Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Can timber provision from Amazonian production forests be sustainable?
Piponiot, Camille ; Rödig, Edna ; Putz, Francis E. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Sist, Plinio ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Blanc, Lilian ; Derroire, Géraldine ; Descroix, Laurent ; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro ; Coronado, Euridice Honorio ; Huth, Andreas ; Kanashiro, Milton ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Oliveira, Marcus Vinicio Neves D'; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Rodney, Ken ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Souza, Cintia Rodrigues De; Vidal, Edson ; West, Thales A.P. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Hérault, Bruno - \ 2019
Environmental Research Letters 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
Amazonia - disturbance - ecosystem recovery - macroecology - Selective logging - tropical forestry

Around 30 Mm3 of sawlogs are extracted annually by selective logging of natural production forests in Amazonia, Earth's most extensive tropical forest. Decisions concerning the management of these production forests will be of major importance for Amazonian forests' fate. To date, no regional assessment of selective logging sustainability supports decision-making. Based on data from 3500 ha of forest inventory plots, our modelling results show that the average periodic harvests of 20 m3 ha-1 will not recover by the end of a standard 30 year cutting cycle. Timber recovery within a cutting cycle is enhanced by commercial acceptance of more species and with the adoption of longer cutting cycles and lower logging intensities. Recovery rates are faster in Western Amazonia than on the Guiana Shield. Our simulations suggest that regardless of cutting cycle duration and logging intensities, selectively logged forests are unlikely to meet timber demands over the long term as timber stocks are predicted to steadily decline. There is thus an urgent need to develop an integrated forest resource management policy that combines active management of production forests with the restoration of degraded and secondary forests for timber production. Without better management, reduced timber harvests and continued timber production declines are unavoidable.

Source partitioning of H 2 O and CO 2 fluxes based on high-frequency eddy covariance data : A comparison between study sites
Klosterhalfen, Anne ; Graf, Alexander ; Brüggemann, Nicolas ; Drüe, Clemens ; Esser, Odilia ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Heinemann, Günther ; Jacobs, Cor M.J. ; Mauder, Matthias ; Moene, Arnold F. ; Ney, Patrizia ; Pütz, Thomas ; Rebmann, Corinna ; Rodríguez, Mario Ramos ; Scanlon, Todd M. ; Schmidt, Marius ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Thomas, Christoph K. ; Valler, Veronika ; Zeeman, Matthias J. ; Vereecken, Harry - \ 2019
Biogeosciences 16 (2019)6. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1111 - 1132.

For an assessment of the roles of soil and vegetation in the climate system, a further understanding of the flux components of H 2 O and CO 2 (e.g., transpiration, soil respiration) and their interaction with physical conditions and physiological functioning of plants and ecosystems is necessary. To obtain magnitudes of these flux components, we applied source partitioning approaches after Scanlon and Kustas (2010; SK10) and after Thomas et al. (2008; TH08) to high-frequency eddy covariance measurements of 12 study sites covering different ecosystems (croplands, grasslands, and forests) in different climatic regions. Both partitioning methods are based on higher-order statistics of the H 2 O and CO 2 fluctuations, but proceed differently to estimate transpiration, evaporation, net primary production, and soil respiration. We compared and evaluated the partitioning results obtained with SK10 and TH08, including slight modifications of both approaches. Further, we analyzed the interrelations among the performance of the partitioning methods, turbulence characteristics, and site characteristics (such as plant cover type, canopy height, canopy density, and measurement height). We were able to identify characteristics of a data set that are prerequisites for adequate performance of the partitioning methods. SK10 had the tendency to overestimate and TH08 to underestimate soil flux components. For both methods, the partitioning of CO 2 fluxes was less robust than for H 2 O fluxes. Results derived with SK10 showed relatively large dependencies on estimated water use efficiency (WUE) at the leaf level, which is a required input. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation used for the estimation of foliage temperature (used in WUE) could slightly increase the quality of the partitioning results. A modification of the TH08 approach, by applying a cluster analysis for the conditional sampling of respiration-evaporation events, performed satisfactorily, but did not result in significant advantages compared to the original method versions developed by Thomas et al. (2008). The performance of each partitioning approach was dependent on meteorological conditions, plant development, canopy height, canopy density, and measurement height. Foremost, the performance of SK10 correlated page1112 negatively with the ratio between measurement height and canopy height. The performance of TH08 was more dependent on canopy height and leaf area index. In general, all site characteristics that increase dissimilarities between scalars appeared to enhance partitioning performance for SK10 and TH08.

