Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Implementing aquaculture technology and innovation platforms in Asia
    Bush, S.R. ; Pauwelussen, A.P. ; Badia, Pau ; Kruk, Sake ; Little, David ; The Luong, Le ; Newton, R. ; The Nhan, Dinh ; Rahman, M.M. ; Sorgeloos, Patrick ; Sung, Yeong Yik - \ 2021
    Aquaculture 530 (2021)735822. - ISSN 0044-8486 - 10 p.
    Highlights
    • EURASTIP translated tech and innovation platforms from Europe to Asia.
    • We examine how translation affects form and function of these platforms.
    • We find translation process of is non-linear and pluriform.
    • We reveal 6 design challenges that emerge through the process of translation
    Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
    Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
    Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
    Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation

    Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.

    Selection of mangrove species for shrimp based silvo-aquaculture in the coastal areas of Bangladesh
    Rahman, Khandkar Siddikur ; Islam, Nazrul ; Ahmed, Moin Uddin ; Bosma, Roel H. ; Debrot, Adolphe O. ; Ahsan, Nazmul - \ 2020
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 24 (2020)5. - ISSN 1400-0350
    Coastal Bangladesh - Mangroves - Shrimp - Silvo-aquaculture - Sustainable transformation

    The purpose of this work was to assemble information with which to help identify and select mangrove species most likely to be useful and locally acceptable for use in transforming the dominant current non-mangrove shrimp culture practice in Bangladesh towards more sustainable shrimp silvo-aquaculture in the coastal regions of the country. We reviewed current mangrove use in the extensive aquaculture setting, compiled published evidence on mangrove properties and characteristics that influence their suitability for such use and assessed farmer preferences of the various species. Thirteen mangrove species (all of which are available in Bangladesh) were documented as being used in silvo-aquaculture system in the tropics. Followed by these already “established” mangrove species, Aegialitis rotundifolia, Heritiera fomes and Lumnitzera racemosa could be enlisted as additional “optional” mangrove species to consider, while Ceriops decandra, Excocaria agallocha and Phoenix paludosa were found to be unsuitable for silvo-aquaculture. Based on their experience and indigenous knowledge on mangroves, shrimp farmers ranked (in declining order of preference) Sonneratia apetala, S. caseolaris, Avicennia officinalis, Nypa fruticans, Bruguiera sexangula, Heritiera fomes, and also, the mangrove-associate wild rice species Oryza coarctata as the most suitable species to be used for promoting silvo-aquaculture in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Thus, the focus group interviews with the farmers not only identified which mangroves enjoy most local support for use in transforming current shrimp culture towards more sustainable shrimp silvo-aquaculture but also provided additional leads for species interesting to further investigation into their suitability for silvo-aquaculture.

