The global abundance of tree palms
Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography (2020). - ISSN 1466-822X
above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
The montane multifunctional landscape: How stakeholders in a biosphere reserve derive benefits and address trade-offs in ecosystem service supply
Heinze, Alan ; Bongers, Frans ; Ramírez Marcial, Neptalí ; García Barrios, Luis ; Kuyper, Thomas W. - \ 2020
Ecosystem Services 44 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0416
Ecosystem service assessments - Local stakeholders - Multifunctional landscapes - Natural protected areas - Trade-offs
Ecosystem service (ES) assessments, which make an explicit link between nature and people's well-being, can support the management of natural protected areas that face complex and persistent sustainability challenges. We present a case study of ES supply in a biosphere reserve community in southern Mexico. We aimed to identify stakeholder-relevant ES and to analyse trade-offs between them. After engaging local stakeholders, we conducted a biophysical assessment of ES supply and associations across four different land uses. Closed forests and riparian areas, which occurred in different parts of the landscape, supplied high levels of multiple ES. Furthermore, co-produced farming goods and services that supported local livelihoods and conservation-oriented ecosystem services coincided in these four habitats. Together, these habitats provided a diverse array of ES across the landscape, indicating that stakeholders benefited from a multifunctional landscape. At the same time significant trade-offs were found in the supply of forage cover against most other ES, especially tree-based goods and services. These trade-offs revealed conflicts between agricultural land and neighbouring open forests and riparian areas, as well as opposed service demands among beneficiary groups. To address these trade-offs, stakeholders agreed on enhancing forest benefits in order to support both local livelihoods and conservation goals.
Caracterización de unidades de producción familiar agropecuarias mesoamericanas
Reyna-Ramírez, Cristian A. ; Fuentes-Ponce, Mariela H. ; Rossing, Walter A.H. ; López-Ridaura, Santiago - \ 2020
Agrociencia / Colegio de Postgraduados * Programa de Genetica I R E G E P 54 (2020)2. - ISSN 1405-3195 - p. 259 - 277.
Dependence - Economic poly-activity - Family system - Multivariate analysis
Farming policies tend to be homogeneous for an entire sector and encourage the implementation of technological innovations without considering the particular characteristics of smallholder farm systems (SFS). The objective of this study was to characterize the SFSs in the Oaxacan Mixteca, Mexico, and the highlands of Guatemala based on typologies, to know their diversity and to have elements to provide guidelines to generate development alternatives. The typology was constructed with information obtained from workshops, surveys and multivariate methods (PCA, cluster analysis and K-means). The variables that determined the diversity of the SFSs were investment capacity, remittances, type of work and livestock activities. The types of SFS identified in the Oaxacan Mixteca were: 1) farming, 2) dependent on external agricultural labours and low monetary income, 3) dependent on government programs, 4) with high non-agricultural income, and 5) medium external income. In the highlands of Guatemala: 1) semi-commercial farming, 2) commercial agriculture, 3) small subsistence, 4) small diversified income, and 5) semi-commercial agriculture. In the Oaxacan Mixteca region, the SFSs are self-consumption systems, dependent on external income (remittances and government programs), in which the potential for development lies in policies, according to the diversity of types and more efficient production systems. In Guatemala, the characteristics of the SFSs comply with global market chains, which regulate production and commercialization conditions, in which the potential for change lies in generating fairer market conditions and more efficient production systems linked to local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The information obtained based on the typologies is useful for generating specific policies and programs of differentiated support, according to the types of systems and their context.
