuracy and reliability of the emission estimates are not known. Proper use of emissions inventories requires an assessment of the uncertainties, including identification, qualification and quantification of the uncertainty. Although different methods for the assessment of uncertainty in emission inventories have been proposed, a systematic approach for identification, qualification and quantification of uncertainty does not exist. The objective of this thesis is to develop such a systematic approach for large-scale inventories. In order to meet this objective three research questions have been formulated:
(i) What are the potential sources of uncertainty in emission inventories
(ii) Which methods can be followed for the assessment of uncertainty
(111)To what extent can uncertainty in emission inventories be identified, qualified or quantified.
The methodology of emission inventory compilation typical for large-scale emission inventories has been illustrated by two emission inventories. In chapter 2, time series of past worldwide emission of anthropogenic trace gases for the period 1890 - 1990 are described. Chapter 3 presents projections for NOx emissions in Asia for the period 1990 -2020. The construction of these emission inventories was hampered by the lack of experimental data on the different sources of emission. As a result, the emissions were calculated on another scale than on which the emission processes occur in reality. The activity data and emission factors were based on extrapolation of existing information. Due to these aggregations and extrapolations, the emission inventories are inaccurate representations of the actual emissions.
Chapter 4 describes the theoretical basis for our definitions of uncertainties, followed by a categorisation of uncertainties in emission inventories. It is argued that two types of uncertainty in emission inventories exist. Uncertainty about accuracy is the lack of knowledge about the sources and size of the inaccuracy. Uncertainty about reliability is the lack of knowledge about the degree to which the emission inventory is meeting user-specified quality criteria. These user-specified criteria depend on the purpose of the emission inventory. For scientific purposes the reliability is defined by the accuracy of the inventory. For policy purposes, quality criteria can be related to transparency, application of agreed upon methodologies or sometimes also to the assessment of accuracy. Uncertainty about reliability exists when either the accuracy of the emission inventory is not known or when the documentation of the inventory is inadequate and incomplete. Uncertainty about accuracy exists when the different sources of inaccuracy or the extent to which the inventory is inaccurate is not known. A categorisation of uncertainty about different sources of inaccuracy has been presented. Uncertainty about structural inaccuracy is the lack knowledge about the extent to which the structure of an emission inventory allows for an accurate calculation of the 'real' emission. Three causes for structural inaccuracy have been defined. These are aggregation error, incompleteness and mathematical formulation error. Uncertainty about input value inaccuracy is the lack of knowledge about the values of activity data and emission factors. Four causes for input value inaccuracy have been identified. These are extrapolation error, measurement error, unknown developments and reporting error.
Uncertainty about reliability can be assessed through peer review. For the assessment of inaccuracy, a distinction is made between internal and external assessment of uncertainty. In an internal assessment, the methodology and information to construct an emission inventory form the basis for the assessment of inaccuracy. Based on review of available methodologies six methods for internal assessment are proposed: (i) qualitative discussion, (ii) data quality rating, (iii) calculation cheek and evaluation of mathematical formulation, (iv) expert judgement, (v) error propagation and (vi) importance analysis. In an external assessment, the difference between the emission inventory and external sources of information is used to identify, qualify or quantify inaccuracy in the emission inventory. Four methods can be used:(1)comparison with other emission inventories, (ii) comparison with (in)direct measurements, (iii) forward air quality modelling and (iv) inverse air quality modelling.
Against this background we developed a systematic approach for the assessment of uncertainty in emission inventories. This framework, FRAULEIN (FRamework for the Assessment of Uncertainty in Large-scale Emission INventories) can be used to assess uncertainty about reliability and uncertainty about accuracy. It provides guidance for selection of the methods that can be used to identify, qualify or quantify different sources of uncertainty.
Several methods included in the framework have been analysed in more detail to identify the advantages and disadvantages of these methods in practice. Chapter 5 presents the results of assessment of uncertainties in estimates of 1990 N20 emissions from agriculture in The Netherlands using the methods of error propagation and importance analysis. The results indicate that only a small number (three out of 23) of uncertain inventory parameters have large share in the inaccuracy of the emission inventory. These parameters include emission factors for indirect N20 emissions (EF5), the fraction of N leaching from agricultural soils (Fracleach) and the emission factor for direct soil emissions (EF1). Reducing the inaccuracy in the inventory should therefore focus on improved quantification of indirect emissions (based on EF5 and Fracleach) and direct soil emissions (EF1). From a methodological point of view, the results of the N20 case study show that quantification of input value inaccuracy through error propagation is influenced by the statistical
quantification interpretation of the available information in the IPCC Guidelines (default values, and uncertainty ranges of emission factors in particular). This result provides an indication that the extent to which inaccuracies can be assessed depends not only on the characteristics of the method used for the assessment but also on the available information on inventory parameters. Identification of inventory parameters having the largest share in the inaccuracy, on the other hand, was not influenced by the statistical interpretation of IPCC information.