    2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales
    Kuhn, Jens H. ; Adkins, Scott ; Alioto, Daniela ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Anthony, Simon J. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ayllón, María A. ; Bahl, Justin ; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bartonička, Tomáš ; Basler, Christopher ; Bavari, Sina ; Beer, Martin ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Bergeron, Éric ; Bird, Brian H. ; Blair, Carol ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Bradfute, Steven B. ; Breyta, Rachel ; Briese, Thomas ; Brown, Paul A. ; Buchholz, Ursula J. ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Burt, Felicity ; Buzkan, Nihal ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Cao, Mengji ; Casas, Inmaculada ; Chamberlain, John ; Chandran, Kartik ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Chen, Biao ; Chiumenti, Michela ; Choi, Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Crozier, Ian ; Graça, John V. da; Bó, Elena Dal; Dávila, Alberto M.R. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Swart, Rik L. de; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Paola, Nicholas Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Drebot, Michael A. ; Drexler, Jan Felix ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dufkova, Lucie ; Dundon, William G. ; Duprex, W.P. ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fernandes, Jorlan ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Formenty, Pierre B.H. ; Forth, Leonie F. ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Gāo, George Fú ; García, María Laura ; García-Sastre, Adolfo ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gbakima, Aiah ; Goldstein, Tracey ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Griffiths, Anthony ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Guterres, Alexandro ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hammond, John ; Hassan, Mohamed ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hepojoki, Satu ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hewson, Roger ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Hongo, Seiji ; Höper, Dirk ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jambai, Amara ; Jardim, Rodrigo ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Gilda B. ; Junglen, Sandra ; Karadağ, Serpil ; Keller, Karen E. ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kobinger, Gary ; Kondō, Hideki ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kurath, Gael ; Kuzmin, Ivan V. ; Laenen, Lies ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley L. ; Lee, Benhur ; Lemos, Elba R.S. ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Dexin ; Lǐ, Jiànróng ; Liang, Mifang ; Liú, Wénwén ; Liú, Yàn ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Maes, Piet ; Marciel de Souza, William ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Marshall, Sergio H. ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Marzano, Shin Yi L. ; Massart, Sébastien ; McCauley, John W. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Minafra, Angelantonio ; Minutolo, Maria ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Navarro, José A. ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Neumann, Gabriele ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Nunes, Márcio R.T. ; Nylund, Are ; Økland, Arnfinn L. ; Oliveira, Renata C. ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pallas, Vicente ; Pályi, Bernadett ; Papa, Anna ; Parrish, Colin R. ; Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Payne, Susan ; Pérez, Daniel R. ; Pfaff, Florian ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; ul Rahman, Aziz ; Ramos-González, Pedro L. ; Resende, Renato O. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Runstadler, Jonathan A. ; Ruzek, Daniel ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Salát, Jiří ; Sall, Amadou Alpha ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sarpkaya, Kamil ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shabbir, Muhammad Z. ; Shí, Xiǎohóng ; Shí, Zhènglì ; Shirako, Yukio ; Simmonds, Peter ; Širmarová, Jana ; Sironi, Manuela ; Smither, Sophie ; Smura, Teemu ; Song, Jin Won ; Spann, Kirsten M. ; Spengler, Jessica R. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Straková, Petra ; Takada, Ayato ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Thornburg, Natalie J. ; Tomonaga, Keizō ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Turina, Massimo ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis ; Ulrich, Rainer G. ; Vaira, Anna Maria ; Hoogen, Bernadette van den; Varsani, Arvind ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Wahl, Victoria ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Jianwei ; Wang, Xifeng ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wells, Heather ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Williams, John V. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Yang, Xin ; Yáng, Xīnglóu ; Yu, Xuejie ; Yutin, Natalya ; Zerbini, Murilo ; Zhang, Tong ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Zhou, Guohui ; Zhou, Xueping - \ 2020
    Archives of Virology (2020). - ISSN 0304-8608

    In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

    Chemical composition, ruminal degradation kinetics, and methane production (in vitro) of winter grass species
    Khan, Nazir Ahmad ; Sulaiman, Syed Muhammad ; Hashmi, Majid S. ; Rahman, Sadeeq Ur ; Cone, John W. - \ 2020
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2020). - ISSN 0022-5142
    grass species - in vitro digestibility - in vitro gas production - methane emission - nutritional value

    BACKGROUND: Information about the nutritive value, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and methane (CH4) emission potential of grass species is required for their optimal utilization in ruminant rations. The present study was designed: (i) to quantify the nutrient profile, mineral composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of winter grass species commonly available in northern Pakistan; and (ii) to measure the in vitro gas production (IVGP) and CH4 emission of the grass species during 72 h in vitro ruminal fermentation. Seven grass species, namely, Cenchrus ciliaris, Setaria anceps, Panicum antidotale, P. maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Pennisetum orientale, and Atriplex lentiformis were assessed. RESULTS: A high level of variability (P < 0.001) was observed among grass species for the content of all measured nutrients, IVDMD, IVGP, and CH4-production. Notably, the content (g kg−1 DM) of crude protein varied from 59.8 to 143.3, neutral detergent fiber from 560.3 to 717.9, IVDMD from 375.1 to 576.2, and 72 h cumulative IVGP from 97.6 to 227.4 mL g−1 organic matter (OM) and CH4 from 48 to 67 mL g−1 OM. Among the grasses, P. antidotale had greater content (g kg−1 DM) of crude protein (CP) (143.3), IVDMD (576.2), and 72 h cumulative IVGP (227.4 mL g−1 OM), and produced the smallest amount of total CH4 (48 mL g−1 OM) during 72 h fermentation. In contrast, A. lentiformis had the lowest content (g kg−1 DM) of CP (59.8), IVDMD (375.1), 72 h cumulative IVGP (97.6 mL g−1 OM), and produced a greater amount of total CH4 (67 mL g−1 OM) during 72 h fermentation. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study highlight that it is possible to select and further develop grass species with high nutritional value and lower CH4-production, which can improve livestock productivity, farm profitability, and long-term environment sustainability.