Community-level interactions between plants and soil biota during range expansion
Koorem, Kadri ; Snoek, Basten L. ; Bloem, Janneke ; Geisen, Stefan ; Kostenko, Olga ; Manrubia, Marta ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Weser, Carolin ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Putten, Wim H. van der - \ 2020
Journal of Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0022-0477
bacteria - climate change - fungi - nematodes - plant–plant interactions - plant–soil interactions
Plant species that expand their range in response to current climate change will encounter soil communities that may hinder, allow or even facilitate plant performance. It has been shown repeatedly for plant species originating from other continents that these plants are less hampered by soil communities from the new than from the original range. However, information about the interactions between intra-continental range expanders and soil communities is sparse, especially at community level. Here we used a plant–soil feedback experiment approach to examine if the interactions between range expanders and soil communities change during range expansion. We grew communities of range-expanding and native plant species with soil communities originating from the original and new range of range expanders. In these conditioned soils, we determined the composition of fungi and bacteria by high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the ITS region and the 16S rRNA gene respectively. Nematode community composition was determined by microscopy-based morphological identification. Then we tested how these soil communities influence the growth of subsequent communities of range expanders and natives. We found that after the conditioning phase soil bacterial, fungal and nematode communities differed by origin and by conditioning plant communities. Despite differences in bacterial, fungal and nematode communities between original and new range, soil origin did not influence the biomass production of plant communities. Both native and range expanding plant communities produced most above-ground biomass in soils that were conditioned by plant communities distantly related to them. Synthesis. Communities of range-expanding plant species shape specific soil communities in both original and new range soil. Plant–soil interactions of range expanders in communities can be similar to the ones of their closely related native plant species.
Above- and Below-ground Cascading Effects of Wild Ungulates in Temperate Forests
Ramirez, Ignacio ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Ouden, Jan den; Moktan, Laxmi ; Herdoiza, Natalie ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2020
Ecosystems (2020). - ISSN 1432-9840
decomposition - invertebrate - litter - mineralization - regeneration - rodent - soil quality - temperate forest - Ungulate
Ungulates have become abundant in many temperate forests, shifting tree species composition by browsing and altering soil physical conditions by trampling. Whether these effects cascade down to other trophic levels and ecosystem processes is poorly understood. Here, we assess the paths through which ungulates have cascading effects on other trophic levels (regeneration, litter, invertebrates, rodents and organic matter decomposition). We compared ungulate effects by comparing 15 response variables related to different trophic levels between paired fenced and unfenced plots in twelve temperate forest sites across the Netherlands, and used pathway analysis model to identify the (in)direct pathways through which ungulates have influenced these variables. We found that plots with ungulates (that is, unfenced) compared to plots without (that is, fenced) had lower litter depth, sapling diversity, sapling density, rodent activity, macro-invertebrate biomass, decomposition rate of tea bags, pine and birch litter and higher soil compaction. These findings were used in a path analysis to establish potential causal relationships, which showed that ungulate presence: decreased sapling density, which indirectly decreased rodent activity; decreased litter depth, which indirectly reduced invertebrate diversity; increased soil compaction, which also decreased invertebrate diversity. Soil pH decreased invertebrate biomass, which also increased nitrogen mineralization. Yet, we did not find cascading effects of ungulates on decomposition rates. Importantly, an increase in ungulate abundance strengthens the cascading effects in this system. Our results suggest that ungulates can trigger cascading effects on lower trophic levels, yet decomposition and mineralization rates are resilient to ungulate browsing and trampling. Therefore, temperate forests conservation could benefit by limiting ungulate abundance.
