Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Can multi-use of the sea be safe? A framework for risk assessment of multi-use at sea
Hoof, L. van; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Banach, J.L. ; Röckmann, C. ; Goossen, M. - \ 2019
Ocean & Coastal Management (2019). - ISSN 0964-5691
Multi-use at sea - Risk assessment - Risk governance - Seaweed production - Wind farms

By 2050 the world population is expected to reach 10 billion people. This population needs food, water and energy. Increasingly, opportunities are sought out at sea to accommodate these needs. As there is already competition for space, especially in the near-shore, opportunities for multi-use, including the combination of, for example, food and energy production in a single location, are sought. One issue that needs to be addressed to allow for multi-use at sea is safety. Existing frameworks for (marine) risk assessment tend to be rather sector specific and, although existing models and frameworks for risk analysis provide useful elements for an integrated analysis, none of the approaches fully caters for the need of having a framework based on a cyclical process of stakeholder input in all steps of the process of risk identification, risk management and risk evaluation and communication, identifying actions to be taken and providing tools useful in each of the steps, while integrating the three perspectives of maritime safety, food (and feed) safety, and environmental impact assessment and the different perspectives of the actors involved. This study developed a common framework for the risk assessment of multi-use at sea, consisting of six steps (Exploring, Understanding, Appraising, Deciding, Implementing and Evaluating & Communication). The framework encompasses and integrates an analysis of food and feed safety aspects, the safety of people and equipment, and environmental safety aspects. For each step, actions are defined, tools that can be of help to stakeholders are presented, and stakeholder participation measures are described. The framework is iterative and dynamic in its nature; with constant communication and evaluation of progress, decisions can be taken to either take a step forward or back. The framework is developed to assist operators and producers, policymakers, and other stakeholders in assessing and managing risks of multi-use at sea.

Determination of the triple oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of CO2 from atomic ion fragments formed in the ion source of the 253 Ultra high-resolution isotope ratio mass spectrometer
Adnew, Getachew A. ; Hofmann, Magdalena E.G. ; Paul, Dipayan ; Laskar, Amzad ; Surma, Jakub ; Albrecht, Nina ; Pack, Andreas ; Schwieters, Johannes ; Koren, Gerbrand ; Peters, Wouter ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2019
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 33 (2019)17. - ISSN 0951-4198 - p. 1363 - 1380.

Rationale: Determination of δ17O values directly from CO2 with traditional gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry is not possible due to isobaric interference of 13C16O16O on 12C17O16O. The methods developed so far use either chemical conversion or isotope equilibration to determine the δ17O value of CO2. In addition, δ13C measurements require correction for the interference from 12C17O16O on 13C16O16O since it is not possible to resolve the two isotopologues. Methods: We present a technique to determine the δ17O, δ18O and δ13C values of CO2 from the fragment ions that are formed upon electron ionization in the ion source of the Thermo Scientific 253 Ultra high-resolution isotope ratio mass spectrometer (hereafter 253 Ultra). The new technique is compared with the CO2-O2 exchange method and the 17O-correction algorithm for δ17O and δ13C values, respectively. Results: The scale contractions for δ13C and δ18O values are slightly larger for fragment ion measurements than for molecular ion measurements. The δ17O and Δ17O values of CO2 can be measured on the 17O+ fragment with an internal error that is a factor 1–2 above the counting statistics limit. The ultimate precision depends on the signal intensity and on the total time that the 17O+ beam is monitored; a precision of 14 ppm (parts per million) (standard error of the mean) was achieved in 20 hours at the University of Göttingen. The Δ17O measurements with the O-fragment method agree with the CO2-O2 exchange method over a range of Δ17O values of −0.3 to +0.7‰. Conclusions: Isotope measurements on atom fragment ions of CO2 can be used as an alternative method to determine the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 without chemical processing or corrections for mass interferences.