Interactive effects of tree size, crown exposure and logging on drought-induced mortality
Shenkin, Alexander ; Bolker, Benjamin ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Putz, Francis E. - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 10 p.
climate change - drought - logging - resilience - tree mortality - tropical forest

Large trees in the tropics are reportedly more vulnerable to droughts than their smaller neighbours. This pattern is of interest due to what it portends for forest structure, timber production, carbon sequestration and multiple other values given that intensified El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Amazon region. What remains unclear is what characteristics of large trees render them especially vulnerable to drought-induced mortality and how this vulnerability changes with forest degradation. Using a large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiment in a transitional Amazonian forest in Bolivia, we disentangle the effects of stem diameter, tree height, crown exposure and logging-induced degradation on risks of drought-induced mortality during the 2004/2005 ENSO event. Overall, tree mortality increased in response to drought in both logged and unlogged plots. Tree height was a much stronger predictor of mortality than stem diameter. In unlogged plots, tree height but not crown exposure was positively associated with drought-induced mortality, whereas in logged plots, neither tree height nor crown exposure was associated with drought-induced mortality. Our results suggest that, at the scale of a site, hydraulic factors related to tree height, not air humidity, are a cause of elevated drought-induced mortality of large trees in unlogged plots.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

Trade-offs between carbon stocks and timber recovery in tropical forests are mediated by logging intensity
Roopsind, Anand ; Caughlin, T.T. ; Hout, Peter van der; Arets, Eric ; Putz, Francis E. - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)7. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2862 - 2874.
Carbon stocks - Climate change mitigation - Forest degradation - Piecewise regression - REDD+ - Sustainable forest management - Tropical forestry

Forest degradation accounts for ~70% of total carbon losses from tropical forests. Substantial emissions are from selective logging, a land-use activity that decreases forest carbon density. To maintain carbon values in selectively logged forests, climate change mitigation policies and government agencies promote the adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) practices. However, whether RIL will maintain both carbon and timber values in managed tropical forests over time remains uncertain. In this study, we quantify the recovery of timber stocks and aboveground carbon at an experimental site where forests were subjected to different intensities of RIL (4, 8, and 16 trees/ha). Our census data span 20 years postlogging and 17 years after the liberation of future crop trees from competition in a tropical forest on the Guiana Shield, a globally important forest carbon reservoir. We model recovery of timber and carbon with a breakpoint regression that allowed us to capture elevated tree mortality immediately after logging. Recovery rates of timber and carbon were governed by the presence of residual trees (i.e., trees that persisted through the first harvest). The liberation treatment stimulated faster recovery of timber albeit at a carbon cost. Model results suggest a threshold logging intensity beyond which forests managed for timber and carbon derive few benefits from RIL, with recruitment and residual growth not sufficient to offset losses. Inclusion of the breakpoint at which carbon and timber gains outpaced postlogging mortality led to high predictive accuracy, including out-of-sample R2 values >90%, and enabled inference on demographic changes postlogging. Our modeling framework is broadly applicable to studies that aim to quantify impacts of logging on forest recovery. Overall, we demonstrate that initial mortality drives variation in recovery rates, that the second harvest depends on old growth wood, and that timber intensification lowers carbon stocks.

Data from: Carbon recovery dynamics following disturbance by selective logging in Amazonian forests
Piponiot, Camille ; Sist, Plinio ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Pena Claros, M. ; Putz, Francis E. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Azevedo, Celso P. de; Baraloto, Christopher - \ 2016
carbon stocks - disturbance - selective logging - REDD+
When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors' and recruits' C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery. We show that net aboveground C recovery over 10 years is higher in the Guiana Shield and in the west (21{plus minus}3 MgC ha-1) than in the south (12{plus minus}3 MgC ha-1) where environmental stress is high (low rainfall, high seasonality). We highlight the key role of survivors in the forest regrowth and elaborate a comprehensive map of post-disturbance C recovery potential in Amazonia.
Carbon recovery dynamics following disturbance by selective logging in amazonian forests
Piponiot, Camille ; Sist, Plinio ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Putz, Francis E. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Azevedo, Celso P. de; Baraloto, Christopher - \ 2016
eLife 5 (2016). - ISSN 2050-084X

When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors’ and recruits’ C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery. We show that net aboveground C recovery over 10 years is higher in the Guiana Shield and in the west (21 ± 3 Mg C ha−1) than in the south (12 ± 3 Mg C ha−1) where environmental stress is high (low rainfall, high seasonality). We highlight the key role of survivors in the forest regrowth and elaborate a comprehensive map of post-disturbance C recovery potential in Amazonia.

Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies
Rogers, P.J. ; Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Graaf, Kees de; Higgs, S. ; Lluch, A. ; Ness, A.R. ; Penfold, C. ; Perry, R. ; Putz, P. ; Yeomans, M.R. ; Mela, D.J. - \ 2016
International Journal of Obesity 40 (2016)3. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 381 - 394.

By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m - 2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also when compared with water.

Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol
Petrokofsky, Gillian ; Sist, Plinio ; Blanc, Lilian ; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Finegan, Bryan ; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie ; Healey, John R. ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Nasi, Robert ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Putz, Francis E. ; Zhou, Wen - \ 2015
Environmental Evidence 4 (2015). - ISSN 2047-2382 - 7 p.
Biodiversity - Conservation - Silviculture - Sustainable forest management - Tropical forests

Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests in which the volume of timber extracted over the first cutting cycle was mostly from large, old trees that matured over a century or more and grew in the absence of strong anthropological pressures. In forests now being logged for a second and third time, that volume has not been reconstituted due in part to the lack of implementation of post-logging silvicultural treatments. This depletion of timber stocks renders the degraded forests prone to conversion to other land uses. Although it is essential to preserve undisturbed primary forests through the creation of protected areas, these areas alone will not be able to ensure the conservation of all species on a pan-tropical scale, for social, economic and political reasons. The conservation of tropical forests of tomorrow will mostly take place within human-modified (logged, domesticated) forests. In this context, silvicultural interventions are considered by many tropical foresters and forest ecologists as tools capable of effectively conserving tropical forest biodiversity and ecosystem services while stimulating forest production. This systematic review aims to assess past and current evidence of the impact of silviculture on tropical forests and to identify silvicultural practices appropriate for the current conditions in the forests and forestry sectors of the Congo Basin, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. Methods: This systematic review will undertake an extensive search of literature to assess the relative effectiveness of different silvicultural interventions on timber production and the conservation value of forests, and to determine whether there is a relationship between sustainability of timber harvesting and the maintenance/conservation of other ecosystem services and biodiversity in production forests. Data will be extracted for meta-analysis of at least sub-sets of the review questions. Findings are expected to help inform policy and develop evidence-based practice guidelines on silvicultural practices in tropical forests.