Dietary patterns are related to cognitive functioning in elderly enriched with individuals at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease
Wesselman, L.M.P. ; Lent, Melo van; Schröder, A. ; Rest, O. van de; Peters, O. ; Menne, F. ; Fuentes, M. ; Priller, J. ; Spruth, E.J. ; Altenstein, S. ; Schneider, A. ; Fließbach, K. ; Roeske, S. ; Wolfsgruber, S. ; Kleineidam, L. ; Spottke, A. ; Pross, V. ; Wiltfang, J. ; Vukovich, R. ; Schild, A.K. ; Düzel, E. ; Metzger, C.D. ; Glanz, W. ; Buerger, K. ; Janowitz, D. ; Perneczky, R. ; Tatò, M. ; Teipel, S. ; Kilimann, I. ; Laske, C. ; Buchmann, M. ; Ramirez, A. ; Sikkes, S.A.M. ; Jessen, F. ; Flier, W.M. van der; Wagner, M. - \ 2020
European Journal of Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 1436-6207
Cognition - Dementia - Dietary patterns - Mediterranean diet - MIND diet
Purpose: To investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and cognitive functioning in elderly free of dementia. Methods: Data of 389 participants from the German DELCODE study (52% female, 69 ± 6 years, mean Mini Mental State Score 29 ± 1) were included. The sample was enriched with elderly at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by including participants with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and siblings of AD patients. Mediterranean and MIND diets were derived from 148 Food Frequency Questionnaire items, and data-driven patterns by principal component analysis (PCA) of 39 food groups. Associations between dietary patterns and five cognitive domain scores were analyzed with linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics (model 1), and additionally for energy intake, BMI, other lifestyle variables and APOe4-status (model 2). For PCA-derived dietary components, final model 3 included all other dietary components. Results: In fully adjusted models, adherence to Mediterranean and MIND diet was associated with better memory. The ‘alcoholic beverages’ PCA component was positively associated with most cognitive domains. Exclusion of MCI subjects (n = 60) revealed that Mediterranean and MIND diet were also related to language functions; associations with the alcoholic beverages component were attenuated, but most remained significant. Conclusion: In line with data from elderly population samples, Mediterranean and MIND diet and some data-derived dietary patterns were related to memory and language function. Longitudinal data are needed to draw conclusions on the putative effect of nutrition on the rate of cognitive decline, and on the potential of dietary interventions in groups at increased risk for AD.
A schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors
Espín, Silvia ; Andevski, Jovan ; Duke, Guy ; Eulaers, Igor ; Gómez-Ramírez, Pilar ; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor ; Helander, Björn ; Herzke, Dorte ; Jaspers, Veerle L.B. ; Krone, Oliver ; Lourenço, Rui ; María-Mojica, Pedro ; Martínez-López, Emma ; Mateo, Rafael ; Movalli, Paola ; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo ; Shore, Richard F. ; Sonne, Christian ; Brink, Nico W. van den; Hattum, Bert van; Vrezec, Al ; Wernham, Chris ; García-Fernández, Antonio J. - \ 2020
Ambio (2020). - ISSN 0044-7447
Best practices - Birds of prey - Falcons - Large-scale biomonitoring - Owls - Pan-European network
Birds of prey, owls and falcons are widely used as sentinel species in raptor biomonitoring programmes. A major current challenge is to facilitate large-scale biomonitoring by coordinating contaminant monitoring activities and by building capacity across countries. This requires sharing, dissemination and adoption of best practices addressed by the Networking Programme Research and Monitoring for and with Raptors in Europe (EURAPMON) and now being advanced by the ongoing international COST Action European Raptor Biomonitoring Facility. The present perspective introduces a schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors. We provide guidance on sample collection with a view to increasing sampling capacity across countries, ensuring appropriate quality of samples and facilitating harmonization of procedures to maximize the reliability, comparability and interoperability of data. The here presented protocol can be used by professionals and volunteers as a standard guide to ensure harmonised sampling methods for contaminant monitoring in raptors.
Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.
The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.
Enabling reusability of plant phenomic datasets with MIAPPE 1.1
Papoutsoglou, Evangelia A. ; Faria, Daniel ; Arend, Daniel ; Arnaud, Elizabeth ; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N. ; Chaves, Inês ; Coppens, Frederik ; Cornut, Guillaume ; Costa, Bruno V. ; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna ; Droesbeke, Bert ; Finkers, Richard ; Gruden, Kristina ; Junker, Astrid ; King, Graham J. ; Krajewski, Paweł ; Lange, Matthias ; Laporte, Marie Angélique ; Michotey, Célia ; Oppermann, Markus ; Ostler, Richard ; Poorter, Hendrik ; Ramı́rez-Gonzalez, Ricardo ; Ramšak, Živa ; Reif, Jochen C. ; Rocca-Serra, Philippe ; Sansone, Susanna Assunta ; Scholz, Uwe ; Tardieu, François ; Uauy, Cristobal ; Usadel, Björn ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Weise, Stephan ; Kersey, Paul J. ; Miguel, Célia M. ; Adam-Blondon, Anne Françoise ; Pommier, Cyril - \ 2020
New Phytologist 227 (2020)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 260 - 273.
