Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Records 1 - 50 / 390

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export
      A maximum of 250 titles can be exported. Please, refine your queryYou can also select and export up to 30 titles via your marked list.
    Check title to add to marked list
    Metabolic flexibility of a prospective bioremediator: Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51 challenged in chemostats
    Marozava, Sviatlana ; Vargas-López, Raquel ; Tian, Ye ; Merl-Pham, Juliane ; Braster, Martin ; Meckenstock, Rainer U. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Röling, Wilfred F.M. ; Westerhoff, Hans V. - \ 2018
    Environmental Microbiology 20 (2018)7. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 2652 - 2669.
    Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51 has been widely used in investigations of perchloroethylene (PCE) biodegradation, but limited information exists on its other physiological capabilities. We investigated how D. hafniense Y51 confronts the debilitating limitations of not having enough electron donor (lactate), or electron acceptor (fumarate) during cultivation in chemostats. The residual concentrations of the substrates supplied in excess were much lower than expected. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and fluxomics were integrated to investigate how this phenomenon was regulated. Through diverse regulation at both transcriptional and translational levels, strain Y51 turned to fermenting the excess lactate and disproportionating the excess fumarate under fumarate‐ and lactate‐limiting conditions, respectively. Genes and proteins related to the utilization of a variety of alternative electron donors and acceptors absent from the medium were induced, apparently involving the Wood‐Ljungdahl pathway. Through this metabolic flexibility, D. hafniense Y51 may be able to switch between different metabolic capabilities under limiting conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Triggering regime change: A comparative analysis of the performance of innovation platforms that attempted to change the institutional context for nine agricultural domains in West Africa
    Hounkonnou, Dominique ; Brouwers, Jan ; Huis, Arnold Van; Jiggins, Janice ; Kossou, Dansou ; Röling, N.G. ; Sakyi-dawson, Owuraku ; Traoré, Mamoudou - \ 2018
    Agricultural Systems 165 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 296 - 309.
    The article synthesises the experiences of innovation platforms (IPs) that engaged in open-ended experimental action to improve the institutional context for smallholder farm development in West Africa. The IPs sought change at the level of the institutional regime covering an entire agricultural domain (such as cocoa, cotton, oil palm or water management). Their purpose was therefore not to ‘roll out’ farm-level technologies across rural communities. The IPs's outcomes were documented and analysed throughout by means of theory-based process tracing in each of seven of the nine domains in which regime change was attempted. The evidence shows that by means of exploratory scoping and diagnosis, socio-technical and institutional experimentation, and guided facilitation IPs can remove, by-pass, or modify domain-specific institutional constraints and/or create new institutional conditions that allow smallholders to capture opportunity. The article describes the 5-year, €4.5 million research programme in Benin, Ghana and Mali, covering theory, design, methods and results. It is the sequel to Hounkonnou et al. in AGSY 108 (2012): 74–83.
    Hoe de implementatiekloof te dichten? Een analyse voor perspectieven in het overstromingsbeleid
    Coninx, I. - \ 2017
    KU Leuven. Promotor(en): Marleen, prof. dr. Brans. - Leuven : KU Leuven - 316
    Als overheidsbeleid de gestelde doelen niet haalt, dan is er sprake van een implementatiekloof (Laurian & Crawford, 2016). Ook het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid lijkt een implementatiekloof te kennen, want ondanks een palet aan preventieve, effectgerichte en curatieve overstromingsmaatregelen wordt de schade door overstromingen jaarlijks nog op zo een 50 miljoen euro geschat (Brouwers et al., 2015). Implementatie is in feite gedrag (O'Toole Jr, 2000; Robichau & Lynn Jr, 2009) en gedrag wordt ingegeven door houdingen (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Daarom wil dit onderzoek nagaan of houdingen van betrokken beleidsactoren een rol spelen bij de implementatie van overstromingsmaatregelen (hoofdstuk 2). Beleidsactoren van 26 organisaties of groepen geven het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid een echt multiactor-, multisector- en multilevelkarakter (hoofdstuk 1). Het onderzoek beantwoordt enkele vragen over houdingen, zoals of ze een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, welke verschillende houdingen er zijn, hoe die houdingen bepaald worden en wat de dominante evaluatiecriteria zijn. Op basis van die inzichten worden mechanismen ontwikkeld om de implementatiekloof te dichten. Vervolgens worden perspectieven voor het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid beschreven. De analyse vond plaats voor 15 overstromingsmaatregelen bij 347 actoren en in 3 casegebieden in Vlaanderen. Dit gebeurde via verschillende dataverzameling- en data-analysemethoden om triangulatie op vele fronten te waarborgen (hoofdstuk 3).De analyse toont dat houdingen een rol spelen, want veel beleidsactoren staan nog negatief tegenover bepaalde overstromingsmaatregelen met een ruimtelijke impact (hoofdstuk 4). Diverse ‘evaluatiecriteria’ – criteria, gebruikt om houding te bepalen tijdens de evaluatieve afweging – bepalen die houdingen. Ten eerste worden houdingen gevormd door belangen en hebben mensen een positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die hun baten opleveren (Gintis, 2000; Henrich et al., 2001; Jager, Janssen, De Vries, De Greef, & Vlek, 2000; Persky, 1995). Ten tweede worden houdingen bepaald door waarden, wat richtinggevende principes zijn van wat volgens de mens wenselijk en juist is (Kempton, Boster, & Hartley, 1995). Men heeft positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die in lijn liggen met zijn waarden. Ten derde worden houdingen gevormd door denkkaders en percepties (Bartlett, 1932; Benford & Snow, 2000; Berger & Luckmann, 1966). Dat