Global 3-D Simulations of the Triple Oxygen Isotope Signature Δ17O in Atmospheric CO2
Koren, Gerbrand ; Schneider, Linda ; Velde, Ivar R. van der; Schaik, Erik van; Gromov, Sergey S. ; Adnew, Getachew A. ; Mrozek Martino, Dorota J. ; Hofmann, Magdalena E.G. ; Liang, Mao Chang ; Mahata, Sasadhar ; Bergamaschi, Peter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Krol, Maarten C. ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Peters, Wouter - \ 2019
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (2019). - ISSN 2169-897X
O excess (ΔO) - carbon cycle - carbon dioxide (CO) - gross primary production (GPP) - mass-independent fractionation (MIF) - stable isotopes

The triple oxygen isotope signature Δ17O in atmospheric CO2, also known as its “17O excess,” has been proposed as a tracer for gross primary production (the gross uptake of CO2 by vegetation through photosynthesis). We present the first global 3-D model simulations for Δ17O in atmospheric CO2 together with a detailed model description and sensitivity analyses. In our 3-D model framework we include the stratospheric source of Δ17O in CO2 and the surface sinks from vegetation, soils, ocean, biomass burning, and fossil fuel combustion. The effect of oxidation of atmospheric CO on Δ17O in CO2 is also included in our model. We estimate that the global mean Δ17O (defined as Δ17O = ln(δ17O+1)−λRL·ln(δ18O+1) with λRL = 0.5229) of CO2 in the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere is 39.6 per meg, which is ∼20 per meg lower than estimates from existing box models. We compare our model results with a measured stratospheric Δ17O in CO2 profile from Sodankylä (Finland), which shows good agreement. In addition, we compare our model results with tropospheric measurements of Δ17O in CO2 from Göttingen (Germany) and Taipei (Taiwan), which shows some agreement but we also find substantial discrepancies that are subsequently discussed. Finally, we show model results for Zotino (Russia), Mauna Loa (United States), Manaus (Brazil), and South Pole, which we propose as possible locations for future measurements of Δ17O in tropospheric CO2 that can help to further increase our understanding of the global budget of Δ17O in atmospheric CO2.

Sub-diurnal variability of the carbon dioxide and water vapor isotopologues at the field observational scale
Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Koren, Gerbrand ; Ouwersloot, Huug G. ; Velde, Ivar van der; Röckmann, Thomas ; Miller, John B. - \ 2019
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 275 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 114 - 135.
Boundary-layer dynamics - CO - Coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere model - HO - Harvard Forest observations - Stable isotopologues - Sub-diurnal variability

We investigated the sub-diurnal variability of the carbon dioxide and water vapour isotopologues by modelling a representative case measured above the Harvard Forest. To this end, we developed a model that couples the local processes governed by soil and vegetation conditions to non-local atmospheric processes such as entrainment and long-range advection. The model formulation is based on solving the stable isotopologues 12CO2, 13CO2, C18OO, H2 16O and H2 18O as conserved variables. It also includes simultaneously solving the meteorological state variables coupled with their respective surface fluxes. Our model results indicate the need for a comprehensive observational data-set to ensure that the essential processes and interactions between the boundary-layer dynamics of a forest and the atmospheric boundary layer are satisfactorily reproduced. We present and discuss the temporal evolution of the budgets of 13CO2 and C18OO, in order to quantify the individual contributions made by soil, plant and entrainment dynamics. All these contributions turn out to be relevant, as they enable us to quantify how the energy, water and carbon fluxes on sub-daily scales are partitioned. Regarding the role played by entrainment, we carried out a set of three systematic experiments in which air, with different CO2 and H2O isotopic compositions originating in the residual layer, mix with the boundary-layer air. Our findings show that both the C18OO and H2 18O isotopic ratios and their respective isofluxes are influenced by the entrainment event. This result indicates that high frequency and accurate isotopologues surface measurements (seconds or minutes)can be used to quantify how non-local atmospheric processes modify isotopic composition at sub-daily scales.