Fates of trees damaged by logging in Amazonian Bolivia
Shenkin, A. ; Bolker, B. ; Peña Claros, M. ; Licona, J.C. ; Putz, F.E. - \ 2015
Forest Ecology and Management 357 (2015). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 50 - 59.
Estimation of carbon losses from trees felled and incidentally-killed during selective logging of tropical forests is relatively straightforward and well-documented, but less is known about the fates of collaterally-damaged trees that initially survive. Tree response to logging damage is an important and overlooked ecological process potentially affecting 2–5% of all extant tropical trees. Here we report on the fates of damaged trees over the first 8-years after logging in a transitional Amazonian forest in Eastern Bolivia. Mortality rates of damaged trees peaked in the first year after logging, and then slowly declined to background rates by the end of the study, indicating that if a damaged tree survives 8 years, it then runs approximately the same annual mortality risk as an undamaged tree. Of all types of logging damage, crown damage reduced growth rates the most while inclined trees suffered the highest mortality rates. Neither wood density nor tree size conferred tolerance to damage, though species with bark exudates were less tolerant of damage. Surprisingly, damaged trees survived droughts better than undamaged trees, perhaps due to their proximity to felling gaps and concomitant reduced above- and below-ground competition or due to their reduced leaf areas and associated reductions in water stress. While this study only tests one interaction between an aspect of climate change and logging, we found a positive signal for forest resilience. This response should be considered amongst others in models of managed forests in climate change scenarios.
Dynamics of lianas in DR Congo
Bongers, F. ; Ewango, C.E.N. - \ 2015
In: Ecology of lianas / Schnitzer, S., Bongers, F., Burnham, R.J., Putz, F.E., Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118392492 - p. 23 - 35.
This chapter focuses on the lianas from DR Congo where few recent studies have been conducted. It reports on two developments in liana dynamics in the Congo Basin. First, the chapter presents results from the liana dynamics plots of Ituri, in the eastern DR Congo. The Ituri plots, which are the largest of the Central/Eastern African liana communities and their dynamics, were first sampled in the early 1990s with the establishment of four 10-ha plots. Second, the chapter addresses the dynamics of the invading climber species Sericostachys scandens. Data is presented for lianas in the two 10-ha plots located in the mixed Edoro forest. The chapter also presents liana results for the inventory of 2007 and for changes since 1994. Liana densities in the few African forests that have been studied are similar to other continents, but species diversity appears to be higher.
Ecology of lianas
Schnitzer, S.A. ; Bongers, F. ; Burnham, R.J. ; Putz, F.E. - \ 2015
Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118392492 - 504
klimplanten - plantenecologie - plantenanatomie - plantenfysiologie - evolutie - tropische bossen - bossen - climbing plants - plant ecology - plant anatomy - plant physiology - evolution - tropical forests - forests
A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. The main goal of this book is to present the current status of liana ecology in tropical and temperate forests. In essence, it is a forum to summarize and synthesize the most recent research in liana ecology and to address how this research fits into the broader field of ecology.
Schnitzer, Stefan A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Burnham, Robyn J. ; Putz, Francis E. - \ 2014
In: Ecology of Lianas Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118392409 - p. xv - xvi.
The past, present, and potential future of liana ecology
Schnitzer, S.A. ; Putz, F.E. ; Bongers, F.J.J.M. ; Kroening, K. - \ 2014
In: Ecology of lianas Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118392492 - p. 3 - 10.
Lianas are a conspicuous component of many forests, particularly in the tropics. Lianas also compete intensely with trees for belowground resources – primarily water and nutrients. Liana publication rate was extremely low until the 1980s, after which it began a rapid rise. The increase in liana abundance will motivate forest managers to more actively manage lianas in timber-producing forests. Lianas can be used to test basic ecological theory on the factors controlling plant species distribution, the maintenance of species diversity, plant competition, and large-scale structural change in tropical forests. The causes and consequences of increasing liana abundance and biomass will likely become an active area of future study. A deeper understanding of liana life-history strategies and how these strategies enable lianas to compete successfully with trees may reveal the causes of increasing liana abundance and biomass, and the ways in which these increases will alter future tropical forest dynamics.
Beyond equitable data sharing to improve tropical forest management
Ruslandi, A. ; Roopsind, A. ; Sist, P. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Thomas, R. ; Putz, F.E. - \ 2014
International Forestry Review 16 (2014)4. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 497 - 503.
dynamics - science - conservation - journals - biology
Tropical forest management and policy decisions are hampered by lack of reliable information about forest responses to timber harvesting and other silvicultural interventions. Although the necessary raw data from permanent sample plots (PSPs) mostly exist, the relevant results are generally unavailable due to lack of analytical capacities within data-holding institutions or lack of incentives to make the results available. Where analytical deficiency is the bottleneck, collaborative data-sharing agreements that go beyond the outsourcing of data-analysis to third parties can provide equitable and effective short- and long-term options. Simply outsourcing PSP data analysis to established scientists from extra-tropical countries might solve short-term problems, but does not prepare the community of scientists in tropical countries to address future research challenges. The design of such collaborative agreements that satisfy the needs and desires of the various parties involved is complicated by cultural and institutional differences, but progress on this front is evident.