zijn cognitieve voorstellingen die gebruikt worden om betekenis te geven aan informatie (Buijs, 2009b; Minsky, 1975). Percepties spelen altijd een rol bij houdingbepaling, zo blijkt ook uit de analyse (hoofdstuk 5).De combinatie van evaluatiecriteria vormt een verhaallijn, die toe te kennen is aan elk van de actoren. Elke overstromingsmaatregel kent verschillende verhaallijnen. Hoe meer verhaallijnen, hoe meer divers de evaluatiecriteria die elke actor gebruikt. In dit onderzoek is vooral nagegaan waar spanning optreedt tussen de verhaallijnen en welke evaluatiecriteria aan de basis liggen van de negatieve houdingen (hoofdstuk 5). In het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid verklaren vooral percepties en waarden de implementatiekloof. Zelfs over het huidige beleidsparadigma ‘ruimte voor water’ bestaan er twee verschillende percepties: ‘ruimte maken’ en ‘ruimte vinden’ voor water. Die twee percepties weerspiegelen de bereidheid van mensen om het huidige ruimtegebruik aan te passen. Die percepties en andere fundamentele verschillen houden de uitvoering van het overstromingsbeleid in de tang. Het valt op dat binnen één actorgroep veel verschillende verhaallijnen te vinden zijn. Dat leidt tot vragen of het systeem van sectorale vertegenwoordiging in de CIW en de bekkenraden wel goed genoeg kan werken.Er is ook gekeken welk type evaluatiecriteria de actoren vooral gebruiken om houding te bepalen. De meeste actoren laten zich leiden door hun waarden. Alleen de sector ‘landbouw’ en actoren van het Vlaamse/nationale niveau gebruiken vooral belangengerichte evaluatiecriteria (hoofdstuk 6).Wetende dat houdingen een rol spelen bij de implementatiekloof, rest de vraag welke mechanismen kunnen helpen om de implementatiekloof te dichten? Allereerst is het raadzaam om de actoren die een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, al te betrekken bij het interactieve beleidsontwikkelingsproces. Door interactie en cocreatie worden nieuwe inzichten ontwikkeld, kennis uitgewisseld en belangen, waarden en percepties gedeeld (Ter Haar, Aarts, & Verhoeven, 2016). Als bestaande verhaallijnen beter op elkaar afgestemd geraken of mensen verschuiven naar één dominante verhaallijn, dan helpt dat om de implementatiekloof te voorkomen (Hajer, 2005). Bij de uitvoering van de maatregelen helpen interactieve beleidsinstrumenten om gezamenlijke actie tot stand te brengen. Dat is iets dat niet snel gebeurd wanneer beleidsinstrumenten zoals gezag of geld worden ingezet. (Tabel 1: mechanismen om implementatiekloof te dichten) Er wordt vastgesteld dat nog maar weinig van die mechanismen ingebouwd werden in het overstromingsbeleid, aangezien een betekenisvolle proportie actoren zich nog bevindt in de verhaallijn die overeenkomt met het ‘oude paradigma’ van ‘strijden tegen water’. Om de verschillen tussen de evaluatiecriteria te kennen, is het aan te raden om de verhaallijnen te verkennen via interviews en analyse van documenten (= mapping van verhaallijnen) (Kolkman, Veen, & Geurts, 2007).Wetenschap kan een rol spelen bij het dichten van de implementatiekloof, vooral als die verklaard wordt door percepties (Leeuwis & Aarts, 2016; Van Bommel, Röling, Aarts, & Turnhout, 2009), op voorwaarde dat de betrokken actoren de wetenschappelijke kennis beschouwen als gelegitimeerd, geloofwaardig en begrijpelijk (Cash et al., 2003). Anders zal de kennis in twijfel getrokken of zelfs misbruikt worden om specifieke verhaallijnen te ontkrachten. Bovendien zijn er ook andere typen van kennis dan louter wetenschappelijke. ‘Boundary organisations’ kunnen wetenschappelijke kennis inbrengen en zo de implementatiekloof dichten (Guston, 2001). Men moet er wel bewust van zijn dat machtsrelaties het succes van de genoemde mechanismen kunnen beïnvloeden (Van Bommel et al., 2009).Op basis van deze mechanismen zijn vervolgens perspectieven voor de verdere ontwikkeling van het overstromingsbeleid geformuleerd. Het eerste perspectief richt zich op het versterken van bestaande overstromingsmaatregelen via beperkte interventies zoals participatieve monitoring en bespreken en communiceren van (wetenschappelijk) bevindingen. Het tweede perspectief omvat meer ingrijpende interventies, zoals de formele introductie van meerlaagse veiligheid in het beleid, de versterking van de dialoog tussen verhaallijnen in de bekkenorganen en maatregelen om te komen tot een passende verantwoordelijkheidsverdeling tussen overheid en burger, zoals een meerjarig pilotprogramma. De resultaten van dat pilotprogramma kunnen dan geformaliseerd worden in beleidsdocumenten.De algemene conclusie is dat houdingen van betrokken actoren één van de verklaringen kunnen zijn voor een implementatiekloof. Het onderzoek laat zien dat die houdingen kunnen verschillen, maar ook dat houdingen veranderlijk zijn. Daarom is actieve sturing op die houdingverandering een absolute must voor het beleid om zo de implementatiekloof te dichten en zelfs te voorkomen.
    The governance of farming and natural resource management
    Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Blackmore, Chris ; Ison, Ray ; Röling, N.G. - \ 2016
    Outlook on Agriculture 45 (2016)4. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 217 - 219.
    Co-learning - Farming futures - Institutional transformations

    Business as usual is impeding implementation of systemic change in the governance of the natural resources on which all forms of farming depend and the transformation of agricultural techniques, practices, and enterprises toward multifunctional sustainability. The contributions to the governance of farming and natural resource management explore how business as usual challenged and transformed by means of institutional change; cogeneration of knowledge and multi-actor learning; and new forms of governance. Studies of water resources management in agrarian landscapes in Denmark and other European countries, an on-line platform for co-learning among Australian agricultural researchers, and of Maöri dairy enterprises in New Zealand braid together these issues to demonstrate the barriers to and opportunities for transformative change. These papers are fronted by an opinion piece on institutions in agriculture and rounded off by an opinion piece on selected sociotechnical and institutional innovations that might offer pathways toward more sustainable agricultures and natural resource management.