What caused the extreme CO concentrations during the 2017 high-pollution episode in India?
Dekker, Iris N. ; Houweling, Sander ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Krol, Maarten ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Borsdorff, Tobias ; Landgraf, Jochen ; Aben, Ilse - \ 2019
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19 (2019)6. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 3433 - 3445.

The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), launched 13 October 2017, has been measuring carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere since early November 2017. In the first measurements, TROPOMI was able to measure CO concentrations of the high-pollution event in India of November 2017. In this paper, we studied the extent of the pollution in India, comparing the TROPOMI CO with modeled data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to identify the most important sources contributing to the high pollution, both at ground level and in the total column. We investigated the period 11-19 November 2017. We found that residential and commercial combustion was a much more important source of CO pollution than the post-monsoon crop burning during this period, which is in contrast to what media suggested and some studies on aerosol emissions found. Also, the high pollution was not limited to Delhi and its direct neighborhood but the accumulation of pollution extended over the whole Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) due to the unfavorable weather conditions in combination with extensive emissions. From the TROPOMI data and WRF simulations, we observed a buildup of CO during 11-14 November and a decline in CO after 15 November. The meteorological conditions, characterized by low wind speeds and shallow atmospheric boundary layers, were most likely the primary explanation for the temporal accumulation and subsequent dispersion of regionally emitted CO in the atmosphere. This emphasizes the important role of atmospheric dynamics in determining the air quality conditions at ground level and in the total column. Due to its rapidly growing population and economy, India is expected to encounter similar pollution events more often in future post-monsoon and winter seasons unless significant policy measures are taken to reduce residential and commercial emissions.

Influence of Atmospheric Transport on Estimates of Variability in the Global Methane Burden
Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Thoning, Kirk ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Yin, Yi ; Segers, Arjo ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. - \ 2019
Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)4. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 2302 - 2311.
atmospheric burden - atmospheric transport - CH emissions - interhemispheric difference - methane - TM5

We quantify the impact of atmospheric transport and limited marine boundary layer sampling on changes in global and regional methane burdens estimate using tracer transport model simulations with annually repeating methane emissions and sinks but varying atmospheric transport patterns. We find the 1σ error due to this transport and sampling effect on annual global methane increases to be 1.11 ppb/year and on zonal growth rates to be 3.8 ppb/year, indicating that it becomes more critical at smaller spatiotemporal scales. We also find that the trends in inter-hemispheric and inter-polar difference of methane are significantly influenced by the effect. Contrary to a negligible trend in the inter-hemispheric difference of measurements, we find, after adjusting for the transport and sampling, a trend of 0.37 ± 0.06 ppb/year. This is consistent with the emission trend from a 3-D inversion of the measurements, suggesting a faster increase in emissions in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