A more realistic portrayal of tropical forestry: response to Kormos and Zimmerman
Putz, F.E. ; Zuidema, P.A. ; Synnott, T. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Pinard, M.A. ; Sheil, D. ; Vanclay, J.K. ; Sist, P. ; Gourlet-Fleury, S. ; Griscom, B. ; Palmer, J. ; Zagt, R. - \ 2014
Conservation Letters 7 (2014)2. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 145 - 146.
Bark traits and life-history strategies of tropical dry- and moist forest trees
Poorter, L. ; McNeil, A. ; Hurtado, V.H. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Putz, F.E. - \ 2014
Functional Ecology 28 (2014)1. - ISSN 0269-8463 - p. 232 - 242.
shade-tolerance - rain-forest - interspecific variation - carbohydrate storage - evolutionary ecology - structural traits - colorado-island - lowland bolivia - wood density - fire
1.Bark is crucial to trees because it protects their stems against fire and other hazards and because of its importance for assimilate transport, water relationships and repair. We evaluate size-dependent changes in bark thickness for 50 woody species from a moist forest and 50 species from a dry forest in Bolivia and relate bark thickness to their other bark characteristics, species life-history strategies and wood properties. 2.For 71% of the evaluated species, the allometric coefficient describing the relationship between bark thickness and stem diameter was significantly
Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: the attained and the attainable
Putz, F.E. ; Zuidema, P.A. ; Synnott, T. ; Peña Claros, M. ; Pinard, M.A. ; Sheil, D. ; Vanclay, J.K. ; Sist, P. ; Gourlet-Fleury, S. ; Griscom, B. ; Palmer, J. ; Zagt, R. - \ 2012
Conservation Letters 5 (2012)4. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 296 - 303.
rain-forest - southeast-asia - impact - biodiversity - disturbance - management - diversity - biomass - borneo - carbon
Most tropical forests outside protected areas have been or will be selectively logged so it is essential to maximize the conservation values of partially harvested areas. Here we examine the extent to which these forests sustain timber production, retain species, and conserve carbon stocks. We then describe some improvements in tropical forestry and how their implementation can be promoted. A simple meta-analysis based on >100 publications revealed substantial variability but that: timber yields decline by about 46% after the first harvest but are subsequently sustained at that level; 76% of carbon is retained in once-logged forests; and, 85–100% of species of mammals, birds, invertebrates, and plants remain after logging. Timber stocks will not regain primary-forest levels within current harvest cycles, but yields increase if collateral damage is reduced and silvicultural treatments are applied. Given that selectively logged forests retain substantial biodiversity, carbon, and timber stocks, this “middle way” between deforestation and total protection deserves more attention from researchers, conservation organizations, and policy-makers. Improvements in forest management are now likely if synergies are enhanced among initiatives to retain forest carbon stocks (REDD+), assure the legality of forest products, certify responsible management, and devolve control over forests to empowered local communities.
Soil Effects on Forest Structure and Diversity in a Moist and a Dry Tropical Forest
Peña-Claros, M. ; Poorter, L. ; Alarcon, A. ; Blate, G. ; Choque, U. ; Fredericksen, T.S. ; Justiniano, J. ; Leaño, C. ; Licona, J.C. ; Pariona, W. ; Putz, F.E. ; Quevedo, L. ; Toledo, M. - \ 2012
Biotropica 44 (2012)3. - ISSN 0006-3606 - p. 276 - 283.
tree species richness - amazonian rain-forest - terra-firme forests - habitat associations - ecuadorian amazonia - floristic variation - edaphic factors - beta-diversity - national-park - patterns
Soil characteristics are important drivers of variation in wet tropical forest structure and diversity, but few studies have evaluated these relationships in drier forest types. Using tree and soil data from 48 and 32 1 ha plots, respectively, in a Bolivian moist and dry forest, we asked how soil conditions affect forest structure and diversity within each of the two forest types. After correcting for spatial effects, soil-vegetation relationships differed between the dry and the moist forest, being strongest in the dry forest. Furthermore, we hypothesized that soil nutrients would play a more important role in the moist forest than in the dry forest because vegetation in the moist forest is less constrained by water availability and thus can show its full potential response to soil fertility. However, contrary to our expectations, we found that soil fertility explained a larger number of forest variables in the dry forest (50 percent) than in the moist forest (17 percent). Shannon diversity declined with soil fertility at both sites, probably because the most dominant, shade-tolerant species strongly increased in abundance as soil fertility increased.
An indirect way of evaluating the impact of certification on biodiversity: some results and recommendations
Peña Claros, M. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2010
In: Biodiveristy conservation in certified forests / Sheil, D, Putz, F.E., Zagt, R., Wageningen : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789051130935 - p. 131 - 136.
Biocultural diversity in community forestry in Nepal
Wiersum, K.F. ; Shrestha, K. - \ 2010
In: Biodiversity conservation in certified forests / Douglas, S., Putz, F.E., Zagt, R.J., Wageningen, The Netherlands : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789051130935
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