    Salinity drives growth dynamics of the mangrove tree Sonneratia apetala Buch. -Ham. in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh
    Rahman, Md Saidur ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Chowdhury, Md Qumruzzaman ; Beeckman, Hans - \ 2020
    Dendrochronologia 62 (2020). - ISSN 1125-7865
    Cambial activity - Dendrochronology - Growth ring - Sonneratia apetala - The Sundarbans

    Mangroves throughout the world are threatened by environmental changes apart from anthropogenic disturbances. Many of these changes may inhibit the growth and survival of mangrove species. To understand and predict the effects of global change on mangrove forests, it is necessary to obtain insights on the growth dynamics of mangroves in relation to environmental factors. This study was conducted on Sonneratia apetala, a mangrove species which grows under a range of salinity conditions across the Sundarbans in Bangladesh. We studied trees growing under respectively high, medium, and low salinity conditions based on the influence of freshwater discharge. First, the periodicity of radial growth across the year was detected by applying cambial analyses. Based on tree-ring analyses, we calculated the growth response of S. apetala to monthly variation in precipitation and temperature as well as river discharge, as a proxy for salinity. We found the cambium of S. apetala being active during the monsoon and post-monsoon period whereas it was dormant in the pre-monsoon. This periodicity in radial growth leads to the formation of distinct annual rings with ring boundaries being marked by radially flattened fibres. S. apetala trees growing under low salinity conditions generally show higher growth rates indicating the positive impact of river discharge, i.e. freshwater input on mangrove growth. Wet and warm conditions during the monsoon period positively affected S. apetala growth, especially in the low salinity zone. Our results show that salinity is the primary driver of growth dynamics of S. apetala in the Sundarbans. A gradual or seasonal increase in salinity, e.g. as a consequence of sea-level rise may therefore importantly alter the growth of this species, possibly leading to changes in mangrove forest dynamics and zonation.

    Development of an effective and stable genotype-matched live attenuated newcastle disease virus vaccine based on a novel naturally recombinant malaysian isolate using reverse genetics
    Bello, Muhammad Bashir ; Mahamud, Siti Nor Azizah ; Yusoff, Khatijah ; Ideris, Aini ; Hair-Bejo, Mohd ; Peeters, Ben P.H. ; Omar, Abdul Rahman - \ 2020
    Vaccines 8 (2020)2. - ISSN 2076-393X
    Genotype VII - Genotype-matched - Newcastle disease virus - Recombinant vaccine - Reverse genetics

    Genotype VII Newcastle disease viruses are associated with huge economic losses in the global poultry industry. Despite the intensive applications of vaccines, disease outbreaks caused by those viruses continue to occur frequently even among the vaccinated poultry farms. An important factor in the suboptimal protective efficacy of the current vaccines is the genetic mismatch between the prevalent strains and the vaccine strains. Therefore, in the present study, an effective and stable genotype-matched live attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine was developed using reverse genetics, based on a recently isolated virulent naturally recombinant NDV IBS025/13 Malaysian strain. First of all, the sequence encoding the fusion protein (F) cleavage site of the virus was modified in silico from virulent polybasic (RRQKRF) to avirulent monobasic (GRQGRL) motif. The entire modified sequence was then chemically synthesized and inserted into pOLTV5 transcription vector for virus rescue. A recombinant virus termed mIBS025 was successfully recovered and shown to be highly attenuated based on OIE recommended pathogenicity assessment indices. Furthermore, the virus was shown to remain stably attenuated and retain the avirulent monobasic F cleavage site after 15 consecutive passages in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and 12 passages in one-day-old chicks. More so, the recombinant virus induced a significantly higher hemagglutination inhibition antibody titre than LaSota although both vaccines fully protected chicken against genotype VII NDV induced mortality and morbidity. Finally, mIBS025 was shown to significantly reduce both the duration and quantity of cloacal and oropharyngeal shedding of the challenged genotype VII virus compared to the LaSota vaccine. These findings collectively indicate that mIBS025 provides a better protective efficacy than LaSota and therefore can be used as a promising vaccine candidate against genotype VII NDV strains.