Wind op Zee : bepaling van de waarde van geplande windparkgebieden voor de visserij
Mol, Arie ; Oostenbrugge, Hans van; Röckmann, Christine ; Hintzen, Niels - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-011) - 31
De ontwikkeling van windparken in de Noordzee heeft economische consequenties voor de visserij. In deze notitie is met behulp van de historische visserijpatronen in de periode 2010-2017 de waarde van de bestaande en geplande windmolenparkgebieden tot 2030 in het Nederlandse deel van de Noordzee voor de visserij bepaald. Daarbij is ook rekening gehouden met de cumulatieve effecten van andere ruimteclaims op de Noordzee op de waarde van deze gebieden. De visserij-activiteiten in de geplande windmolenparkgebieden droegen in de periode 2010-2017 gemiddeld 1.52 mln. euro per jaar bij aan de bruto toegevoegde waarde van de Nederlandse kottervisserij. Dit was 1,36% van de totale bruto toegevoegde waarde van de Nederlandse kottersector en 2,65% van de totale bruto toegevoegde waarde van de Nederlandse kottersector op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat (NCP). De bijdrage varieerde van 1,0 tot 2,5 mln. euro per jaar. Voor individuele schepen was de variatie van de bijdrage uit de geplande windmolenparkgebieden aan de inkomsten veel hoger (0-17%). Het toekomstig belang van de gesloten en te sluiten windmolenparkgebieden voor de visserij wordt mede bepaald door de toekomstige ontwikkelingen in ecologie van de Noordzee, de beleidsmatige en de sociaaleconomische context. Bij sluiting van alle geplande natuurgebieden en windmolenparken in zowel het Nederlandse deel als het buitenlandse deel van de Noordzee zal de bijdrage van de windmolengebieden aan de bruto toegevoegde waarde van de Nederlandse kottersector toenemen tot maximaal 1,57% en bij een 'harde Brexit' tot maximaal 1,93%. De waarde van de gebieden voor de visserij is niet gelijk aan het economisch effect van sluiting van de gebieden voor de visserij. Een nadere analyse van de gedragsveranderingen in de visserij bij sluiting van de gebieden en de resulterende effecten op de kosten en inkomsten is nodig om hier uitsluitsel over te kunnen geven. Gezien alle gebiedsbeperkingen en hun invloed op buitenlandse visserijen, is het daarbij van belang het internationale perspectief niet uit het oog te verliezen.
Vissen tussen de molens
Rozemeijer, Marcel ; Röckmann, Christine - \ 2018

De ruimte voor Noordzeevissers wordt steeds meer beperkt, onder meer door de bouw van windmolenparken. Sommige vissers zijn daarom op zoek naar innovatieve alternatieven. Rems Cramer is een van de aanjagers van het project Win-wind dat onderzoekt wat een visser kan doen bínnen zo’n windmolenpark. In het onderzoek werken groot- en kleinschalige vissers, wetenschappers, parkbeheerders en anderen samen. Een gesprek met Rems Cramer, Marcel Rozemeijer (Wageningen Marine Research), Eelco Leemans (North Sea Energy Lab), Kees Taal (visserijbedrijf W. van der Zwan) en Christine Röckmann (Wageningen Economic Research).

Making multi-use at sea safe : A Summary of the SOMOS Project
Goossen, C.M. ; Banach, J.L. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Rockmann, C. ; Vredeveld, L. - \ 2018
- 16 p.
Monitoring emissions from the 2015 Indonesian fires using CO satellite data
Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Krol, Maarten ; Werf, Guido R. van der; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Huijnen, Vincent ; Clerbaux, Cathy ; Coheur, Pierre ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 9 p.
atmosphere - biomass burning - emissions - peat - satellite data

Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, has periodically struggled with intense fire events. These events convert substantial amounts of carbon stored as peat to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and significantly affect atmospheric composition on a regional to global scale. During the recent 2015 El Niño event, peat fires led to strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO), an air pollutant and well-known tracer for biomass burning. These enhancements were clearly observed from space by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instruments. We use these satellite observations to estimate CO fire emissions within an inverse modelling framework. We find that the derived CO emissions for each sub-region of Indonesia and Papua are substantially different from emission inventories, highlighting uncertainties in bottom-up estimates. CO fire emissions based on either MOPITT or IASI have a similar spatial pattern and evolution in time, and a 10% uncertainty based on a set of sensitivity tests we performed. Thus, CO satellite data have a high potential to complement existing operational fire emission estimates based on satellite observations of fire counts, fire radiative power and burned area, in better constraining fire occurrence and the associated conversion of peat carbon to atmospheric CO2 A total carbon release to the atmosphere of 0.35-0.60 Pg C can be estimated based on our results.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