    Innovation platforms and projects to support smallholder development - Experiences from Sub-Saharan Africa
    Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Hounkonnou, Dominique ; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku ; Kossou, Dansou ; Traoré, Mamoudou ; Röling, N.G. ; Huis, Arnold van - \ 2016
    Cahiers Agricultures 25 (2016)6. - ISSN 1777-5949
    Agro-enterprises - Innovation platforms - Institutional change

    Innovation as a policy goal, normative practice, and a conceptual framing of purposeful human activity, has received increasing attention. The question of what kinds of purposeful innovation might benefit smallholders in developing countries has been raised. This issue presents and analyses the work of Innovation Platforms (IPs) established by the COS-SIS (Convergence of Sciences-Strengthening Innovation Systems) programme in nine agro-enterprise domains in West Africa, drawing on Theory Guided Process Inquiry data recorded through 2011-end 2013. Six papers synthesise individual IP experiences, complemented by a cross-case analysis of external influences on the IPs and their responses, a reflection on how well the IPs in Mali dealt with local conflicts, and an analysis of how the work of the IPs in Ghana led to changes in university curricula and in the researching practices of three leading agricultural institutes. An analysis of thirteen case studies from Kenya, Benin, and South Africa supported by the JOLISAA (Joint learning in and about Innovation Systems in African Agriculture) programme, adds further insights. Five general lessons are drawn, expressed as propositions that can be further tested against others' experiences: (i) IPs can bring about significant socio-technical and institutional changes at a range of levels, and in a wide variety of agro-enterprise domains and contexts; (ii) the IPs are not isolated from nor independent of the networks of influence in which they are embedded; thus they cannot be treated as the sole causal agents of the changes accomplished; (iii) research that tracks the IPs' work and performance provides evidence that enables the members to learn from experience and adjust activities in the light of effects; (iv) there is no blueprint for what an IP is nor a recipe for the processes by which such changes are brought about; the form, activities, and changes co-evolve with whatever is happening in the wider context; (v) field-based diagnosis of opportunity, evidence-based information-sharing and experimental exploration of pathways of change establish the legitimacy and influence of IPs.

    Introduction. Why focus on innovation systems : implications for research and policy
    Francis, J.A. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2016
    In: Innovation systems / Francis, J., Mytelka, L., van Huis, A., Röling, N., Wageningen : The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) - ISBN 9789290815617 - p. 8 - 13.
    The uses of research: action researching in and across nine agro-enterprise domains : the experience of the convergence of sciences-strengthening innovation systems programme in Benin, Ghana and Mali
    Jiggins, J. ; Essegbey, G. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Paassen, A. van; Pyburn, R. ; Tossou, R. - \ 2016
    In: Innovation systems / Francis, J., Mytelka, L., van Huis, A., Röling, N., Wageningen : The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) - ISBN 9789290815617 - p. 101 - 123.
    This chapter justifies the application of Theory-Guided Process Inquiry (TGPI) to elucidate, with real-time documentation of a standardized set of evidence across nine cases, the process of innovation in contrasting but comparable contexts. There is a significant challenge in coordinating divergent actors’ responses to rapidly changing market, climatic and development needs and opportunities in smallholder agriculture in West Africa, so that individual efforts add up to
    effective governance of their respective domains of interest and efficient value chains that deliver worthwhile returns to small-scale producers. In these situations, rigorous research that is responsive to local histories and contexts, and to evolving events, is needed to underpin innovation policy, practice and theory. At the same time, the research should not be too demanding of scarce research resources and capacities, nor be reliant on unrealistic demands for large sets of quality-controlled statistical data. Research encompassed two mutually informative but distinct activities: (i) research carried out by PhD students and members of the innovation platforms (IPs) established in each domain, in order to inform their own actions; and (ii) research carried out in order to understand
    the contributions of the IPs and other actors in bringing about transformative change. The chapter concludes with a reflection on what has been achieved through the research practices described.
    Making sense of innovation processes in african smallholder agricullture
    Triomphe, B. ; Floquet, A. ; Kamau, G. ; Letty, B. ; Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Waters-Bayer, A. - \ 2016
    In: Innovation systems / Francis, J., Mytelka, L., van Huis, A., Röling, N., Wageningen : The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) - ISBN 9789290815617 - p. 170 - 182.
    The European-funded Framework Programme 7 project, Joint Learning in Innovation Systems in African Agriculture (JOLISAA), assessed agricultural innovation experiences focused on smallholders in Benin, Kenya, and South Africa. Fifty-six cases were characterized through review of grey literature and interviews with resource persons, according to a common analytical framework inspired by the innovation systems (IS) perspective. Thirteen of the cases were assessed in greater depth through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and multistakeholder workshops. The cases covered a wide diversity of experiences in terms of types, domains, scales, timelines, initiators of innovation and stakeholders involved. Findings revealed multiple triggers and drivers of innovation. For external stakeholders, key triggers included likelihood of offering a technological fix to an existing problem and availability of funding. For local people, access to input and output markets was a powerful trigger and driver. Market types and dynamics varied greatly. Developing functional value chains and accessing markets proved particularly challenging, especially for poorer and weakly organized farmers. Over long periods, determinants of innovation changed dynamically and often unpredictably, including motivations of key stakeholders, triggers, drivers and stakeholder arrangements. The direction of innovation evolved, often moving from a technology entry point to more organizational or institutional issues. A recurring challenge for fostering innovation is whether and how to build on local initiatives and knowledge, and how to sustain externally driven innovation processes beyond the project time frame. A major conclusion from JOLISAA is that innovation has to be seen as a continuously evolving process of ‘innovation bundles’ (a combination of different types of innovation) of various kinds, rather than as a pre-planned, and usually, narrowly-defined technical intervention. Consequently, open-ended, flexible approaches to innovation are needed with the potential to engage meaningfully over a long time with local stakeholders and bearers of local innovation dynamics, so that they take full charge of the innovation process and direction.
    Innovation systems : Towards effective strategies in support of smallholder farmers
    Francis, J. ; Mytelka, L. ; Huis, A. van; Röling, N.G. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) - ISBN 9789290815617 - 255
    Research and experimentation in support of artisanal palm oil production in Ghana
    Osei-Amponsah, C. - \ 2016
    In: Innovation systems / Francis, J., Mytelka, L., van Huis, A., Röling, N., Wageningen : The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) - ISBN 9789290815617 - p. 124 - 133.
    Innovation systems, Douglas, Douglass and beyond : using cultural theory to understand approaches to smallholder development in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2016
    In: Innovation systems / Francis, J., Mytelka, L., van Huis, A., Röling, N., Wageningen : The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) - ISBN 9789290815617 - p. 202 - 238.
    Innovation systems (IS) are taken to be coherent and consistent narratives or discourses. This chapter uses the Group/Grid or Cultural Theory (CT) to distinguish four competing IS narratives, each with their own theory of change, criterion variables, strategies, pathways of innovation and designs for innovation platforms (IP):
    1. The business model of agronomy (BMA), based on the methodological individualism of the diffusion of innovations and ‘agricultural treadmill’ paradigms and focusing on technology development to raise yields.
    2. Package and value chain approaches that seek to enable individual entrepreneurship through access to services, inputs, credit and markets and other institutions that reduce transaction costs.