findability - interoperability - metadata - phenomics - plant phenotyping - reusability - standards
Enabling data reuse and knowledge discovery is increasingly critical in modern science, and requires an effort towards standardising data publication practices. This is particularly challenging in the plant phenotyping domain, due to its complexity and heterogeneity. We have produced the MIAPPE 1.1 release, which enhances the existing MIAPPE standard in coverage, to support perennial plants, in structure, through an explicit data model, and in clarity, through definitions and examples. We evaluated MIAPPE 1.1 by using it to express several heterogeneous phenotyping experiments in a range of different formats, to demonstrate its applicability and the interoperability between the various implementations. Furthermore, the extended coverage is demonstrated by the fact that one of the datasets could not have been described under MIAPPE 1.0. MIAPPE 1.1 marks a major step towards enabling plant phenotyping data reusability, thanks to its extended coverage, and especially the formalisation of its data model, which facilitates its implementation in different formats. Community feedback has been critical to this development, and will be a key part of ensuring adoption of the standard.
Diet diversity and pesticide risk mediate the negative effects of land use change on solitary bee offspring production
Centrella, Mary ; Russo, Laura ; Moreno Ramírez, Natalia ; Eitzer, Brian ; Dyke, Maria van; Danforth, Bryan ; Poveda, Katja - \ 2020
Journal of Applied Ecology 57 (2020)6. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1031 - 1042.
agroecosystems - bee decline - floral resources - land use change - Osmia cornifrons - pesticide toxicity - pollinator health - solitary bees
Threats to bee pollinators such as land use change, high pesticide risk and reduced floral diet diversity are usually assessed independently, even though they often co-occur to impact bees in agroecosystems. We established populations of the non-native mason bee Osmia cornifrons at 17 NY apple orchards varying in proportion of surrounding agriculture and measured floral diet diversity and pesticide risk levels in the pollen provisions they produced. We used path analysis to test the direct and indirect effects of different habitats, diet diversity and pesticide risk on emergent female offspring number and weight. High proportions of agricultural habitat surrounding bee nests indirectly reduced the number of female offspring produced, by reducing floral diet diversity in pollen. When the proportion of agriculture surrounding bee nests was high, bees collected increased proportions of Rosaceae in their pollen provisions, which marginally (0.05 < p < 0.1) increased fungicide risk levels in pollen. This, in turn, marginally reduced female offspring weight. In contrast, female offspring weight increased as proportions surrounding open habitat (wildflowers, grassland and pasture) increased, but this effect was not influenced by proportion Rosaceae or fungicide risk levels in pollen. Synthesis and applications. Threats to bee health such as land use change, pesticide exposure and changes in pollen diet composition are often studied in isolation. However, our results suggest that these threats can simultaneously influence one another to impact bee populations in the agroecosystems where we rely on them for pollination. By replacing surrounding agricultural habitats with more natural habitats, such as grasslands and pastures, we can increase floral diet diversity and reduce pesticide exposure in bee-collected pollen, resulting in healthier mason bee populations in apple orchards.
CGIAR modeling approaches for resource-constrained scenarios : I. Accelerating crop breeding for a changing climate
Ramirez-Villegas, Julian ; Molero Milan, Anabel ; Alexandrov, Nickolai ; Asseng, Senthold ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Crossa, Jose ; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Ghanem, Michel Edmond ; Grenier, Cecile ; Heinemann, Alexandre B. ; Wang, Jiankang ; Juliana, Philomin ; Kehel, Zakaria ; Kholova, Jana ; Koo, Jawoo ; Pequeno, Diego ; Quiroz, Roberto ; Rebolledo, Maria C. ; Sukumaran, Sivakumar ; Vadez, Vincent ; White, Jeffrey W. ; Reynolds, Matthew - \ 2020
Crop Science 60 (2020)2. - ISSN 0011-183X - p. 547 - 567.