The impact of precipitation evaporation on the atmospheric aerosol distribution in EC-Earth v3.2.0
Bruine, Marco De; Krol, Maarten ; Noije, Twan Van; Sager, Philippe Le; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2018
Geoscientific Model Development 11 (2018)4. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 1443 - 1465.
The representation of aerosol-cloud interaction in global climate models (GCMs) remains a large source of uncertainty in climate projections. Due to its complexity, precipitation evaporation is either ignored or taken into account in a simplified manner in GCMs. This research explores various ways to treat aerosol resuspension and determines the possible impact of precipitation evaporation and subsequent aerosol resuspension on global aerosol burdens and distribution. The representation of aerosol wet deposition by large-scale precipitation in the EC-Earth model has been improved by utilising additional precipitation-related 3- D fields from the dynamical core, the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) general circulation model, in the chemistry and aerosol module Tracer Model, version 5 (TM5). A simple approach of scaling aerosol release with evaporated precipitation fraction leads to an increase in the global aerosol burden (+7.8 to +15% for different aerosol species). However, when taking into account the different sizes and evaporation rate of raindrops following Gong et al. (2006), the release of aerosols is strongly reduced, and the total aerosol burden decreases by -3.0 to -8.5 %. Moreover, inclusion of cloud processing based on observations by Mitra et al. (1992) transforms scavenged small aerosol to coarse particles, which enhances removal by sedimentation and hence leads to a -10 to -11% lower aerosol burden. Finally, when these two effects are combined, the global aerosol burden decreases by -11 to -19 %. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is generally underestimated in most parts of the world in all configurations of the TM5 model and although the representation is now physically more realistic, global AOD shows no large improvements in spatial patterns. Similarly, the agreement of the vertical profile with Cloud- Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite measurements does not improve significantly. We show, however, that aerosol resuspension has a considerable impact on the modelled aerosol distribution and needs to be taken into account.
Op gang brengen van een aanvoerstroom van wild zeewier : EFRO Port 4 Innovation
Jak, Robbert ; Röckmann, Christine ; Veenstra, Frans - \ 2018
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C112/17) - 28
The isotopic composition of CO in vehicle exhaust
Naus, S. ; Röckmann, T. ; Popa, M.E. - \ 2018
Atmospheric Environment 177 (2018). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 132 - 142.
CO - CO 2 - Emissions - H 2 - Isotopes - Vehicles
We investigated the isotopic composition of CO in the exhaust of individual vehicles. Additionally, the CO 2 isotopes, and the CO:CO 2 , CH 4 :CO 2 and H 2 :CO gas ratios were measured. This was done under idling and revving conditions, and for three vehicles in a full driving cycle on a testbench. The spread in the results, even for a single vehicle, was large: for δ 13 C in CO ∼ −60 to 0‰, for δ 18 O in CO ∼ +10 to +35‰, and for all gas ratios several orders of magnitude. The results show an increase in the spread of isotopic values for CO compared to previous studies, suggesting that increasing complexity of emission control in vehicles might be reflected in the isotopic composition. When including all samples, we find a weighted mean for the δ 13 C and δ 18 O in CO of −28.7 ± 0.5‰ and +24.8 ± 0.3‰ respectively. This result is dominated by cold petrol vehicles. Diesel vehicles behaved as a distinct group, with CO enriched in 13 C and depleted in 18 O, compared to petrol vehicles. For the H 2 :CO ratio of all vehicles, we found a value of 0.71 ± 0.31 ppb:ppb. The CO:CO 2 ratio, with a mean of 19.4 ± 6.8 ppb:ppm, and the CH 4 :CO 2 ratio, with a mean of 0.26 ± 0.05 ppb:ppm, are both higher than recent literature indicates. This is likely because our sampling distribution was biased towards cold vehicles, and therefore towards higher emission situations. The CH 4 :CO 2 ratio was found to behave similarly to the CO:CO 2 ratio, suggesting that the processes affecting CO and CH 4 are similar. The δ 13 C values in CO 2 were close to the expected δ 13 C in fuel, with no significant difference between petrol and diesel vehicles. The δ 18 O values in CO 2 for petrol vehicles covered a range of 20–35‰, similar to the δ 18 O of CO. The δ 18 O values in CO 2 for diesel vehicles were close to the δ 18 O in atmospheric oxygen. A set of polluted atmospheric samples, taken near a highway and inside parking garages, showed an isotopic signature of CO and a H 2 :CO ratio that were similar the high emitters in the individual vehicle measurements, with no significant differences between parking garage and highway samples. This suggests that in both environments, which are dominated by different driving conditions, the CO emissions from high emitters (either a few high emission vehicles, or many vehicles with brief bursts of high emissions) dominate the total traffic emissions.
Regulation and Planning in the Mediterranean Sea
Rockmann, C. ; Vega Fernández, Tomás ; Pipitone, Carlo - \ 2018
In: Building Industries at Sea: 'Blue Growth' and the New Maritime Economy / Johnson, Kate, Dalton, Gordon, Masters, Ian, River Publishers (River Publishers Series in Renewable Energy ) - ISBN 9788793609266 - p. 365 - 402.
When we cannot have it all: Ecosystem services trade-offs in the context of spatial planning
Turkelboom, Francis ; Leone, Michael ; Jacobs, Sander ; Kelemen, Eszter ; García-Llorente, Marina ; Baró, Francesc ; Termansen, Mette ; Barton, David N. ; Berry, Pam ; Stange, Erik ; Thoonen, Marijke ; Kalóczkai, Ágnes ; Vadineanu, Angheluta ; Castro, Antonio J. ; Czúcz, Bálint ; Röckmann, Christine ; Wurbs, Daniel ; Odee, David ; Preda, Elena ; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik ; Rusch, Graciela M. ; Pastur, Guillermo Martínez ; Palomo, Ignacio ; Dick, Jan ; Casaer, Jim ; Dijk, Jiska Van; Priess, Joerg A. ; Langemeyer, Johannes ; Mustajoki, Jyri ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Baptist, Martin J. ; Peri, Pablo Luis ; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima ; Aszalós, Réka ; Roy, S.B. ; Luque, Sandra ; Rusch, Verónica - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 566 - 578.