    3. Promotion of rules and regulations (hierarchical institutions) to constrain the pursuit of individual interests for some public goods (governance, control of corruption, sustainable use of natural resources).
    4. Egalitarian approaches that seek to empower, emancipate, strengthen civil society and enhance social capital.
    This framework proves useful for analysing the history of agricultural development in Industrial countries and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to point to ways forward for inclusive approaches to mobilize the vast productive resources under smallholder management in Africa.
    Institutions: Lessons from West Africa
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2016
    Outlook on Agriculture 45 (2016)4. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 220 - 224.
    This article uses examples and insights from research in West Africa to analyse the concept of institutions and the
    consequences of their ‘invisibility’ in normal agricultural development practice. Comparative action research across nine
    agricultural domains in West Africa supported experiments with multilevel institutional change as a new approach to farm
    development. The work was inspired by the disappointing results of the prevailing focus on adoption of technology by
    individual farmers. The programme surprised those involved by showing the extent to which diagnostic studies can
    uncover institutional impediments to farm innovation and the ability of multi-stakeholder processes organized by and
    through innovation platforms to create multilevel opportunities for inducing change in institutional regimes. The details of
    each experience have been published elsewhere. This article concludes that if climate change and other systemic crises
    threaten agriculture and natural resource management, then institutional literacy and ingenuity offer a way forward.
    Wilfred Röling (9 December 1966 - 25 September 2015)
    Smidt, Hauke - \ 2015
    ISME Journal 9 (2015)12. - ISSN 1751-7362 - p. 2750 - 2752.
    Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil
    Zuluaga, D.L. ; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E. ; Verkerk, R. ; Röling, W.F.M. ; Ellers, J. ; Roelofs, D. ; Aarts, M.G.M. - \ 2015
    Plant and Soil 394 (2015). - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 155 - 163.
    chemical diversity - gene-expression - indian mustard - natural toxin - life-history - isothiocyanates - collembola - release - defense - tissues
    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage ‘Wintessa’, and the wild B. oleracea accession Winspit was analysed for GSL production and used for biofumigation experiments on the beneficial soil invertebrates, Folsomia candida (springtail) and Eisenia andrei (earthworm) and the soil bacterial community. Results When mixed into soil, the Winspit plant material exerted the highest toxic effects on beneficial soil invertebrates by reducing survival and reproduction. Total GSL levels varied substantially between genotypes, in particular the aliphatic GSL (AGSL) sinigrin and gluconapin being highly abundant or exclusively present in Winspit. Differences between the genotypes regarding biofumigation effects on the soil microbial community were only observed on a temporal basis with the largest difference in bacterial community structure after 1 week. Conclusions The high total GSL content in biofumigated soil could explain the toxicity of Winspit for soil invertebrates. These effects are likely to be the results of high AGSL levels in Winspit. The use of wild B. oleracea crops, such asWinspit, for biofumigation practices would need a proper assessment of the overall impact on soil biota before being applied on a wide scale
    Special issue: System innovation - towards sustainable agriculture Introduction
    Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Ison, R. ; Röling, N.G. - \ 2014
    Outlook on Agriculture 43 (2014)3. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 145 - 146.
    Agricultural research – from recommendation domains to arenas for interaction: Experiences from West Africa
    Röling, N. ; Jiggins, J. ; Hounkonnou, D. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2014
    Outlook on Agriculture 43 (2014)3. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 179 - 185.
    innovation systems-approach - institutional change - west-africa
    Agricultural research designs tend to be bounded by agroecological conditions, farming systems and other dimensions assumed to be homogeneous for the population of interest (that is, a recommendation domain or population for whom a technology or practice is expected to be relevant). Scaling is then a question of 'rolling out' results across the domain. But what if technology adoption and institutional context explain the variance in the output of smallholders, and agricultural development is also a question of institutional innovation? What if a domain is seen as a system of interest among actors who have a stake in the system and as an arena for concerted action and institutional innovation? This paper reports on six years of action research that attempts to answer these questions. It compares experimental interventions and subsequent systemic changes within each of nine agroenterprise domains. The experience suggests that the research approach used can explain variance in smallholder output that, in present-day West Africa, is not explained by technology adoption.
    Institutional change towards sustainable agriculture in West Africa
    Struik, P.C. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Huis, A. van; Röling, N.G. - \ 2014
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 203 - 213.
    innovation systems - farmers - benin - ghana - netherlands - management - sector
    This paper describes why inter- and trans-disciplinary research, accompanied by innovation platforms, is essential in the context of agricultural development in West Africa. The institutional context in West Africa can become a trap for smallholder farmers and for society at large. Therefore, we argue that an enabling institutional context is necessary to achieve an increase in agricultural production. This will have consequences for setting priorities of agricultural research and the way research should be organized in order to have impact. Within the framework of two consecutive programmes, attempts were made to create such an enabling context. The first programme, focusing on participatory technology development, showed that smallholders can capture only limited benefits from technologies because of their constrained opportunities. The point of departure for the second programme was that institutions explain a large portion of variance in agricultural output and that multistakeholder innovation platforms at local, district, and national levels are needed to create change. The paper concludes with an overview of this special issue, which provides nine case studies of institutional factors that influence smallholder innovation. Each of these case studies identifies and analyses institutional mechanisms at aggregation levels higher than the household, farm, or village.
    The Influence of Long-Term Copper Contaminated Agricultural Soil at Different pH Levels on Microbial Communities and Springtail Transcriptional Regulation
    Boer, T.E. de; Tas, N. ; Braster, M. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Roling, W.F.M. ; Roelofs, D. - \ 2012
    Environmental Science and Technology 46 (2012)1. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 60 - 68.
    heavy-metal contamination - bacterial community - organic status - fungal communities - arable soil - sandy soil - diversity - toxicity - microorganisms - microarray
    Copper has long been applied for agricultural practises. Like other metals, copper is highly persistent in the environment and biologically active long after its use has ceased. Here we present a unique study on the long-term effects (27 years) of copper and pH on soil microbial communities and on the springtail Folsomia candida an important representative of the soil macrofauna, in an experiment with a full factorial, random block. design. Bacterial communities were mostly affected by pH. These effects were prominent in Acidobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Gammaroteobacteria communities were affected by original and bioavailable copper. Reproduction and survival of the collembolan F. candida was not affected by the studied copper concentrations. However, the transcriptomic responses to copper reflected a mechanism of copper transport and detoxification, while pH exerted effects on nucleotide and protein metabolism and (acute) inflammatory response. We conclude that microbial community structure reflected the history of copper contamination, while gene expression analysis of F. candida is associated with the current level of bioavailable copper. The study is a first step in the development of a molecular strategy aiming at a more comprehensive assessment of various aspects of soil quality and ecotoxicology.