Crop improvement efforts aiming at increasing crop production (quantity, quality) and adapting to climate change have been subject of active research over the past years. But, the question remains ‘to what extent can breeding gains be achieved under a changing climate, at a pace sufficient to usefully contribute to climate adaptation, mitigation and food security?’. Here, we address this question by critically reviewing how model-based approaches can be used to assist breeding activities, with particular focus on all CGIAR (formerly the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research but now known simply as CGIAR) breeding programs. Crop modeling can underpin breeding efforts in many different ways, including assessing genotypic adaptability and stability, characterizing and identifying target breeding environments, identifying tradeoffs among traits for such environments, and making predictions of the likely breeding value of the genotypes. Crop modeling science within the CGIAR has contributed to all of these. However, much progress remains to be done if modeling is to effectively contribute to more targeted and impactful breeding programs under changing climates. In a period in which CGIAR breeding programs are undergoing a major modernization process, crop modelers will need to be part of crop improvement teams, with a common understanding of breeding pipelines and model capabilities and limitations, and common data standards and protocols, to ensure they follow and deliver according to clearly defined breeding products. This will, in turn, enable more rapid and better-targeted crop modeling activities, thus directly contributing to accelerated and more impactful breeding efforts.
Cultivation of Bacteria From Aplysina aerophoba: Effects of Oxygen and Nutrient Gradients
Gutleben, Johanna ; Loureiro, Catarina ; Ramírez Romero, Laura Adriana ; Shetty, Sudarshan ; Wijffels, René H. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Sipkema, Detmer - \ 2020
Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-302X
antibiotic resistance - Aplysina aerophoba - environmental microbes - marine sponge - microbial cultivation - viability PCR
Sponge-associated bacteria possess biotechnologically interesting properties but as yet have largely evaded cultivation. Thus, “omics”-based information on the ecology and functional potential of sponge symbionts is awaiting its integration into the design of innovative cultivation approaches. To cultivate bacteria derived from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba, nine novel media formulations were created based on the predicted genomic potential of the prevalent sponge symbiont lineage Poribacteria. In addition, to maintain potential microbial metabolic interactions in vitro, a Liquid-Solid cultivation approach and a Winogradsky-column approach were applied. The vast majority of microorganisms in the inoculum appeared viable after cryopreservation of sponge specimen as determined by selective propidium monoazide DNA modification of membrane-compromised cells, however, only 2% of the initial prokaryotic diversity could be recovered through cultivation. In total, 256 OTUs encompassing seven prokaryotic phyla were cultivated. The diversity of the cultivated community was influenced by the addition of the antibiotic aeroplysinin-1 as well as by medium dilution, rather than carbon source. Furthermore, the Winogradsky-column approach reproducibly enriched distinct communities at different column depths, amongst which were numerous Clostridia and OTUs that could not be assigned to a known phylum. While some bacterial taxa such as Pseudovibrio and Ruegeria were recovered from nearly all applied cultivation conditions, others such as Bacteroidetes were specific to certain medium types. Predominant sponge-associated prokaryotic taxa remained uncultured, nonetheless, alternative cultivation approaches applied here enriched for previously uncultivated microbes.
Acquiring plant features with optical sensing devices in an organic strip-cropping system
Krus, Anne ; Apeldoorn, Dirk Van; Valero, Constantino ; Ramirez, Juan José - \ 2020
Agronomy 10 (2020)2. - ISSN 2073-4395
Cabbages - Lidar - Plant extraction - Point cloud - Weighted sum
The SUREVEG project focuses on improvement of biodiversity and soil fertility in organic agriculture through strip-cropping systems. To counter the additional workforce a robotic tool is proposed. Within the project, a modular proof of concept (POC) version will be produced that will combine detection technologies with actuation on a single-plant level in the form of a robotic arm. This article focuses on the detection of crop characteristics through point clouds obtained with two lidars. Segregation in soil and plants was successfully achieved without the use of additional data from other sensor types, by calculating weighted sums, resulting in a dynamically obtained threshold criterion. This method was able to extract the vegetation from the point cloud in strips with varying vegetation coverage and sizes. The resulting vegetation clouds were compared to drone imagery, to prove they perfectly matched all green areas in said image. By dividing the remaining clouds of overlapping plants by means of the nominal planting distance, the number of plants, their volumes, and thereby the expected yields per row could be determined.