Trade-off analytical framework - Ecosystem use - Property regimers - Stakeholder responses - Real-world case studies
Spatial planning has to deal with trade-offs between various stakeholders’ wishes and needs as part of planning and management of landscapes, natural resources and/or biodiversity. To make ecosystem services (ES) trade-off research more relevant for spatial planning, we propose an analytical framework,
which puts stakeholders, their land-use/management choices, their impact on ES and responses at the centre. Based on 24 cases from around the world, we used this framing to analyse the appearance and diversity of real-world ES trade-offs. They cover a wide range of trade-offs related to ecosystem use, including: land-use change, management regimes, technical versus nature-based solutions, natural resource use, and management of species. The ES trade-offs studied featured a complexity that was far greater than what is often described in the ES literature. Influential users and context setters are at the core of the trade-off decision-making, but most of the impact is felt by non-influential users. Provisioning and cultural ES were the most targeted in the studied trade-offs, but regulating ES were the most impacted. Stakeholders’ characteristics, such as influence, impact faced, and concerns can partially explain their position and response in relation to trade-offs. Based on the research findings, we formulate recommendations for spatial planning.
Stakeholders’ perspectives on the operationalisation of the ecosystem service concept: Results from 27 case studies
Dick, Jan ; Turkelboom, Francis ; Woods, Helen ; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene ; Primmer, Eeva ; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka ; Bezák, Peter ; Mederly, Peter ; Leone, Michael ; Verheyden, Wim ; Kelemen, Eszter ; Hauck, Jennifer ; Andrews, Chris ; Antunes, Paula ; Aszalós, Réka ; Baró, Francesc ; Barton, David N. ; Berry, Pam ; Bugter, Rob ; Carvalho, Laurence ; Czúcz, Bálint ; Dunford, Rob ; Garcia Blanco, Gemma ; Geamănă, Nicoleta ; Giucă, Relu ; Grizzetti, Bruna ; Izakovičová, Zita ; Kertész, Miklós ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Langemeyer, Johannes ; Montenegro Lapola, David ; Liquete, Camino ; Luque, Sandra ; Martínez Pastur, Guillermo ; Martin-Lopez, Berta ; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima ; Niemela, Jari ; Odee, David ; Peri, Pablo Luis ; Pinho, Patricia ; Patrício-Roberto, Gleiciani Bürger ; Preda, Elena ; Priess, Joerg ; Röckmann, Christine ; Santos, Rui ; Silaghi, Diana ; Smith, Ron ; Vădineanu, Angheluţă ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der; Arany, Ildikó ; Badea, Ovidiu ; Bela, Györgyi ; Boros, Emil ; Bucur, Magdalena ; Blumentrath, Stefan ; Calvache, Marta ; Carmen, Esther ; Clemente, Pedro ; Fernandes, João ; Ferraz, Diogo ; Fongar, Claudia ; García-Llorente, Marina ; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik ; Gundersen, Vegard ; Haavardsholm, Oscar ; Kalóczkai, Ágnes ; Khalalwe, Thalma ; Kiss, Gabriella ; Köhler, Berit ; Lazányi, Orsolya ; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter ; Lichungu, Rael ; Lindhjem, Henrik ; Magare, Charles ; Mustajoki, Jyri ; Ndege, Charles ; Nowell, Megan ; Nuss Girona, Sergi ; Ochieng, John ; Often, Anders ; Palomo, Ignacio ; Pataki, György ; Reinvang, Rasmus ; Rusch, Graciela ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Smith, Alison ; Soy Massoni, Emma ; Stange, Erik ; Vågnes Traaholt, Nora ; Vári, Ágnes ; Verweij, Peter ; Vikström, Suvi ; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa ; Zulian, Grazia - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 552 - 565.
The ecosystem service (ES) concept is becoming mainstream in policy and planning, but operational influence on practice is seldom reported. Here, we report the practitioners’ perspectives on the practical implementation of the ES concept in 27 case studies. A standardised anonymous survey (n = 246), was used, focusing on the science-practice interaction process, perceived impact and expected use of the case study assessments. Operationalisation of the concept was shown to achieve a gradual change in practices: 13% of the case studies reported a change in action (e.g. management or policy change), and a further 40% anticipated that a change would result from the work. To a large extent the impact was attributed to a well conducted science-practice interaction process (>70%). The main reported advantages of the concept included: increased concept awareness and communication; enhanced participation and collaboration; production of comprehensive science-based knowledge; and production of spatially referenced knowledge for input to planning (91% indicated they had acquired new knowledge). The limitations were mostly case-specific and centred on methodology, data, and challenges with result implementation. The survey highlighted the crucial role of communication, participation and collaboration across different stakeholders, to implement the ES concept and enhance the democratisation of nature and landscape planning.
Description of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the Proposed Marine Nomination Properties of the Bonaire and Curaçao Marine Parks (BCMP)
Debrot, Dolfi ; Langley, Josephine ; Vermeij, Mark ; Slijkerman, Diana ; Jongbloed, Ruud ; Beek, Ingrid van; Freitas, John de; Pors, Leon ; Jak, Robert ; Rockmann, Christine ; Cremer, Jenny - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C003/18) - 184
Quantification of CO emissions from the city of madrid using MOPITT satellite retrievals and WRF simulations
Dekker, Iris N. ; Houweling, Sander ; Aben, Ilse ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Krol, Maarten ; Martínez-Alonso, Sara ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Worden, Helen M. - \ 2017
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17 (2017)23. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 14675 - 14694.