    Recent CO2 rise has modified the sensitivity of tropical tree growth to rainfall and temperature
    Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Heinrich, Ingo ; Rahman, Mizanur ; Vlam, Mart ; Zwartsenberg, Sophie A. ; Sleen, Peter van der - \ 2020
    Global Change Biology 26 (2020)7. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 4028 - 4041.
    climate–growth relations - CO effect - CO fertilization - CO × climate interactions - dendrochronology - Toona ciliata - tropical forest canopy - tropical tree

    Atmospheric CO2 (ca) rise changes the physiology and possibly growth of tropical trees, but these effects are likely modified by climate. Such ca × climate interactions importantly drive CO2 fertilization effects of tropical forests predicted by global vegetation models, but have not been tested empirically. Here we use tree-ring analyses to quantify how ca rise has shifted the sensitivity of tree stem growth to annual fluctuations in rainfall and temperature. We hypothesized that ca rise reduces drought sensitivity and increases temperature sensitivity of growth, by reducing transpiration and increasing leaf temperature. These responses were expected for cooler sites. At warmer sites, ca rise may cause leaf temperatures to frequently exceed the optimum for photosynthesis, and thus induce increased drought sensitivity and stronger negative effects of temperature. We tested these hypotheses using measurements of 5,318 annual rings from 129 trees of the widely distributed (sub-)tropical tree species, Toona ciliata. We studied growth responses during 1950–2014, a period during which ca rose by 28%. Tree-ring data were obtained from two cooler (mean annual temperature: 20.5–20.7°C) and two warmer (23.5–24.8°C) sites. We tested ca × climate interactions, using mixed-effect models of ring-width measurements. Our statistical models revealed several significant and robust ca × climate interactions. At cooler sites (and seasons), ca × climate interactions showed good agreement with hypothesized growth responses of reduced drought sensitivity and increased temperature sensitivity. At warmer sites, drought sensitivity increased with increasing ca, as predicted, and hot years caused stronger growth reduction at high ca. Overall, ca rise has significantly modified sensitivity of Toona stem growth to climatic variation, but these changes depended on mean climate. Our study suggests that effects of ca rise on tropical tree growth may be more complex and less stimulatory than commonly assumed and require a better representation in global vegetation models.

    The private healthcare sector in Johor: Trends and prospects
    Ormond, M.E. ; Lim, Chee Han - \ 2020
    In: Johor: Abode of Development / Hutchinson, Francis E., Rahman, Serina, Singapore : Institute of South East Asian Studies ISEAS - ISBN 9789814881272 - p. 134 - 166.
    Exploring the prospects of engineered Newcastle disease virus in modern vaccinology
    Bashir Bello, Muhammad ; Yusoff, Khatijah ; Ideris, Aini ; Hair-Bejo, Mohd ; Hassan Jibril, Abdurrahman ; Peeters, Ben P.H. ; Rahman Omar, Abdul - \ 2020
    Viruses 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 1999-4915
    Cancer - Infectious diseases - Newcastle disease virus - Reverse genetics - Vaccines

    Many traditional vaccines have proven to be incapable of controlling newly emerging infectious diseases. They have also achieved limited success in the fight against a variety of human cancers. Thus, innovative vaccine strategies are highly needed to overcome the global burden of these diseases. Advances in molecular biology and reverse genetics have completely restructured the concept of vaccinology, leading to the emergence of state-of-the-art technologies for vaccine design, development and delivery. Among these modern vaccine technologies are the recombinant viral vectored vaccines, which are known for their incredible specificity in antigen delivery as well as the induction of robust immune responses in the vaccinated hosts. Although a number of viruses have been used as vaccine vectors, genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus (NDV) possesses some useful attributes that make it a preferable candidate for vectoring vaccine antigens. Here, we review the molecular biology of NDV and discuss the reverse genetics approaches used to engineer the virus into an efficient vaccine vector. We then discuss the prospects of the engineered virus as an efficient vehicle of vaccines against cancer and several infectious diseases of man and animals.