    Diagnosing the scope for innovation: Linking smallholder practices and institutional context : Introduction to the special issue
    Roling, N. ; Hounkonnou, D. ; Kossou, D. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Nederlof, S. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Traoré, M. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2012
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 60-63 (2012). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 1 - 6.
    The article introduces the diagnostic studies reported in this special issue and prepares the reader for understanding their full portent, not only as stand-alone articles but also as an expression of a research programme with a common purpose and scientific objective. As such, the article introduces the focus of the CoS–SIS programme on the nexus between farmer practices and institutional context, and primes the reader on the special challenges posed by diagnosis of this nexus. The diagnostic studies scoped the landscape and the regime but mainly as these might impact the niche. What is reported is ‘the view from the niche’. The article explains the structure of the research programme and the role of the PhD researchers in it. It further describes a number of methodological issues common to all.
    Nuove strategie di disseminazione e figure emergenti: gli innovation brokers + Beyond dissemination of research findings: innovation brokers as emerging figures in stimulating agricultural innovation
    Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2012
    AgriRegioniEuropa 8 (2012)28. - ISSN 1828-5880 - p. 22 - 26.
    More and more it is recognised that innovation cannot be explained by a linear approach to innovation in which public sector agricultural research and extension delivers new technology in a pipeline configuration through a dissemination approach, but calls for systems approach in which innovation is the result of a process of networking, interactive learning and negotiation among a heterogeneous set of actors (Leeuwis, 2004; Röling, 2009). The systems approach recognises that agricultural innovation is not just about adopting new technologies; it also requires a balance amongst new technical practices and alternative ways of organising, for example, markets, labour, land tenure and distribution of benefits (Dormon et al., 2007). Recently, a blending of insights from the agricultural innovation literature and industrial innovation literature has resulted in the concept of agricultural innovation systems(Pant and Hambly-Odame, 2009; Röling, 2009). A national agricultural innovation system (AIS) is defined by World Bank (2006, pp.vi-vii) as ‘a network of organisations, enterprises, and individuals focused on bringing new products, new processes, and new forms of organisation into economic use, together with the institutions and policies that affect the way different agents interact, share, access, exchange and use knowledge’. Beyond researchers, extension agents and farmers, an AIS consists of all types of public, private and civil society actors, such as inputs and processing industry actors, agricultural traders, retailers, policymakers, consumers and NGOs. Besides stressing the fact that innovation requires involvement of many actors and effective interactions amongst these, the AIS approach recognises the influential role of institutions (i.e. laws, regulations, attitudes, habits, practices, incentives) in shaping how actors interact (World Bank, 2006). For AIS to function and enhance innovation capacity in developing countries’ agricultural sectors, the literature emphasises the need to come to shared visions, have well-established linkages and information flows amongst different public and private actors, conducive institutional incentives that enhance cooperation, adequate market, legislative and policy environments, and well-developed human capital (Spielman et al., 2008)However, creating and fostering effective linkages amongst heterogeneous sets of actors (i.e. the formation of adequate innovation configurations, coalitions, PPPs) is often hindered by different technological, social, economic and cultural divides (Pant and Hambly-Odame, 2006). From an innovation systems perspective, the importance of having intermediary organisations that sit between and connect different actors involved in innovation trajectories countries is becoming apparent. This type of intermediary should not just mediate a one-to-one relationship, but rather be a systemic intermediary, an in-between in a many-to-many relationship (Howells, 2006). These systemic intermediaries act as innovation brokers, whose main purpose is to build appropriate linkages in AIS and facilitate multi-stakeholder interaction in innovation. So far, the agricultural sector has relied mainly on public sector intermediaries such as agricultural extension services, often with questionable effectiveness and a limited mandate to play such a systemic intermediary role (Leeuwis, 2004; Rivera and Sulaiman, 2009). Innovation brokering implies moving beyond dissemination of information, as many ‘traditional’ extensionists do, but actively forge multi actor partnerships for innovation
    An innovation systems approach to institutional change: Smallholder development in West Africa
    Hounkonnou, D. ; Kossou, D. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Nederlof, S. ; Roling, N. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Traoré, M. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2012
    Agricultural Systems 108 (2012). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 74 - 83.
    agricultural-research - perspective - intensification - environment - management - prices - costs - corn
    Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming is a serious option for satisfying 2050 global cereal requirements and alleviating persistent poverty. That option seems far off for Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) where technology-driven productivity growth has largely failed. The article revisits this issue from a number of angles: current approaches to enlisting SSA smallholders in agricultural development; the history of the phenomenal productivity growth in the USA, The Netherlands and Green Revolution Asia; and the current framework conditions for SSA productivity growth. This analysis shows that (1) the development of an enabling institutional context was a necessary condition that preceded the phenomenal productivity growth in industrial and Green Revolution countries; and that (2) such a context is also present for successful SSA export crop production, but that (3) the context is pervasively biased against SSA’s smallholder food production. The article traces the origins of technology supply push (TSP) as a dominant paradigm that hinders recognition of the role of enabling institutions. The article then reviews the literature on institutional change and zooms in on Innovation Platforms (IPs) as a promising innovation system approach to such change. We describe the concrete experience with IP in the Sub-Sahara Challenge Program (SSA-CP) and in the Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Innovation Systems (CoS-SIS) Program. The former has demonstrated proof of concept. The latter is designed to trace causal mechanisms. We describe its institutional experimentation and research methodology, including causal process tracing. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Institutional experiments for assessing farmers’ response to price and non-price incentives to produce quality cocoa beans
    Quarmine, W. ; Haagsma, R. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Obeng-Ofori, D. ; Asante, F. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Bamako Workshop: Mid-term evaluation and adjustments in the CoS-SIS Programme. - - p. 52 - 57.
    Factors which constrain farmers' incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans produced in Ghana
    Quarmine, W. ; Haagsma, R. ; Asante, F. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Obeng-Ofori, D. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop,Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Agricultural Innovation Systems Programme, Bamako, Mali, 26 - 29 October, 2010. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 65 - 74.
    Concluding Remarks and the Way Forward
    Huis, A. van - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, CoS-SIS Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Agricultural Innovation Systems Programme, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 26 - 29 October, 2011. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 147 - 151.