The growth of mega-cities leads to air quality problems directly affecting the citizens. Satellite measurements are becoming of higher quality and quantity, which leads to more accurate satellite retrievals of enhanced air pollutant concentrations over large cities. In this paper, we compare and discuss both an existing and a new method for estimating urban-scale trends in CO emissions using multiyear retrievals from the MOPITT satellite instrument. The first method is mainly based on satellite data, and has the advantage of fewer assumptions, but also comes with uncertainties and limitations as shown in this paper. To improve the reliability of urban-To-regional scale emission trend estimation, we simulate MOPITT retrievals using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry core (WRFChem). The difference between model and retrieval is used to optimize CO emissions in WRF-Chem, focusing on the city of Madrid, Spain. This method has the advantage over the existing method in that it allows both a trend analysis of CO concentrations and a quantification of CO emissions. Our analysis confirms that MOPITT is capable of detecting CO enhancements over Madrid, although significant differences remain between the yearly averaged model output and satellite measurements (R2 D0.75) over the city. After optimization, we find Madrid CO emissions to be lower by 48% for 2002 and by 17% for 2006 compared with the EdgarV4.2 emission inventory. The MOPITT-derived emission adjustments lead to better agreement with the European emission inventory TNO-MAC-III for both years. This suggests that the downward trend in CO emissions over Madrid is overestimated in EdgarV4.2 and more realistically represented in TNO-MACC-III. However, our satellite and model based emission estimates have large uncertainties, around 20% for 2002 and 50% for 2006.