    Chemical composition, ruminal degradation kinetics and methane production (In vitro) potential of local and exotic grass species grown in Peshawar
    Khan, Nazir Ahmad ; Rahman, Sadeeq U.R. ; Cone, John W. - \ 2020
    Pakistan Journal of Botany 52 (2020)1. - ISSN 0556-3321 - p. 161 - 166.
    In vitro gas production - Methane emission - Nutritive value - Rumen fermentation - Tropical grass species

    Livestock production, and small scale and extensive grazing livestock production systems in Pakistan lack long-term sustainability due to declining quantity and quality of green forages and pastures. Information on the nutritional value of range/pasture and cultivated grass species is required to design proper strategies not only for nutritional management of grazing animals, but also for development of good quality forage resources. Therefore, the current study was planned to: (i) analyze the chemical profile of traditional and novel grasses grown in Peshawar; (ii) quantify the methane emission potential of the grass species; and (iii) quantify the differences among species in thei r nutritive value and methane emission. Ten grass species, namely, Sudex (Sorghum × sudangrass), Jumbo grass (Sorghum bicolour× Sorghum sudanefe), Sorghum almum, Pennisetum purpureum, Vetiveria zizanioides, Panicum colaratum, Cynodon dactylon, Bothriochloa pertusa, Splenda setaria and Desmostachya bipinnata were evaluated under uniform agronomic and environmental conditions. The results showed that the contents of all measured chemical components, mineral profile (except Zn), In vitro digestibility of dry matter (DMD), and In vitro gas (GP) and methane-production had large variation among the grass species. Among the grasses, Jumbo grass had greater CP (11.9% DM) content and In vitro DMD (65.9% DM), and produced greater amount of total gas, that contained lowest proportion of methane. In contrast, D. bipinnata had lowest contents of CP (6.3% DM) and In vitro DMD (43.7% DM), and produced lower amount of total gas, with highest proportion methane in total GP. Next to D. bipinnata, V. zizanioides had lower degradability/GP and highest proportion of methane in total gas. The large variation in chemical composition, DMD and methane-emission potential of the summer grass species presents a prospect to select and further develop grass species that have lower methane-emission potential and high nutritional value. Further research is needed to investigate the changes in chemical profile, DMD and methane-emission of forage species between seasons and with maturity.

    Geo data for late blight control in potato: results of retailer survey in Rangpur, Bangladesh 2018-2019
    Hossain, K.J. ; Rahman, S.M.M. ; Hengsdijk, H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (GEOPOTATO external report 7) - 19
    Global distribution of earthworm diversity
    Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
    Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.

    Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

    Soil greenhouse gas emissions from inorganic fertilizers and recycled oil palm waste products from Indonesian oil palm plantations
    Rahman, Niharika ; Bruun, Thilde Bech ; Giller, Ken E. ; Magid, Jakob ; Ven, Gerrie W.J. van de; Neergaard, Andreas de - \ 2019
    Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 1056 - 1074.
    methane - nitrogen fertilizer - nitrous oxide - nutrient management - organic amendment - plant residue