Chapter 6 describes the results of assessment of uncertainty in a European emission inventory of S02 in 1994 using forward air quality modelling and atmospheric measurements. The problem with this type of assessment is that it is not easy to pinpoint emission inventory inaccuracy as single cause of the deviation between measurements and model results. Inaccuracies exist in both the inventory, model and measurements. In the case study it has been analysed whether wind-direction-dependent differences between calculated and measured concentrations can be used to assess inaccuracies in emission inventories. The results indicate that in three regions within the study domain inaccuracy in the emission inventory is the most likely cause for the discrepancy between modelled and observed S02 concentrations. These regions are Sachsen/Brandenburg (Germany), Central England and the western part of the Russian Federation. In Sachsen/Brandenburg and Central England the spatial distribution of the emissions seems to be inaccurate while in the western part of the Russian Federation the total emission estimate seems to be inaccurate. We developed a relatively simple method to identify inventory inaccuracies based on differences between the air quality model and atmospheric measurements. However, it was also shown that the method is primarily a tool for identifying relatively inaccurate parts of the inventory. The method cannot be used to analyse causes of the inaccuracies, such as inaccurate structure or input values. Furthermore, it was concluded that the method is more a qualitative than a quantitative approach.
There are three ways to use FRAULEIN in practice. First, in situations where the method for uncertainty assessment is prescribed, FRAULEIN clarifies the sources of uncertainty that can be identified, qualified or quantified. Second, if the objective of a study is to assess a specific source of uncertainty, FRAULEIN may serve as a guide for selection of the appropriate methods. Third, if the aim is to perform a full assessment of inaccuracy, FRAULEIN forms the basis of a four-step approach: (1) identification, qualification (2) and quantification (3) of the sources of inaccuracy, followed by evaluation to prioritise further research (4).
|Wind-direction-dependent differences between model calculations and field measurements as indicator for inaccuracies in emission inventories
Aardenne, J.A. van; Builtjes, P. ; Pulles, T. ; Hordijk, L. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2002
In: Annual Symposium, Emission factor and inventory group : US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta GA, 2001 Atlanta :
Using wind-direction-dependent differences between model calculations and field measurements as indicator for the inaccuracy of emission inventories
Aardenne, J.A. van; Builtjes, P.J.H. ; Hordijk, L. ; Kroeze, C. ; Pulles, M.P.J. - \ 2002
Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1195 - 1204.
|Uncertainties in the calculation of agricultural N2O emissions in the Netherlands using IPCC guidelines
Aardenne, J.A. van; Kroeze, C. ; Pulles, M.P.J. ; Hordijk, L. - \ 2000
In: Non CO2 greenhouse gases : scientific understanding, control and implementation / van Ham, J., Baede, A.P.M., Meyer, L.A., Ybema, R., Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers - p. 493 - 498.
|Verification, validation and uncertainties
Pulles, T. ; Aardenne, J.A. van - \ 2000
In: Monitoring of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands: uncertainty and priorities for improvement : National Workshop Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases in the Netherlands, Bilthoven, 9-2000 / van Amstel, A.R., Olivier, J.G.J., Ruyssenaars, P.G., Bilthoven : VROM/RIVM/WIMEK - p. 31 - 51.
|Uncertainties in the calculation of agricultural N2O emission in the Netherlands using IPCC guidelines
Aardenne, J.A. van; Kroeze, C. ; Pulles, M.P.J. ; Hordijk, L. - \ 1999
In: Proceedings Second Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Conference, Noordwijkerhout, 8-10 september 1999. - [S.l.] : [s.n.], 1999 - p. 1 - 1.
|Soils of the rainforest in Central Guyana
Kekem, A.J. van; Pulles, J.H.M. ; Khan, Z. - \ 1996
Wageningen : Tropenbos (Tropenbos - Guyana series 2) - ISBN 9789039311592 - 160
bodemkarteringen - kaarten - bosbouw - landgebruik - planning - landevaluatie - regionale planning - guyana - soil surveys - maps - forestry - land use - land evaluation - regional planning
A soil survey was carried out in the Mabura-Kurupukari area (Guyana) to provide basic data for decisions on sustained use of the forest. Soils of the hills and dissected erosional plains have been formed in residual rock and are shallow to deep, stonyand clayey. The dissected sedimentary plains consist of deep, excessively drained, white sands and deep, well-drained, brown loams and clays. Soil weathering and translocation of weathering products have determined the clay content of the soils of the sedimentary plains. All soils are strongly acid and nutrient-poor. Human interference in the forest ecosystem will affect the soil quality.