Stakeholder participation in marine management: the importance of transparency and rules for participation
Rockmann, C. ; Kraan, M.L. ; Goldsborough, David - \ 2017
In: Conservation for the Antropocene ocean / Levin, Phillip S., Poe, Melissa R., Academic Press - ISBN 9780128053751 - p. 289 - 306.
Conserving nature requires the management of people and managing together with people. Marine management relies on scientific knowledge and expertise but is also inherently political, as it deals with aspects of resource access. Both local knowledge of practitioners and stakeholders' world views, values, and perceptions are important, adding to the scientific knowledge base and to understanding the management context. This chapter synthesizes existing literature and reviews on stakeholder participation. We analyze two marine management cases using eight key features of participation. The analyses illustrate that a participatory process can still not be successful if an underpinning participatory philosophy and clear objectives are lacking, participation is delayed and not well institutionalized. Clarity is needed about the participatory philosophy and process objective. The goal can be sharing knowledge or negotiating a decision. The increased need of stakeholder knowledge requires clarity about which of the two is driving the process. Rules of the game, including roles, responsibilities, and mandate need to be clear to all participants from the beginning.
Inclusion of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations when setting targets and limits for multispecies fisheries
Rindorf, Anna ; Dichmont, Catherine M. ; Thorson, James ; Charles, Anthony ; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe ; Degnbol, Poul ; Garcia, Dorleta ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Kempf, Alexander ; Levin, Phillip ; Mace, Pamela ; Maravelias, Christos ; Minto, Coilín ; Mumford, John ; Pascoe, Sean ; Prellezo, Raul ; Punt, André E. ; Reid, David G. ; Rockmann, Christine ; Stephenson, Robert L. ; Thebaud, Olivier ; Tserpes, George ; Voss, Rüdiger - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 453 - 463.
ecosystem-based fisheries management - multiple objectives - reference points - sustainability - variability
Targets and limits for long-term management are used in fisheries advice to operationalize the way management reflects societal priorities on ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects. This study reflects on the available published literature as well as new research presented at the international ICES/Myfish symposium on targets and limits for long term fisheries management. We examine the inclusion of ecological, economic, social and institutional objectives in fisheries management, with the aim of progressing towards including all four objectives when setting management targets or limits, or both, for multispecies fisheries. The topics covered include ecological, economic, social and governance objectives in fisheries management, consistent approaches to management, uncertainty and variability, and fisheries governance. We end by identifying ten ways to more effectively include multiple objectives in setting targets and limits in ecosystem based fisheries management.
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