    Consolidating the CoS-SIS Research Agenda. Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, October 26 – 29, 2010. CoS-SIS Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Agricultural Innovation Systems Programme.
    Huis, A. van; Röling, N.G. ; Youdeowei, A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - 179 p.
    Revisiting research design: towards plausible 'proof of principle' on the basis of comparing the CoS-SIS case studies. Are we on track?
    Roling, N. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2011
    In: Consolidating the CoS-SIS Research Agenda. Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, October 26-29, 2010. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 133 - 139.
    Issues arising from presentations by research associates
    Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2011
    In: Consolidating the CoS-SIS Research Agenda. Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, October 26-29, 2010. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 131 - 132.
    Enabling system innovation: the CIG as a network of stakeholders to address institutional constraints in water management in Benin
    Saidou, A. ; Kpera, G.N. ; Totin, G.G.E. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, 26-29 Oct. 2010, Benin. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 109 - 112.
    Rice-livestock integration in Office du Niger irrigation zone in Mali
    Doumbia, D. - \ 2011
    In: Consolidating the CoS-SIS Research Agenda. Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, October 26-29, 2010. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 75 - 79.
    Enhancing food security in Upper West region of Northern Ghana through smallholder small ruminant production - A diagnostic study
    Amankwah, K. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, 26-29 Oct. 2010, Benin. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 46 - 55.
    A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm cropping system on the Adja plateau (Benin) and perspectives for improvement
    Yemadje, H.R.M. ; Vissoh, P.V. ; Mongbo, R. ; Azontonde, A. ; Saidou, A. ; Kossou, D. ; Roling, N. ; Crane, T.A. ; Richards, P. ; Kuyper, T.W. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, 26-29 Oct. 2010, Benin. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 37 - 45.
    Diagnostic investigation on rice production in Koussin, Bame and Zonmon villages
    Totin, G.G.E. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, 26-29 Oct. 2010, Benin. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 33 - 36.
    Agro-pastoral dam use and management in relation to the presence of crocodiles in northern Bénin: technical and institutional constraints and opportunities
    Kpera, G.N. ; Saidou, A. ; Eilers, K. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Aarts, N. ; Tossou, R. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der; Sinsin, B. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the CoS-SIS Cotonou, Benin Workshop, 26-29 Oct. 2010, Benin. - Accra, Ghana : Qualitype Ltd. - p. 9 - 26.
    Governance and Contested Land Use in The Netherlands : the Case of the Drentsche Aa
    Bommel, S. van; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Turnhout, E. ; Röling, N.G. - \ 2011
    In: Territorial Governance: Local Development, Rural Areas and Agrofood Systems. Part 2 / Torre, A., Traversac, J.B., Berlin : Springer - ISBN 9783790824216 - p. 123 - 139.
    This chapter investigates, theoretically as well as empirically, the way in which initiatives aimed at territorial governance work out in practice. The concept of territorial governance has increasingly received attention in policy plans as well as in the policy science literature. So far, little is known about how espoused shifts towards territorial governance manifest themselves in practice. By analysing the shift in governance in the Drentsche Aa in the Netherlands, this chapter sheds light on what happens when the espoused shift to territorial governance is applied to concrete situations, in which different dilemmas and opposing forces are at play. It shows that territorial governance in the Drentsche Aa area is struggling with tensions between regional multi-actor practices and hierarchical policy practices. We conclude that shifts in governance indeed occurred in this area, but that they manifested themselves in practice as hybrids between area based hierarchy and multi actor initiatives. As such the shifts are not as straightforward and unambiguous as sometimes thought and/or aimed for in literature, but instead their manifestation in practice is complex, ambiguous and context dependent
    Background and Objectives of the Workshop
    Huis, A. van; Hounkonnou, D. ; Sterk, B. ; Röling, N.G. - \ 2010
    - p. 1 - 2.
    The top 100 questions of importance to the future of global agriculture
    Pretly, J. ; Sutherland, W.J. ; Ashby, J. ; Auburn, J. ; Baulcombe, D. ; Bell, M. ; Bentley, J. ; Bickersteth, S. ; Brown, K. ; Burke, J. ; Campbell, H. ; Chen, K. ; Crowley, E. ; Crute, I. ; Dobbelaere, D. ; Edwards-Jones, G. ; Funes-Monzote, F. ; Godfray, H.C.J. ; Griffon, M. ; Gypmantisiri, P. ; Haddad, L. ; Halavatau, S. ; Herren, H. ; Holderness, M. ; Izac, A.M. ; Jones, M. ; Koohafkan, P. ; Lal, R. ; Lang, T. ; McNeely, J. ; Mueller, A. ; Nisbett, N. ; Noble, A. ; Pingali, P. ; Pinto, Y. ; Rabbinge, R. ; Ravindranath, N.H. ; Rola, A. ; Röling, N.G. ; Sage, C. ; Settle, W. ; Sha, J.M. ; Luo, S.M. ; Simons, T. ; Smith, P. ; Strzepeck, K. ; Swaine, H. ; Terry, E. ; Tomich, T.P. ; Toulmin, C. ; Trigo, E. ; Twomlow, S. ; Vis, J.K. ; Wilson, J. ; Pilgrim, S. - \ 2010
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8 (2010)4. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 219 - 236.
    green-revolution - sustainability - biodiversity - conservation - management - science - uk
    Despite a significant growth in food production over the past half-century, one of the most important challenges facing society today is how to feed an expected population of some nine billion by the middle of the 20th century. To meet the expected demand for food without significant increases in prices, it has been estimated that we need to produce 70-100 per cent more food, in light of the growing impacts of climate change, concerns over energy security, regional dietary shifts and the Millennium Development target of halving world poverty and hunger by 2015. The goal for the agricultural sector is no longer simply to maximize productivity, but to optimize across a far more complex landscape of production, rural development, environmental, social justice and food consumption outcomes. However, there remain significant challenges to developing national and international policies that support the wide emergence of more sustainable forms of land use and efficient agricultural production. The lack of information flow between scientists, practitioners and policy makers is known to exacerbate the difficulties, despite increased emphasis upon evidence-based policy. In this paper, we seek to improve dialogue and understanding between agricultural research and policy by identifying the 100 most important questions for global agriculture. These have been compiled using a horizon-scanning approach with leading experts and representatives of major agricultural organizations worldwide. The aim is to use sound scientific evidence to inform decision making and guide policy makers in the future direction of agricultural research priorities and policy support. If addressed, we anticipate that these questions will have a significant impact on global agricultural practices worldwide, while improving the synergy between agricultural policy, practice and research. This research forms part of the UK Government's Foresight Global Food and Farming Futures project.