    A continuous rise in the global demand for palm oil has resulted in the large-scale expansion of oil palm plantations and generated environmental controversy. Efforts to increase the sustainability of oil palm cultivation include the recycling of oil mill and pruning residues in the field, but this may increase soil methane (CH4) emissions. This study reports the results of yearlong field-based measurements of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and CH4 emissions from commercial plantations in North Sumatra, Indonesia. One experiment investigated the effects of soil-water saturation on N2O and CH4 emissions from inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments by simulating 25 mm rainfall per day for 21 days. Three additional experiments focused on emissions from (a) inorganic fertilizer (urea), (b) combination of enriched mulch with urea and (c) organic amendments (empty fruit bunches, enriched mulch and pruned oil palm fronds) applied in different doses and spatial layouts (placed in inter-row zones, piles, patches or bands) for a full year. The higher dose of urea led to a significantly higher N2O emissions with the emission factors ranging from 2.4% to 2.7% in the long-term experiment, which is considerably higher than the IPCC standard of 1%. Organic amendments were a significant source of both N2O and CH4emissions, but N2O emissions from organic amendments were 66%–86% lower than those from inorganic fertilizers. Organic amendments applied in piles emitted 63% and 71% more N2O and CH4, respectively, than when spread out. With twice the dose of organic amendments, cumulative emissions were up to three times greater. The (simulated) rainwater experiment showed that the increase in precipitation led to a significant increase in N2O emissions significantly, suggesting that the time of fertilization is a critical management option for reducing emissions. The results from this study could therefore help guide residue and nutrient management practices to reduce emissions while ensuring better nutrient recycling for sustainable oil palm production systems.

    Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
    Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Cao, Min ; Chanthorn, Wirong ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Clay, Keith ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Silva, João Batista da; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Andrade, Ana Cristina Segalin de; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Ouden, Jan den; Drescher, Michael ; Fletcher, Christine ; Giardina, Christian P. ; Savitri Gunatilleke, C.V. ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Howe, Robert ; Hsieh, Chang Fu ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Kong, Lee Sing ; Král, Kamil ; Ku, Chen Chia ; Lai, Jiangshan ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Xiankun ; Li, Yide ; Lin, Luxiang ; Lin, Yi Ching ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Lutz, James A. ; Ma, Keping ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; McMahon, Sean ; McShea, William ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Morecroft, Michael ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Novotny, Vojtech ; Ong, Perry ; Orwig, David A. ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Parker, Geoffrey ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Abd. Rahman, Kassim ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shen, Guochun ; Shringi, Ankur ; Shue, Jessica ; Su, Sheng Hsin ; Sukumar, Raman ; Fang Sun, I. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Toko, Pagi S. ; Valencia, Renato ; Vallejo, Martha I. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vrška, Tomáš ; Wang, Bin ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Wolf, Amy ; Xu, Han ; Yap, Sandra ; Zhu, Li ; Fung, Tak - \ 2019
    Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2598 - 2610.
    forest - legume - nitrogen fixation - nutrient limitation - Smithsonian ForestGEO - symbiosis

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N-fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N-fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N-fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N-fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N-fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N-fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N-fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N-fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N-fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.

    Occurrence and characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in processed raw foods and ready-to-eat foods in an urban setting of a developing country
    Islam, Mohammad Aminul ; Parveen, Sahana ; Rahman, Mahdia ; Huq, Mohsina ; Nabi, Ashikun ; Khan, Zahed Uddin Mahmood ; Ahmed, Niyaz ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019)MAR. - ISSN 1664-302X
    Methicillin resistant S. aureus - MLST - Raw meat - Ready-to-eat foods - Spa typing

    Infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are gradually increasing in the community. In this study, we investigated a total of 162 food samples including 112 ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and 40 processed raw meat and fish samples collected from retail vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh and determined the occurrence of toxigenic S. aureus and MRSA. Around 22% of samples were positive for S. aureus, RTE foods being more positive (23%) than the processed raw meat/fish samples (18%). Among 35 S. aureus isolates, 74% were resistant to erythromycin, 49% to ciprofloxacin and around 30% to oxacillin and cefoxitin. Around 37% of isolates were resistant to ≥3 classes of antibiotics and 26% of isolates (n = 9) were identified as MRSA. Majority of the isolates were positive for enterotoxin genes (74%), followed by pvl gene (71%), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst) gene (17%) and exfoliative toxin genes (11%). Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of 9 MRSA isolates identified four different types such as ST80 (n = 3), ST6 (n = 2), ST239 (n = 2) and ST361 (n = 2). spa typing of MRSA isolates revealed seven different types including t1198 (n = 2), t315 (n = 2), t037 (n = 1), t275 (n = 1), t304 (n = 1), t8731 (n = 1) and t10546 (n = 1). To our knowledge, this is the first report entailing baseline data on the occurrence of MRSA in RTE foods in Dhaka highlighting a potential public health risk to street food consumers.