PathBank: a comprehensive pathway database for model organisms
Wishart, David S. ; Li, Carin ; Marcu, Ana ; Badran, Hasan ; Pon, Allison ; Budinski, Zachary ; Patron, Jonas ; Lipton, Debra ; Cao, Xuan ; Oler, Eponine ; Li, Krissa ; Paccoud, Maïlys ; Hong, Chelsea ; Guo, An C. ; Chan, Christopher ; Wei, William ; Ramirez-Gaona, Miguel - \ 2020
Nucleic acids research 48 (2020)D1. - ISSN 0305-1048 - p. D470 - D478.
PathBank (www.pathbank.org) is a new, comprehensive, visually rich pathway database containing more than 110 000 machine-readable pathways found in 10 model organisms (Homo sapiens, Bos taurus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). PathBank aims to provide a pathway for every protein and a map for every metabolite. This resource is designed specifically to support pathway elucidation and pathway discovery in transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and systems biology. It provides detailed, fully searchable, hyperlinked diagrams of metabolic, metabolite signaling, protein signaling, disease, drug and physiological pathways. All PathBank pathways include information on the relevant organs, organelles, subcellular compartments, cofactors, molecular locations, chemical structures and protein quaternary structures. Each small molecule is hyperlinked to the rich data contained in public chemical databases such as HMDB or DrugBank and each protein or enzyme complex is hyperlinked to UniProt. All PathBank pathways are accompanied with references and detailed descriptions which provide an overview of the pathway, condition or processes depicted in each diagram. Every PathBank pathway is downloadable in several machine-readable and image formats including BioPAX, SBML, PWML, SBGN, RXN, PNG and SVG. PathBank also supports community annotations and submissions through the web-based PathWhiz pathway illustrator. The vast majority of PathBank's pathways (>95%) are not found in any other public pathway database.
Towards an integrative understanding of soil biodiversity
Thakur, Madhav P. ; Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Brose, Ulrich ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Lavelle, Patrick ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jerome ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van der; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Wardle, David A. ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Bennett, Joanne M. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Ferlian, Olga ; Guerra, Carlos António ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Russell, David J. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Wall, Diana H. ; Cameron, Erin K. - \ 2020
Biological Reviews 95 (2020)2. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 350 - 364.
alpha diversity - beta diversity - biodiversity theory - metacommunity theory - neutral theory - niche theory - spatial scale - species–energy relationship - theory of island biogeography
Soil is one of the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats. Yet, we lack an integrative conceptual framework for understanding the patterns and mechanisms driving soil biodiversity. One of the underlying reasons for our poor understanding of soil biodiversity patterns relates to whether key biodiversity theories (historically developed for aboveground and aquatic organisms) are applicable to patterns of soil biodiversity. Here, we present a systematic literature review to investigate whether and how key biodiversity theories (species–energy relationship, theory of island biogeography, metacommunity theory, niche theory and neutral theory) can explain observed patterns of soil biodiversity. We then discuss two spatial compartments nested within soil at which biodiversity theories can be applied to acknowledge the scale-dependent nature of soil biodiversity.