    Opportunities for Oil Palm development in Benin and Ghana: institutional conditions for technological change
    Vissoh, P.V. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Huis, A. van; Röling, N.G. - \ 2010
    Aspects of Applied Biology 96 (2010). - ISSN 0265-1491 - p. 207 - 214.
    The impact of agricultural research: evidence from West Africa
    Roling, N.G. - \ 2010
    Development in Practice 20 (2010)8. - ISSN 0961-4524 - p. 959 - 971.
    Can agricultural research help to enlist smallholders and their resources for global food security? The Convergence of Sciences (CoS) research programme in Benin and Ghana (2002-2006) tested the impact of technology development, using a pathway for impact which featured 'technographies', diagnostic studies, and farmer-experimenter groups to ensure appropriateness. Within the existing small windows of opportunity only marginal improvements proved possible. The CoS team realised and partly tested the notion that innovation is predicated upon change of the institutions that frame opportunity. The sequel to CoS (2008-2013) uses an innovation system approach to pursue cross-system institutional change. Keywords: Globalisation; Governance; Social sector; Technology
    Microbial Community- And Metabolite Dynamics of an Anoxic Dechlorinating Bioreactor
    Maphosa, F. ; Smidt, H. ; Vos, W.M. de; Röling, W.F. - \ 2010
    Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2010)13. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 4884 - 4890.
    dehalococcoides sp strain - reductive dehalogenase genes - vinyl-chloride reductase - real-time pcr - chlorinated ethenes - ethenogenes strain-195 - enrichment culture - cis-dichloroethene - flow column - trichloroethene
    Monitoring and quantification of organohalide respiring bacteria is essential for optimization of on-site bioremediation of anoxic subsurface sites contaminated with chloroethenes. Molecular monitoring and model simulations were applied to determine degradation performance of an in situ dechlorinating bioreactor and its influence on the contamination plume. Dehalococcoides was the dominant dechlorinating microorganism as revealed by qPCR targeting 16S rRNA- and chloroethene reductive dehalogenase-encoding genes (tceA, vcrA, bvcA). The presence of all three reductive dehalogenases genes indicated coexistence of several distinct organohalide respiring bacterial populations in the bioreactor and groundwater. Mass balancing revealed that main dechlorinating activities were reduction of cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. Analysis of growth kinetics showed that when performance of the bioreactor improved due to especially the addition of molasses, dechlorinating microorganisms were growing close to their maximum growth rate. Once near-complete dehalogenation was achieved, Dehalococcoides only grew slowly and population density did not further increase. The bioreactor influenced dechlorinating populations in the plume with subsequent decrease in chlorinated compound concentrations over time. In the present study, a combination of molecular diagnostics with mass-balancing and kinetic modeling improved insight into organohalide respiring bacteria and metabolite dynamics in an in situ dechlorinating bioreactor and showed its utility in monitoring bioremediation
    Professionals in Context: How Robust Is the Normative Model?
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2009
    Irrigation and Drainage 58 (2009)2. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. S225 - S230.
    science - water
    Research on successful change often leads to a normative model. What was an empirical outcome becomes a prescription for action. In water management, research on platforms for decision-making, multi-stakeholder processes, social learning, and participatory interventions seems to have made this step to new orthodoxy. Compared to agricultural development, where many still expect technology (smart farming, precision farming, genomics, etc.) to provide the necessary answers to the challenges of anthropogenic biosphere change, thinking about water solutions seems to have moved on and embraced a new normative model that sees necessary action as emerging from the interaction (deliberation, negotiation, conflict resolution, etc.) of multiple stakeholders. However positive this development, the seriousness of the challenges posed by the fact that people have become a major force of nature that is rapidly altering the flimsy and fragile biosphere, compels us to ask whether the normative model can handle these challenges. Some points that will be considered are: (1) inequalities of power among stakeholders, (2) the disproportional influence of vested interest, (3) higher-level institutional conditions and incentive structures, (4) compromises that undermine efficacious action, (5) and institutions that are geared to economic growth, not to prudent water use (incompatibility between hydrological cycle and linear growth). The paper attempts to examine these issues and to draw some implications for water professionals.
    The innovation systems approach proposed for CoS SIS
    Hounkonnou, D. ; Huis, A. van; Röling, N.G. ; Sterk, B. - \ 2009
    In: Proceedings of the first CoS-SIS International Conference, Elmina, Ghana 22-26, June 2009e. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - p. 11 - 14.
    Framework for this Conference
    Huis, A. van; Hounkonnou, D. ; Röling, N.G. ; Sterk, B. - \ 2009
    - p. 1 - 4.
    Social learning for solving complex problems: a promising solution or wishful thinking? A case study of multi-actor negotiation for the integrated management and sustainable use of the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands
    Bommel, S. van; Roling, N.G. ; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2009
    Environmental Policy and Governance 19 (2009)6. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 400 - 412.
    Social learning has been championed as a promising approach to address complex resource problems. According to theory, social learning requires several pre-conditions to be met, including (1) a divergence of interests, (2) mutual interdependence and (3) the ability to communicate. This article investigates what happened when social learning was put into practice in a multi-actor negotiation platform in the Dutch Drentsche Aa area. Our findings show that, although the platform aimed for open dialogue and at first sight appeared to meet the conditions, social learning was not achieved and the negotiations stagnated because of disagreement, frustration and distrust. Further analysis shows that the process was characterized from the beginning by unequal power relations, which enabled a dominant coalition to impose its problem definition and limit possible solutions. The article concludes by discussing the implications of our findings for the theory and practice of social learning Keywords participation • natural resource problems • competing claims • nature conservation policy • multi-stakeholder negotiation platforms
    Proposed CoS-SIS Research Design
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2009
    In: Proceedings of the first CoS-SIS International Conference on Towards Enhancing Innovation Systems Performance in Smallholder African Agriculture, Elmina, Ghana, 22-26 June 2009. - Wageningen : CoS - p. 114 - 117.