    A critical review of the Ganges Water Sharing arrangement
    Rahman, Kazi Saidur ; Islam, Zahidul ; Navera, Umme Kulsum ; Ludwig, Fulco - \ 2019
    Water Policy 21 (2019)2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 259 - 276.
    Farakka Barrage - Ganges Water Sharing Treaty - Regional cooperation - Transboundary rivers - Water conflicts

    The 1996 Ganges Water Sharing Treaty was an important breakthrough in solving disputes over sharing Ganges water between India and Bangladesh. This study evaluates cooperation reflected in the Treaty by performing a quantitative analysis on available water sharing data. The study recognized that inaccurate projection of future flow and the obligation of allocating guaranteed 991 m 3 /s flows perpetuate the ongoing water sharing conflicts. The provision of guaranteed minimal flow alternately to India and Bangladesh during critical periods leads to frequent occurrences of low-flow events. Results indicated that the Treaty underestimated the impact of climate variability and possibly increasing upstream water abstraction. Statistical analysis of the post-Treaty data (1997–2016) also indicated that 65% of the time Bangladesh did not receive its guaranteed share during critical dry periods with high water demand. It is advised to project the reliable water availability using a combination of modelling and improved observation of river flows. In addition, the condition of minimum guaranteed share should be removed to reduce the frequency of low-flow events in future. Although our analyses show a number of weaknesses, the Treaty could still enhance the future regional cooperation if some adjustments are made to the current terms and conditions.

    Climates of urbanization: local experiences of water security, conflict and cooperation in peri-urban South-Asia
    Roth, Dik ; Khan, Muhammad Shah Alam ; Jahan, Israt ; Rahman, Rezaur ; Narain, Vishal ; Singh, Aditya Kumar ; Priya, Monica ; Sen, Sucharita ; Shrestha, Anushiya ; Yakami, Saroj - \ 2019
    Climate Policy 19 (2019)sup 1. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. S78 - S93.
    (community) resilience - Bangladesh - climate change policies - India - Nepal - peri-urban water security

    This article explores changing water (in)securities in a context of urbanization and climate change in the peri-urban spaces of four South-Asian cities: Khulna (Bangladesh), Gurugram and Hyderabad (India), and Kathmandu (Nepal). As awareness of water challenges like intensifying use, deteriorating quality and climate change is growing, water security gets more scientific and policy attention. However, in peri-urban areas, the dynamic zones between the urban and the rural, it remains under-researched, despite the specific characteristics of these spaces: intensifying flows of goods, resources, people, and technologies; diversifying uses of, and growing pressures on land and water; and complex and often contradictory governance and jurisdictional institutions. This article analyses local experiences of water (in-)security, conflict and cooperation in relation to existing policies. It uses insights from the analysis of the case studies as a point of departure for a critical reflection on whether a ‘community resilience’ discourse contributes to better understanding these cases of water insecurity and conflict, and to better policy solutions. The authors argue that a community resilience focus risks neglecting important insights about how peri-urban water insecurity problems are experienced by peri-urban populations and produced or reproduced in specific socio-economic, political and policy contexts. Unless supported by in-depth hydro-social research, such a focus may depoliticize basically political questions of water (re) allocation, prioritization, and access for marginalized groups. Therefore, the authors plead for more critical awareness among researchers and policy-makers of the consequences of using a ‘community resilience’ discourse for making sense of peri-urban water (in-)security. Key policy insights There is an urgent need for more (critical) policy and scientific attention to peri-urban water insecurity, conflict, and climate change. Although a changing climate will likely play a role, more attention is needed to how water insecurities and vulnerabilities in South Asia are socially produced. Researchers and policy-makers should avoid using depoliticized (community) resilience approaches for basically socio-political problems.