Cultivation of bacteria from Aplysina aerophoba: effects of oxygen and nutrient gradients
Gutleben, Johanna ; Sales E Santos Loureiro, Catarina ; Ramírez Romero, Laura Adriana ; Shetty, Sudarshan ; Wijffels, Rene ; Smidt, Hauke ; Sipkema, Detmer - \ 2019
PRJEB31820 - ERP114426 - Aplysina aerophoba - metagenome
To cultivate bacteria derived from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba, nine novel media formulations were created based on the predicted genomic potential of the prevalent sponge symbiont lineage Poribacteria. In an attempt to maintain microbial metabolic interactions in vitro, a Liquid-Solid cultivation approach and a Winogradsky-column approach were applied. The vast majority of microorganisms appear viable after cryopreservation as determined by selective propidium monoazide DNA modification of membrane-compromised cells, however, only 2% of the initial microbial diversity could be recovered through cultivation. In total, 256 OTUs encompassing seven microbial phyla were cultivated. The diversity of the cultivated community was influenced by the addition of the antibiotic aeroplysinin-1 as well as by medium dilution, rather than carbon source. Furthermore, the Winogradsky-column approach reproducibly enriched distinct communities at different column depths, amongst which were numerous Clostridia and OTUs that could not be assigned to a known phylum. While some bacterial taxa such as Pseudovibrio and Ruegeria were recovered from nearly all applied cultivation conditions, others such as Bacteroidetes were specific to certain medium types.
Development of natural rubber suppliers in the Papaloapan River basin, Mexico : Progress and limitations
González-Ramírez, María Guadalupe ; Santoyo-Cortés, Horacio ; Aguilar-Ávila, Jorge ; Aguilar-Gallegos, Norman - \ 2019
Ciencia y Tecnologia Agropecuaria 20 (2019)2. - ISSN 0122-8706 - p. 277 - 294.
Agricultural extension - Agroindustry - Hevea brasiliensis - Innovation adoption - Technology transfer
Mexico has optimal conditions for the cultivation of natural rubber but imports more than 80 % of its consumption. The model of development suppliers through Innovation Management Agencies (agi, for their acronym in Spanish) was implemented to improve this situation. This work analyzed the achievements of technical assistance services provided by two agi to two rubber agro-industries (ai) and their suppliers located in the Papaloapan River Basin, Mexico. From 2011 to the beginning of 2014, the Agencies generated reports and databases about technical, productive, organizational and commercial parameters of both rubber producers and agro-industries. With this information, global databases were constructed to analyze changes in production, supply, and innovation adoption. The results show that the intervention of the Agencies was relevant and effective in improving production and post-harvest parameters. The production of coagulated rubber also increased as well as the availability of raw material to the agro-industries. Moreover, production costs were able to be reduced, and the quality of the rubber was improved. However, the fall in rubber prices at the end of 2013 caused setbacks in the adoption of innovations and the agriculture-industry integration, showing the fragility of supplier development, as well as of the ai involved serving as lead and trailblazer companies in their suppliers' networks.
Characterization of an Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger for Manure Belt Drying Ventilation in an Aviary Laying Hen House
Goselink, Y.S.M. ; Ramirez, B.C. - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research 28 (2019)4. - ISSN 1056-6171 - p. 1359 - 1369.
cage-free - heat exchanger - indoor environment - manure dry matter - poultry
The environment inside laying hen houses has an important effect on hen productivity, health, and well-being. Heat exchangers (HE s) can recover waste heat in ventilation exhaust to reduce supplemental heating needs while maintaining a greater fresh air exchange rate. For laying hen houses, there is limited information on the effect of heat recovery ventilation (HRV). Thus, the objective was to evaluate an air-to-air HE for manure belt drying ventilation in aviary laying hen housing. Temperature (T), relative humidity, ammonia, and manure dry matter (DM) content were characterized during a 4-wk period in October 2018. In weeks 2 and 4, the HRV was shut down and compared to weeks 1 and 3 when the HRV was operational. Average (±SD) ambient T was 10.6°C ± 4.0°C, similar for the 4-wk period. Heat exchanger efficiency was 75.07% ± 9.4% with the average supply temperature increased by 10.0°C ± 3.4°C and an average of 93.94 ± 31 kW heat recovered. Average indoor T (23.1°C ± 0.5°C) was warmer as a function ambient T and daily average T range was lower with HRV (1.8°C ± 0.7°C) compared to without HRV (22.2°C ± 1.2°C; 3.1°C ± 1.1°C). Seven days after manure removal, final average manure DM was 40.6% ± 3.1% (without HRV) and 60.0% ± 3.3% (with HRV). Implementation of HRV positively influenced indoor thermal environment by maintaining less dynamic diurnal fluctuations and greater temporal T uniformity.
|Socioecological Interactions Amid Global Change
Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Stone, G.D. ; Baranski, M. ; Carney, J.A. ; Hanspach, J. ; Krishna, V.V. ; Ramirez-Villegas, J. ; Etten, J. van; Zimmerer, K.S. - \ 2019
In: Agrobiodiversity Integrating Knowledge for a Sustainable Future / Zimmerer, K.S., de Haan, S., MIT Press (Strüngmann Forum Reports ) - ISBN 9780262038683 - p. 117 - 143.