    A strictly anaerobic betaproteobacterium Georgfuchsia toluolica gen. nov., sp. nov. degrades aromatic compounds with Fe(III), Mn(IV) or nitrate as an electron acceptor
    Weelink, S.A.B. ; Doesburg, W.C.J. van; Talarico Saia, F. ; Rijpstra, I. ; Smidt, H. ; Röling, W. ; Stams, A.J.M. - \ 2009
    FEMS microbiology ecology 70 (2009)3. - ISSN 0168-6496 - p. 575 - 585.
    sulfate-reducing bacterium - sp strain-t - benzylsuccinate synthase - m-xylene - geobacter-metallireducens - reductive dechlorination - denitrifying bacterium - contaminated aquifers - microbial community - thauera-aromatica
    A bacterium (strain G5G6) that grows anaerobically with toluene was isolated from a polluted aquifer (Banisveld, the Netherlands). The bacterium uses Fe(III), Mn(IV) and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors for growth on aromatic compounds. The bacterium does not grow on sugars, lactate or acetate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain G5G6 belonged to the Betaproteobacteria. Its closest, but only distantly related, cultured relative is Sterolibacterium denitrificans Chol-1ST (94.6% similarity of the 16S rRNA genes), a cholesterol-oxidizing, denitrifying bacterium. Strain G5G6 possesses the benzylsuccinate synthase A (bssA) gene encoding the a-subunit of Bss, which catalyzes the first step in anaerobic toluene degradation. The deduced BssA amino acid sequence is closely related to those of Azoarcus and Thauera species, which also belong to the Betaproteobacteria. Strain G5G6 is the first toluene-degrading, iron-reducing bacterium that does not belong to the Geobacteraceae within the Deltaproteobacteria. Based on phylogenetic and physiological comparison, strain G5G6 could not be assigned to a described species. Therefore, strain G5G6 (DSMZ 19032T=JCM 14632T) is a novel taxon of the Betaproteobacteria. We propose the name Georgfuchsia toluolica gen. nov., sp. nov
    Pathways for impact: scientists' different perspectives on agricultural innovation
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2009
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 7 (2009)2. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 83 - 94.
    This paper takes the viewpoint of a social scientist and looks at agricultural scientists' pathways for science impact. Awareness of these pathways is increasingly becoming part and parcel of the professionalism of the agricultural scientist, now that the pressure is on to mobilize smallholders and their productive resources for (global) food security and for reducing persistent rural poverty. Significant new thinking about pathways is emerging and it is useful to present some of this, even if it is not cut-and-dried. This new thinking focuses on innovation, not as the end-of-pipe outcome of development and transfer (or `delivery¿) of results of research to `ultimate users¿, but as a process of technical and institutional change at farm and higher system levels that impacts on productivity, sustainability and poverty reduction. This paper will review technology supply push; farmer-driven innovation; market-propelled or induced innovation based on the agricultural treadmill; participatory technology development; and innovation systems. The pathways reviewed all have their merits; the paper will assess them from the perspective of improving smallholder productivity and livelihoods. This paper concludes that many agricultural scientists have not developed their thinking about how the fruits of their work can help make the world a better place. This is a flaw in their professionalism. Curriculum development, training, promotion criteria, standards used in refereeing journal articles and research funding could benefit from taking on board understanding of pathways of science-for-impact.
    Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline
    Sherwood, S.G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): D.C. Cole. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853169 - 286
    landbouwontwikkeling - boeren - boerenorganisaties - leren - innovatie adoptie - innovaties - landbouwhervorming - aardappelen - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecuador - latijns-amerika - landbouwvoorlichting - kennis van boeren - sociaal leren - agricultural development - farmers - farmers' associations - learning - innovation adoption - innovations - agrarian reform - potatoes - integrated pest management - sustainability - ecuador - latin america - agricultural extension - farmers' knowledge - social learning
    Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development experts and the government targeted the region as a model for agricultural modernisation. Following land reform and rapid organisation around industrial era technologies, potato farming in Carchi boomed during the 1970s, evolving to dominate the landscape and become the major source of livelihoods in the province. By the early 1980s, Carchi came to produce nearly half the national potato harvest on less than a quarter of the country’s area dedicated to the crop. In the early1990s, however, production and productivity began to fall off, leading a growing number of rural families in Carchi to fall into debt and abandon potato farming. The research reported here is the outcome of the author’s ten years of research and development practice in Carchi with the International Potato Center, the FAO’s Global IPM Facility, and World Neighbors. It reflects unfolding experience with different phases of hope, discovery, and ambition. Many aspects of the experience have been published elsewhere (see Appendix A). The resulting dissertation is not a case study in the sense of a case that tests a hypothesis. It is a monograph that attempts to produce a single coherent story over seemingly unrelated events, focusing on a second-generation problem: despite a decade of highly rigorous, scientific research on the pathologies of Carchi and multiple public demonstrations of feasible alternatives, little significant change was achieved.
    Leren van ervaringen met interactief beleid in het Drentsche Aa-gebied
    Bommel, S. van; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Roling, N.G. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2009
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 6 (2009)3. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 26 - 29.
    natuurbescherming - deskundigen - participatie - boeren - governance - natuurbeleid - drenthe - nature conservation - experts - participation - farmers - governance - nature conservation policy - drenthe
    Bij complexe problemen waarbij het individuele belang op gespannen voet staat met het natuurbelang, wordt vaak gekozen voor een interactief proces. Toch blijkt in de Nationaal Landschap de Drentsche Aa dat dit niet zaligmakend is, zeker niet als de doelen van tevoren al vastliggen. Pogingen om in een Overlegorgaan tot een gezamenlijke toekomstvisie te komen van natuur en landbouw, liepen hopeloos vast. Uit ons onderzoek naar het planproces bleek dat oud zeer daarbij zeker een rol speelde. Maar ook is duidelijk dat interactieve processen alleen werken als er ruimte is om samen over de doelen en de problemen te onderhandelen. Verder blijkt het heel belangrijk dat de onderhandelaars in zo’n overlegorgaan nauw contact houden met hun achterban. Tenslotte is het van groot belang dat de verschillende soorten beleid waarin het gebiedsproces is ingebed goed is afgestemd.
    Conceptual and Methodological Developments in Innovation
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2009
    In: Innovation Africa: Enriching Farmers Livelihoods / Sanginga, P., Waters-Bayer, A., Kaaria, S., Njuki, J., Wettasinha, C., London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844076710 - p. 9 - 34.
    Letter to the editor: What price more food?
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2008
    New Scientist 199 (2008)2664. - ISSN 0262-4079 - p. 22 - 22.
    Check title to add to marked list
    << previous | next >>

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.