    A global map of mangrove forest soil carbon at 30 m spatial resolution
    Sanderman, Jonathan ; Hengl, Tomislav ; Fiske, Greg ; Solvik, Kylen ; Adame, Maria Fernanda ; Benson, Lisa ; Bukoski, Jacob J. ; Carnell, Paul ; Cifuentes-Jara, Miguel ; Donato, Daniel ; Duncan, Clare ; Eid, Ebrahem M. ; Ermgassen, Philine Zu ; Ewers Lewis, Carolyn J. ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Glass, Leah ; Gress, Selena ; Jardine, Sunny L. ; Jones, Trevor G. ; Nsombo, Eugéne Ndemem ; Rahman, Md Mizanur ; Sanders, Christian J. ; Spalding, Mark ; Landis, Emily - \ 2018
    Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)5. - ISSN 1748-9318
    blue carbon - carbon sequestration - land use change - machine learning

    With the growing recognition that effective action on climate change will require a combination of emissions reductions and carbon sequestration, protecting, enhancing and restoring natural carbon sinks have become political priorities. Mangrove forests are considered some of the most carbon-dense ecosystems in the world with most of the carbon stored in the soil. In order for mangrove forests to be included in climate mitigation efforts, knowledge of the spatial distribution of mangrove soil carbon stocks are critical. Current global estimates do not capture enough of the finer scale variability that would be required to inform local decisions on siting protection and restoration projects. To close this knowledge gap, we have compiled a large georeferenced database of mangrove soil carbon measurements and developed a novel machine-learning based statistical model of the distribution of carbon density using spatially comprehensive data at a 30 m resolution. This model, which included a prior estimate of soil carbon from the global SoilGrids 250 m model, was able to capture 63% of the vertical and horizontal variability in soil organic carbon density (RMSE of 10.9 kg m-3). Of the local variables, total suspended sediment load and Landsat imagery were the most important variable explaining soil carbon density. Projecting this model across the global mangrove forest distribution for the year 2000 yielded an estimate of 6.4 Pg C for the top meter of soil with an 86-729 Mg C ha-1 range across all pixels. By utilizing remotely-sensed mangrove forest cover change data, loss of soil carbon due to mangrove habitat loss between 2000 and 2015 was 30-122 Tg C with >75% of this loss attributable to Indonesia, Malaysia and Myanmar. The resulting map products from this work are intended to serve nations seeking to include mangrove habitats in payment-for- ecosystem services projects and in designing effective mangrove conservation strategies.

    Genotype Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Nigeria : Disease Control Challenges and Future Outlook
    Bello, Muhammad Bashir ; Yusoff, Khatijah Mohd ; Ideris, Aini ; Hair-Bejo, Mohd ; Peeters, Ben P.H. ; Jibril, Abdurrahman Hassan ; Tambuwal, Farouk Muhammad ; Omar, Abdul Rahman - \ 2018
    Advances in Virology 2018 (2018). - ISSN 1687-8639

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important avian diseases with considerable threat to the productivity of poultry all over the world. The disease is associated with severe respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological lesions in chicken leading to high mortality and several other production related losses. The aetiology of the disease is an avian paramyxovirus type-1 or Newcastle disease virus (NDV), whose isolates are serologically grouped into a single serotype but genetically classified into a total of 19 genotypes, owing to the continuous emergence and evolution of the virus. In Nigeria, molecular characterization of NDV is generally very scanty and majorly focuses on the amplification of the partial F gene for genotype assignment. However, with the introduction of the most objective NDV genotyping criteria which utilize complete fusion protein coding sequences in phylogenetic taxonomy, the enormous genetic diversity of the virus in Nigeria became very conspicuous. In this review, we examine the current ecological distribution of various NDV genotypes in Nigeria based on the available complete fusion protein nucleotide sequences (1662 bp) in the NCBI database. We then discuss the challenges of ND control as a result of the wide genetic distance between the currently circulating NDV isolates and the commonest vaccines used to combat the disease in the country. Finally, we suggest future directions in the war against the economically devastating ND in Nigeria.

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