How a group relates to agrobiodiversity differs greatly within and between user groups. This chapter explores the socioecological changes that are driven globally by migration and urbanization, agrarian change (de- and reagrarianization), market pressures, and climate. It introduces the concepts of intentionality by default and conscious intentionality to explore how two archetypical smallholder farmer groups, traditional/Indigenous and neoagrarian farmers, use agrobiodiversity. These groups represent the extremes of smallholder farmers for whom agrobiodiversity plays an important role in their lives. To increase understanding of how the use of agrobiodiversity can vary in response to the effects of global change, knowledge gaps and entry points are identified for different groups of actors (e.g., smallholder farmers, public breeders, private companies, NGOs, international organizations, and governments). Current drivers of global change affect these groups on a local level in unique ways, and responding to them provides the potential for novel initiatives that can form the basis for a compelling overarching narrative to support the use of agrobiodiversity in multiple ways. Such a narrative would connect the wide diversity of agrobiodiversity users and provide a critical mass to reinforce ongoing efforts to find solutions to the challenges of global change. Important gaps in our knowledge remain to be considered by this new, integrative science, including the way in which participation and empowerment of vulnerable groups will be incorporated.
Evolutionary diversity is associated with wood productivity in Amazonian forests
Coelho de Souza, Fernanda ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Pennington, Toby R. ; Neves, Danilo ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban ; Alves, Átila ; Amaral, Ieda ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragao, Luis E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmilla ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Bánki, Olaf ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Barroso, Jorcely G. ; Boot, Rene G.A. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Brown, Foster ; Camargo, José Luís C. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chave, Jerome ; Cogollo, Alvaro ; Comiskey, James A. ; Cornejo-Valverde, Fernando ; Costa, Antonio Lola da; Camargo, Plínio B. de; Fiore, Anthony Di; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David R. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Goodman, Rosa C. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Laurance, Susan ; Laurance, William F. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Thomas E. ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Neill, David A. ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Peñuela Mora, Maria C. ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Prieto, Adriana ; Ramirez, Freddy ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustin ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Silva, Natalino ; Silveira, Marcos ; Singh, James ; Stropp, Juliana ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel ; Umetsu, Ricardo K. ; Vasquez, Rodolfo V. ; Célia-Vieira, Ima ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vos, Vincent A. ; Zagt, Roderick J. ; Baker, Timothy R. - \ 2019
Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1754 - 1761.
Higher levels of taxonomic and evolutionary diversity are expected to maximize ecosystem function, yet their relative importance in driving variation in ecosystem function at large scales in diverse forests is unknown. Using 90 inventory plots across intact, lowland, terra firme, Amazonian forests and a new phylogeny including 526 angiosperm genera, we investigated the association between taxonomic and evolutionary metrics of diversity and two key measures of ecosystem function: aboveground wood productivity and biomass storage. While taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity were not important predictors of variation in biomass, both emerged as independent predictors of wood productivity. Amazon forests that contain greater evolutionary diversity and a higher proportion of rare species have higher productivity. While climatic and edaphic variables are together the strongest predictors of productivity, our results show that the evolutionary diversity of tree species in diverse forest stands also influences productivity. As our models accounted for wood density and tree size, they also suggest that additional, unstudied, evolutionarily correlated traits have significant effects on ecosystem function in tropical forests. Overall, our pan-Amazonian analysis shows that greater phylogenetic diversity translates into higher levels of ecosystem function: tropical forest communities with more distantly related taxa have greater wood productivity.